Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Medicine and Global Health (ICMMGH 2023)
Tooba Mahboob, UCSI University
Sheiladevi Sukumaran, SEGi University
Photoredox catalysis is a relatively new concept, and it involves the absorption of light for more productive use of lower energy radiation and to catalyze selective reactions. Traditionally, catalysts used for oxidation or reduction reactions were metal catalysts, such as iridium. However, these metal catalysts are not environmentally friendly and are expensive, prompting the use of organic catalysts. Pyrylium salt, an organic catalyst, can be used as a catalyst. However, the oxidizing ability of basic pyrylium is not that good and can still be improved. In this project, a pyrylium salt with substituents that include fluorine and chlorine (halogens) was synthesized to boost its oxidizing ability in an alcohol oxidation reaction due to its electron-withdrawing groups. Despite unsuccessful oxidation, there is still much research to prove that it can substitute for metal catalysts.
Obesity is a prevalent disease found among adolescents in the United States. The rising incidence in recent years has raised concerns among the public, for obesity is known as the risk factor for several chronic and severe diseases. Programs aimed at treating and preventing childhood obesity are therefore in high demand. Since the enrollment of American youth–who are between 5 and 17 years old–in schools is higher than in any other institution in the United States, schools can implant effective obesity-targeted programs by providing cheap, convenient, and accessible settings for treating and preventing obesity for the student population. This article will review and analyze the success of primary preventive initiatives implemented in schools by comparing the effectiveness of four out of eight components of am integrated comprehensive model for school-based prevention of obesity: physical education courses, food service and nutrition environment, school-site health promotion, and health service. At the end of this article, a future research plan will be introduced. A sample of 154 residential students from a local high school located in Fryeburg, Maine will be observed and surveyed to test the effectiveness of the school-based primary prevention model for obesity.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common, frequent, age-related diseases, and it is also an important cause of chronic renal failure and end-stage renal diseases. It has always been one of the research hotspots. The high cost of treatment will bring a great burden to society and families. Therefore, it is very important to study the pathogenesis and treatment methods of DN. At present, many methods have been put forward for clinical diagnosis and treatment like Thiazolidinediones, renin inhibitor drug -aliskiren, tregs cells. These methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. However, the etiology of diabetic nephropathy is complicated and the course of the disease is long, and current treatments cannot achieve the expected target. Scholars also have studied many symptomatic treatment methods for different pathogenesis. However, the specific pathogenesis of DN has not yet been fully elucidated, and there is no special medicine for DN yet. This article briefly reviews the pathogenesis and treatments of DN based on the existing kinds of literature and new advances to provide some references for its clinical diagnosis and treatment.
In the biological lab of Zhejiang University, we justified and tested a type of bacillus to improve the anti-bacteria ability of commonly affecting diseases of fruits, such as pear and grape, which would lead to a large amount of economic loss and unpredictable negative influence if they were rotten before being sold. Using techniques such as gram staining and bacteriostasis test, this paper explores and confirms the results that bacillus sp. 22T has a strong ability to inhibit the growth of penicillium expansum on pear and grape. After 96 hours of exposure to fermentation broth containing bacillus sp. 22T to suppress the growth of penicillium expansum, 33.33 percent of pear and 16.66 percent of grape were not impacted by the bacterium.
This article will summarize the results of recent years of exploration into deeper causes of Alzheimer’s disease with possible therapeutic strategies. The most popular pathological hypothesis for the causation of Alzheimer’s is the Aβ cascade hypothesis. Aβ has a dominant role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, according to genetic and pathological data. Another significant histological characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease brains is the presence of neurofibrillary tangles made of the protein tau, which is related with microtubules. In the brain, neuronal loss, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress can result from the cascade consequences of tau toxicity. But as research has progressed, it has been found the Aβ. The accumulation of protein and neurofibrillary tangles composed of phosphorylated tau are only manifestations of AD, not the result. This is also the reason why many drugs fail the phase III clinic. So people began to look for a way out of the problem, starting in the direction of the gene. How to diagnose AD early in the MCI stage, how to find markers for early diagnosis and how to inhibit the progression from the MCI stage to the dementia stage are all questions that need to be investigated in the future.
