Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences


Theoretical and Natural Science

Vol. 12, 17 November 2023


Open Access | Article

Using Python programs to determine the secondary eclipse depth of Kepler-12 b and its geometric albedo

Liyang Qi * 1
1 Affiliated High School of South China Normal University

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Advances in Humanities Research, Vol. 12, 136-140
Published 17 November 2023. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by EWA Publishing
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation Liyang Qi. Using Python programs to determine the secondary eclipse depth of Kepler-12 b and its geometric albedo. TNS (2023) Vol. 12: 136-140. DOI: 10.54254/2753-8818/12/20230453.

Abstract

The discovery of Hot Jupiter in 1995 marks the beginning of a new era in Astrophysics, and deep space observatory provides valuable data that helps us understand the evolution of the universe and extrasolar systems. This paper reports on the secondary eclipse depth and the geometric albedo of a hot Jupiter “Kepler-12 b” with a planet radius of 1.695±0.03R_J, and the use of Python programs helps derive the results. The Python programs also help draw the figures in this work with data from Spitzer IRAC, an infrared camera designed to detect near- and mid-infrared light. The conclusion drawn from the work is that the orbital period is 4.401 days and the geometric albedo A_g= 〖0.17〗_(-0.08)^(+0.08) . This work points out that the relatively low geometric albedo of Kepler-12b could imply that Kepler-12 b is a pM-class planet. The distinguishing factor between a hot Jupiter of pL-class and one of pM-class is the variation in their spectra and the temperature difference between their day and night sides.

Keywords

Kepler-12 b, Geometric Albedo, Secondary Eclipse, Python, Techniques, Spectroscopic

References

1. Fortney, J. J., et al. “A Unified Theory for the Atmospheres of the Hot and Very Hot Jupiters: Two Classes of Irradiated Atmospheres.” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 678, no. 2, 10 May 2008, pp. 1419–1435.

2. Bonomo, A. S., and S. Desidera. “The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N at TNG.” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 602, June 2017, p. A107.

3. Cardoso, José Vinícius de Miranda , Hedges, Christina “Lightkurve: Kepler and TESS time series analysis in Python.” Astrophysics Source Code Library, record ascl:1812.013.

4. VanderPlas, Jacob T. “Understanding the Lomb–Scargle Periodogram.” The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, vol. 236, no. 1, 11 May 2018, p. 16.

5. "Spitzer: Warm IRAC Image Characteristics.” (2015)Irsa.ipac.caltech.edu, irsa.ipac.caltech.edu/data/SPITZER/docs/irac/warmimgcharacteristics/.

6. Fortney, J. J., Demory, (2011). DISCOVERY AND ATMOSPHERIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GIANT PLANET KEPLER-12b: AN INFLATED RADIUS OUTLIER. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 197(1), 9.

7. Tsiaras, A., and I. P. Waldmann. “A New Approach to Analyzing HST Spatial Scans: The Transmission Spectrum of HD 209458 B.” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 832, 1 Dec. 2016, p. 202.

8. Holton, Gerald, and Stephen George. Physics, the Human Adventure : From Copernicus to Einstein and Beyond. New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 2010, p. 45.

9. Krenn, A. F., and M. Lendl. “The Geometric Albedo of the Hot Jupiter HD 189733b Measured with CHEOPS.” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 672, Mar. 2023, p. A24.

10. Snellen, Ignas A. G., et al. “The Changing Phases of Extrasolar Planet CoRoT-1b.” Nature, vol. 459, no. 7246, May 2009, pp. 543–545.

Data Availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study will be available from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Volume Title
Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Mathematical Physics and Computational Simulation
ISBN (Print)
978-1-83558-135-3
ISBN (Online)
978-1-83558-136-0
Published Date
17 November 2023
Series
Theoretical and Natural Science
ISSN (Print)
2753-8818
ISSN (Online)
2753-8826
DOI
10.54254/2753-8818/12/20230453
Copyright
© 2023 The Author(s)
Open Access
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Copyright © 2023 EWA Publishing. Unless Otherwise Stated