Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Theoretical and Natural Science

Vol. 2, 20 February 2023

Open Access | Article

Bionic Soft Robot Review

Xuyang Gao 1
1 Ealing International school, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China, 110000

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Theoretical and Natural Science, Vol. 2, 135-141
Published 20 February 2023. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by EWA Publishing
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation Xuyang Gao. Bionic Soft Robot Review. TNS (2023) Vol. 2: 135-141. DOI: 10.54254/2753-8818/2/20220108.


Traditional robots are mainly rigid structures. They are complex in structure but limited in flexibility, and have poor security and adaptability. At that time, many bio-inspired robots were created to overcome the traditional robotic challenges. Creatures gave us the inspiration to use a soft body to complete task, and then soft robotics were invented. This paper evaluated the future difficulties faced by this area, and listed the deficiencies that still need to be improved for soft robots that should be overcome in future projects as well. First of all, the first difficulty is that most soft robots rely on software drivers to complete tasks, and because of this, the driving functions of soft robots cannot be perfectly performed, and the action tasks are not diverse. Secondly, if the action moving is over flexible, it will be hard to control. The precision for missions cannot be satisfied. Thirdly, the choice of drivers’ type becomes another problem. For example, the memory alloy drive has the advantages of large driving force, controllable stiffness, good elasticity, etc., but it also has disadvantages such as easy aging and slow response speed. Although the pneumatic drive has a fast response rate, there is a risk that the fluid may leak, and the environment cannot be guaranteed to be airtight. Obviously, there is no ideal solution to work out actuation difficulties.


1. Chu Kaimei, Zhao Hu, Feng Kai, Wu Jie, Zhu Yinlong. Research status of soft bionic robots[J]. Forestry Machinery and Woodworking Equipment, 2021, 49(11):4-10+16. DOI:10.13279/j.cnki.fmwe. 2021.0143.

2. Shah, Dylan S. , Powers, Joshua P. , Tilton, Liana G. , Kriegman, Sam, Bongard, Josh, & Kramer-Bottiglio, Rebecca. A soft robot that adapts to environments through shape change. Nature Machine Intelligence, 3 (1). Retrieved from

3. Zhexin Xie, August G. Domel, Ning An, Connor Green, Zheyuan Gong, Tianmiao Wang, Elias M. Knubben, James C. Weaver, Katia Bertoldi, and Li Wen. Octopus Arm-Inspired Tapered Soft Actuators with Suckers for Improved Grasping. DOI: 10.1089/soro.2019.0082.

4. Joshi, S Y, Singh, S & Deshmukh, S A. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics integrated with convolutional neural network for comparing shapes of temperature sensitive bottlebrushes. npj Comput Mater 8, 45 (2022).

5. Feng Jiang. Design, manufacture, and control pf a bionic earthworm crawling robot with self-healing function. 10299S1703033. 2020.6.9.

6. Ge JZ, Calderón AA, Chang L, Pérez-Arancibia NO. An earthworm-inspired friction-controlled soft robot capable of bidirectional locomotion. Bioinspir Biomim. 2019 Feb 15;14(3):036004. doi: 10.1088/1748-3190/aae7bb. PMID: 30523957.

7. Gu Yongxia, Zhou Jianhui, Yin Danni and Zhu Zhihao. A review of research on bionic software drivers. Mechanical Science and Technology. doi: 10.13433/j.cnki.1003-8728.20220112.

8. Wang Chengjun, Li Shuai. Research status of software robots [J]. Micro-Nano Electronics Technology, 2019, 56(12): 948-955991.

9. Robertson, M A., Sadeghi, H, Florez, J M, & Paik, J (2017). Soft pneumatic actuator fascicles for high force and reliability. Soft robotics, 4(1), 23-32.

10. Zaidi, S, Maselli, M, Laschi, C et al. Actuation Technologies for Soft Robot Grippers and Manipulators: A Review. Curr Robot Rep 2, 355–369 (2021).

11. Laschi, C (2017). Octobot-a robot octopus points the way to soft robotics. IEEE Spectrum, 54(3), 38-43.

12. Ostropiko, E, Razov, A, & Cherniavsky, A (2015). Investigation of TiNi shape memory alloy for thermosensitive wire drive. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 33, p. 03021). EDP Sciences.

13. Mirvakili S M, Hunter I W. Artificial Muscles: Mechanisms, Applications, and Challenges.

14. Otsuka, K, & Wayman, C M (Eds). (1999). Shape memory materials. Cambridge university press.

15. Saito, T, Kagiwada, T and Harada, H. (2009). Development of an Earthworm Robot with a Shape Memory Alloy and Braided Tube. Advanced Robotics, 23, 1743 - 1760.

16. Carrico, J D, Kim, K J and Leang, K K (2017). 3D-printed ionic polymer-metal composite soft crawling robot. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 4313-4320.

Data Availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study will be available from the authors upon reasonable request.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Authors who publish this series agree to the following terms:

1. Authors retain copyright and grant the series right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this series.

2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the series's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this series.

3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See Open Access Instruction).

Volume Title
Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing Innovation and Applied Physics (CONF-CIAP 2022)
ISBN (Print)
ISBN (Online)
Published Date
20 February 2023
Theoretical and Natural Science
ISSN (Print)
ISSN (Online)
20 February 2023
Open Access
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Copyright © 2023 EWA Publishing. Unless Otherwise Stated