Since the beginning of 2020, COVID-19 has swept the world and continues to threaten human society. Forecasting the future trend of the epidemics is very important for the prevention of COVID-19. The SIR model is an important mathematical model to forecast future epidemic in epidemiology. In a press conference from London on July 5th, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson said the British government will end nearly all of the coronavirus restrictions starting July 19. This paper aims to use the SIR model to predict epidemics after deregulation of social distance. The results show that as of July 8, 2021, the number of people infected will continue to increase after deregulation, reaching approximately 30000 per day. The British government should reconsider completely liberalizing epidemic control.
Fluorescent probe technology was discovered in the 19th century and imaging techniques were applied to microscopy around 1670. Fluorescence microscopic imaging is a classical method for observing the structure of organisms in the life sciences. In this regard, single-molecule fluorescence imaging uses fluorescent probes to label, detect, and analyze individual molecules, helping scientists to clearly observe the activities of individual molecules without disrupting the normal physiological state of the organism. In this paper, the principles and applications of fluorescent probe imaging techniques are described and analyzed. The common detection methods of fluorescent probes are spectrophotometry, electrochemistry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Rapid detection results can be obtained depending on the specific method.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a well-known mental illness and memory loss is its most common symptom. Until now, the reason of AD has been an unsolved mystery, with the two most prominent previous hypotheses being β-amyloid deposition and Tau protein phosphorylation. However, this year, a seminal paper studying the β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis was found to be falsified, therefore, a large number of scientists have questioned the research value of this hypothesis. This paper is a review of the β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis. The development of β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis is described and previous studies on Aβ*56, Aβ42, and Aβ40 are reviewed. It is concluded that β-amyloid precipitation should continue to be studied. The author also argues that the falsification does not mean that the "amyloid" hypothesis is wrong; the only protein suspected of falsification is Aβ*56. The Aβ hypothesis can still be pursued because there are many other Aβ oligomers that have been shown to be neurotoxic.
Asthma is one of the common chronic diseases in children, and so far there is no cure for asthma. Asthma sufferers are estimated to be more than 300 million people worldwide, and the number of asthma treatments is growing every year. In recent years, thanks to advances in therapeutic medicines, asthma symptoms can now be successfully controlled with inhaled corticosteroids and, if necessary, in combination with bronchodilators. However, even with maximum use of these drugs, the effect may be insufficient, and there are still some patients with refractory asthma that are not adequately controlled with general treatment. Drugs called biologics may become a drug that works well for previously poorly treated asthma and is recently available in children with severe asthma. Three biologics are currently available for use in children: omalizumab, mepolizumab (6 years and older), and dupilumab (12 years and older). However, there is still a lack of clinical research evidence for the specific clinical improvement rate. Therefore, in this study, this paper conducted a literature review on the latest clinical trials of biological agents at home and abroad, summarized the clinical trials of common biological agents, and introduced the latest treatment methods. The differences and deficiencies between each other achieve the effect of enhancing the prevention and cognition of asthma.
