Series Vol. 5 , 25 May 2023
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The upper atmosphere has drawn increasing attention as remote sensing technology has advanced. People start looking into how radiation in the high atmosphere spreads and what materials exist. This paper mainly introduces the radiation of the upper atmosphere from three aspects: the properties of the upper atmosphere, the actual contents of radiation, and the factors affecting radiation. These three aspects explain several extraordinary natural phenomena, such as auroras and magnetic storms. In-depth explanations are provided for the three atmospheric qualities, the particle motion law, and the interference of natural and human forces with radiation. The gas transport theory introduces the interaction of particles in the atmosphere while providing a complete analysis of electronic communication's fundamental operating principle and propagation mechanism. This article finally analyzed the nature of the upper atmosphere and the various kinds of radiation in the upper atmosphere, including what the radiation particles are, as well as the interactions and applications of these particles. This article's main contribution is bringing together a large amount of data about irradiation in the upper atmosphere. Through the collation of this article, later, people can study the content of this piece more easily.
Radiative Transport Theory of Planetary Atmospheres, Radio Communication, Geomagnetic Storm, Aurora, Upper Atmosphere.
1. Rees M H. Physics and chemistry of the upper atmosphere[M]. Cambridge University Press, 1989.
2. Mayr H G, Harris I, Spencer N W. Some properties of upper atmosphere dynamics[J]. Reviews of Geophysics, 1978, 16(4): 539-565.
3. Bates D R. The temperature of the upper atmosphere[J]. Proceedings of the Physical Society. Section B, 1951, 64(9): 805.
4. Jukes M. Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences. London Academic Press, 2003. 2526~2532
5. Pfeffer R L. A study of eddy-induced zonal mean wind fluctuations using conventional and transformed Eulerian diagnostics. J. Atmos. Sci., 1992, 49(12): 1036~1050
6. Stewart R W. Radiative terms in the thermal conduction equation for planetary atmospheres[J]. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 1968, 25(5): 744-749.
7. Brutsaert W. On a derivable formula for long‐wave radiation from clear skies[J]. Water resources research, 1975, 11(5): 742-744.
8. Jacobson M Z. Fundamentals of atmospheric modeling[M]. Cambridge university press, 1999.
9. Haskell R C, Svaasand L O, Tsay T T, et al. Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer[J]. JOSA A, 1994, 11(10): 2727-2741.
10. Chandrasekhar S. Radiative transfer[M]. Courier Corporation, 2013.
11. Lenoble J. Atmospheric radiative transfer[M]. A. Deepak Pub., 1993.
12. Mishchenko M I. Directional radiometry and radiative transfer: the convoluted path from centuries-old phenomenology to physical optics[J]. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 2014, 146: 4-33.
13. Mishchenko M I. 125 years of radiative transfer: Enduring triumphs and persisting misconceptions[C]//AIP Conference Proceedings. American Institute of Physics, 2013, 1531(1): 11-18.
14. Javan F D, Samadzadegan F, Mehravar S, et al. A review of image fusion techniques for pan-sharpening of high-resolution satellite imagery IJJ. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2021, 171: 101-117.
15. Yokoya N, Yairi T, Iwasaki A. Coupled nonnegative matrix factorization unmixing for hyperspec-tral and multispectral data fusion [J]. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 2011,50 (2): 528-537.
16. González-Audícana M, Saleta J L, Catalán R G, et al. Fusion of multispectral and panchromatic images using improved IS and PCA mergers based on wavelet decomposition [J].IEEE Transac-tions on Geoscience and Remote sensing, 2004, 42 (6): 1291-1299.
17. Wu Z, Huang Y, Zhang K. Remote sensing image fusion method based on PCA and curvelet trans-form [J]. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 2018, 46 (5): 687-695.
18. Valizadeh S A, Ghassemian H. Remote sensing image fusion using combining IHS and Curvelet transform [C]. In 6th International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST). Tehran, Iran,2012:1184-1189.
19. Marumoto T, Zhang D, Saya H. Aurora-A—a guardian of poles[J]. Nature Reviews Cancer, 2005, 5(1): 42-50.
20. Jones A V. Aurora[M]. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
21. Kimball D S. A study of the aurora of 1859[J]. 1960.
22. Chapman S. Some phenomena of the upper atmosphere[J]. Proceedings of the Physical Society. Section B, 1951, 64(10): 833.
23. Chen S H, Moore TE. 2006. Magnetospheric convection and thermal ions in the dayside outer magnetosphere[J]. Journal of Geophysi-cal Research: Space Physics, 111(A3): A03215. DOI:10.1029/2005ja011084.
24. Chen X C, Han D S, Lorentzen D A, et al. 2017. Dynamic properties ofthroat aurora revealed by simultaneous ground and satellite obser-vations[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: SpacePhysics,122(3): 3469-3486. DOI:10.1002/2016JA023033.
25. Perreault P, Akasofu S I. A study of geomagnetic storms[J]. Geophysical Journal International, 1978, 54(3): 547-573.
26. Lakhina G S, Tsurutani B T. Geomagnetic storms: historical perspective to modern view[J]. Geoscience Letters, 2016, 3(1): 1-11.
27. Piddington J H. Geomagnetic storm theory[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1960, 65(1): 93-106.
28. Mansilla G A. Behavior of the Total Electron Content over the Arctic and Antarctic Sectors during Several Intense Ge-magnetic Storms[J]. Geodesy and Geodynamics, 2019,10(1): 26-36radio communication[C]//Proceedings of the twenty-first annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing. 1989: 274-285.
29. Wang H S, Moayeri N. Finite-state Markov channel-a useful model for radio communication channels[J]. IEEE transactions on vehicular technology, 1995, 44(1): 163-171
The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study will be available from the authors upon reasonable request.