Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Theoretical and Natural Science

Vol. 24, 20 December 2023

Open Access | Article

The mechanism and the therapeutics of Major Depressive Disorder

Lok Ham Fu * 1
1 Harrow International School of ShangHai

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Theoretical and Natural Science, Vol. 24, 81-87
Published 20 December 2023. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by EWA Publishing
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation Lok Ham Fu. The mechanism and the therapeutics of Major Depressive Disorder. TNS (2023) Vol. 24: 81-87. DOI: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231106.


Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is currently a common and significant disorder. More young people are being diagnosed each day. Decades of research have been done and have provided us with the ability to manage the illness in terms of treatments and the neurobiology behind it. However, it is universally acknowledged that some of the problems still remain. The complete mechanism which processes in the brain of a patient of MDD is not fully revealed and in some cases, treatments such as evidence-based psychological psychotherapy and antidepressants lacked effectiveness. For patients who do experience a reduced level of depressive symptoms, repeated episodes happens often and recurrent remains at high chances. In this review, human knowledge of MDD in the current state will be summarized, including the two most commonly believed pathophysiology pathway. In addition, different types of treatments that tackles distinct aspects of the disorder are highlighted. Prevention programs and intervention methods which have been applied are discussed. They range from small actions, such as practicing meditation and mindfulness, to large movement, such as taking a psycho-educational program with a therapist. Lastly, this review points out the inadequate in human understanding towards MDD and outlines the some of the therapeutical prospects in research and investigation of depression that are able to give rise to a more successful and effectual treatment system option in the future.


Major depressive disorder, antidepressant, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor


1. Cui, R. (2015). Editorial (Thematic Selection: A Systematic Review of Depression). Current Neuropharmacology, 13(4), 480–480.

2. Chinese Anti-epileptic Association comorbidity professional committee. Chinese expert consensus on diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy with anxiety [J]. Journal of Epilepsy,2018,4(3):185-190.

3. epression Disorders Research Alliance, Basic and Clinical Branch of Psychiatry, Chinese Neuroscience Society, Wang Dan, Zhai Jinguo. Expert consensus on clinical diagnosis and treatment of depression with anxietic-distressing characteristics [J]. Journal of Neuromedicine, 2019,34(1):74-78.

4. Kennedy, S. H., Lam, R. W., McIntyre, R. S., Tourjman, S. V., Bhat, V., Blier, P., Hasnain, M., Jollant, F., Levitt, A. J., MacQueen, G. M., McInerney, S. J., McIntosh, D., Milev, R. V., Müller, D. J., Parikh, S. V., Pearson, N. L., Ravindran, A. V., Uher, R., & CANMAT Depression Work Group (2016). Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Major Depressive Disorder: Section 3. Pharmacological Treatments. Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, 61(9), 540–560.

5. American Psychology Association. (2019). Depression Treatments for Older Adults. Https://

6. Zhou, J., Wang, X., Feng, L., Xiao, L., Yang, R., Zhu, X., Shi, H., Hu, Y., Chen, R., Boyce, P., & Wang, G. (2021). Venlafaxine vs. fluoxetine in postmenopausal women with major depressive disorder: an 8-week, randomized, single-blind, active-controlled study. BMC Psychiatry, 21(1).

7. Brain Stimulation Therapies. (2018). National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).

8. Hetrick, S., Cox, G., Witt, K., Bir, J. J., & Merry, S. (2016). Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), third-wave CBT and interpersonal therapy (IPT) based interventions for preventing depression in children and adolescents. The Cochrane Library, 2016(8).

9. V. Robin Weersing, Wael Shamseddeen, Garber, J., Hollon, S. D., Clarke, G. N., Beardslee, W. R., Tracy, Lynch, F. L., Porta, G., Iyengar, S., & Brent, D. A. (2016). Prevention of Depression in At-Risk Adolescents: Predictors and Moderators of Acute Effects. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(3), 219–226.

10. Wang, J., Ren, F., Gao, B., & Yu, X. (2022). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in Recurrent MDD Patients With Residual Symptoms: Alterations in Resting-State Theta Oscillation Dynamics Associated With Changes in Depression and Rumination. Frontiers in psychiatry, 13, 818298.

11. Werner-Seidler, A., Perry, Y., Calear, A. L., Newby, J. M., & Christensen, H. (2017). School-based depression and anxiety prevention programs for young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 51, 30–47.

12. Vazquez-Matias, D. A., de Vries, E. F. J., Dierckx, R. A. J. O., & Doorduin, J. (2023). PET imaging of animal models with depressive-like phenotypes. European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, 50(6), 1564–1584.

13. LaBruna, H. (2022). Ketamine For Depression: What You Need To Know - Mayo Clinic Press. Mayo Clinic Press.

Data Availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study will be available from the authors upon reasonable request.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Authors who publish this series agree to the following terms:

1. Authors retain copyright and grant the series right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this series.

2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the series's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this series.

3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See Open Access Instruction).

Volume Title
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Biological Engineering and Medical Science
ISBN (Print)
ISBN (Online)
Published Date
20 December 2023
Theoretical and Natural Science
ISSN (Print)
ISSN (Online)
20 December 2023
Open Access
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Copyright © 2023 EWA Publishing. Unless Otherwise Stated