Generally, a new targeted medicine takes a long time, usually 5 to 15 years, from the discovery and validation of its target to its actual use in treating a disease. There is no doubt that steps such as target validation and target evaluation are essential in preclinical development of new drugs to ensure safety, bioavailability, and efficacy of the drug, and in the target validation phase, RNA interference (RNAi) is a very important method. RNAi drug has double-stranded RNA function, so the targeted mRNA of a specific gene sequence is degraded, its transcription process is abnormal, which leads to gene silencing, and related protein synthesis failure. RNAi technology could specifically shut off specific genes, and, it is a targeted drug with great potential. Therefore, RNAi technology can be used to treat some rare diseases, such as acute hepatic porphyria (AHP) in adults, by using drugs as carriers. In 1998, Andrew Fire and Craig C. Mello first defined the RNAi phenomenon and was honored with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2006 for their discovery of RNAi and their outstanding contributions to the field of gene silencing. Since then, RNAi drugs have been studied by pharmaceutical scientists around the world, but many of the previous drugs have been stopped at the evaluation stage due to their chemical instability. Until October 2018, the world’s first RNAi drug (patisiran) was successfully marketed so that the RNAi drug development became popular again because of remarkable pesticide effect.
This paper focuses on an overview of the development progress of different cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. The CDKS are a group of kinases that are indispensable in the cell cycle. However, when it comes to cancer, the cell cycle is not healthy which causes malignancy of the cell that is able to mitosis infinitely. Considering the CDK are a group of molecules that is fundament during mitosis, researchers have developed its inhibitors to inhibit the effect that it has during the cell cycle to postpone the growth of cancer and lead to cancer cell apoptosis. This paper targets on the CDK inhibitors of pan-CDK, CDK4/6, 7, 9, and 12, also introducing their development history and current stages in clinical trials, as well as the drugs related to these CDK inhibitors that are FDA-approved for cancer treatment. In addition, the paper also introduces the future potentials of CDK inhibitors in the treatment and therapy of cancer-related diseases.
Breast cancer (BC) is a serious threat to women's health. Higher BC risk is allegedly related to personal lifestyle like diet. However, it is still unclear how dietary quality affect BC survivors. This meta-analyse aimed to figure out it. The highest and lowest categories of healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns were compared by using the random-effects meta-analyses, which combined relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that were multivariable-adjusted. 11 eligible articles, including two RCTs, three case-control studies, and six cohort studies, were found and included in this paper after they met the inclusion criteria. According to the pooled analyses, when compared to the lowest group, women with the highest quality healthy diet (highest quintile/quartile/tertile) had 24% lower risk of overall death(random effects (RR = 0.76; 95%CI = 0.67-0.86), 16% lower risk of BC specific death (random effects (RR = 0.84; 95%CI = 0.75-0.94), 28% lower risk of No-BC death (random effects (RR = 0.72; 95%CI = 0.63-0.83),and 4% higher risk of recurrence (random effects (RR = 1.04; 95%CI = 0.97-1.12). According to our meta-analysis, consuming a high-quality healthy diet was linked to a lower risk of all-cause death. The results could have significant effects on encouraging the use of daily dietary treatment regimen to benefit breast cancer patients. To achieve better long-term survival and better quality of life for BC patients, definitively establishing effective interventions will necessarily require further researches.
Eribulin (E7389) is a synthetic small molecule medication with high anti-cancer efficacy exhibited in preclinical studies. It is a structure-simplified macrocyclic ketone analog of Halichondrin B, which can inhibit the development of microtubule that is essential for the mitosis of cancer cells. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given eribulin approval as a third-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer (approved in 2010) or metastatic liposarcoma (approved in 2016). In a number of clinical trials, eribulin has shown outstanding efficacy and safety in the treatment of solid tumors, particularly for breast cancer and sarcoma. Current eribulin clinical trials focus on its use in the therapy of other various cancer types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), salivary gland cancer, cervical cancer, urethral cancer, and prostate cancer, and its application in combination treatment. The present study summarizes the mechanism, development, and future directions of eribulin, with an emphasis on the results of clinical trials.
With the relevant anti-smoking policy introduced by the state, people realized the significance of smoking cessation. Therefore, E-cigarettes were regarded as a replacement of cigarettes. The analysis, which is about prevalence trends, the reason about taking systematical review, and the value of systematical review, explains this review’s stand. In this paper, the 9 articles from PubMed was collected and organized for classification.The dangers of human health is caused by the special component of e-cigarettes. Generally speaking, some countries’ legislate measures related to tobacco control have not fully met the requirements of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and played a role in protecting people from tobacco hazards, displaying in the lack of smoke-free legislation in public places at the national level, relatively low tobacco consumption taxes, no comprehensive ban on tobacco sponsorship. The control of e-cigarettes as tobacco products in many countries may not achieve the purpose of strict regulation. The authority believed to add punishment to people who sell novel flavor e-cigarettes should let them take legal responsibility. Furthermore, schools should increase publicity and education about public and individual health, to promote people’s health awareness and stop them from using e-cigarettes at a relatively young age.The objective of this review is to spot literature and describe the effects of e-cigarettes on public human health. Through researching and comparing articles, this article discusses the reason of smoking, the lack in policies in public health, and the solutions what people should take.
When it comes to diseases, heart failure is always an important issue for people around the whole world. Patients may suffer a lot when they have heart failure. Every year, there are a lot of people who dead because of having Heart Failure in and out of America. Nowadays, there are mainly two types of heart failures, HFrEF (heart failure reduced ejection fraction) and HFpEF (heart failure preserved ejection fraction). Research show that SGLT2 including Dapagliflozin, sotagliflozin, empagliflozin, and other types of inhibitors are effective when used to treat with heart failure patients regardless of whether they have had diseases like diabetes before. With the support of researches mentioned in the following passage, this idea will be reliable and we believe that with such kind of good news that the SGLT2 inhibitor are actually contributing to the process of dealing with HF, people who have been suffer from HF will one day be able to cured.
In recent years, a variety of treatment methods for Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been used, but most of them fail to show significant effect due to the late stage of diagnosis. At present, immunotherapy has become a new way of tumor therapy and attracted wide attention, among which programmed death molecule-1(PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1(PD-L1) have been proved to relate to immune escape in NSCLC, and relevant clinical drugs have shown a clear therapeutic effect. The related drugs can relieve the immune tolerance by blocking the pathway, and play a role in tumor killing. There are now various related drugs. Here, I review the progresses of the mechanistic role of PD-1 pathway in the tumor immune escape and effect of related drugs therapy.
The length of time needed to recover memories in the hippocampus area varies greatly across the existing theories of system-level consolidation. These competing hypotheses do, however, have connections. The standard consolidation theory, multiple trace theory, and scene construction theory are the three existing models that are examined in this study. After reexamining their features, the authors test whether the three models can be integrated in terms of trace duration and function. It is better to think of the hippocampus's contribution to system-level consolidation as a functional transition from retention to rebuilding through time rather than just a question of persistence. The involvement of the hippocampus in memory retrieval may be fitted into a more thorough model in terms of functional transformation since the two functions, retention and reconstruction, are of equal significance and can scarcely be divided into two sections.
Brain cancer is the most aggressive intracranial disease: once diagnosed, 70% of patients will not survive. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential to improving the survival rate of diagnosed patients. Currently, imaging scans and pathological biopsies are mainly relied on to confirm the diagnosis of brain tumors. However, imaging scans do not confirm the diagnosis or tumor grade, nor do assess response and monitor treatment effect. Similarly, pathological biopsies are highly invasive and difficult to repeat. To address these limitations, the field has proposed the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a liquid biopsy method to detect circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). This review focuses on how liquid biopsy of CSF ctDNA can facilitate and complement the clinical care of patients with brain tumors. Relevant reviews in the past five years show that ctDNA is highly expressed and its content in CSF is higher than that in plasma. By sequencing the ctDNA of CSF, the diagnosis and prognosis information of brain tumors can be obtained, the best treatment method can be selected, the treatment response can be monitored, and the tumor evolution can be tracked. Because ctDNA detection is still in the research stage and lacks standardized technology, its effectiveness and practicality require further investigation before they can be used in clinical practice.
The use of vaccines to combat disease by humans has been ongoing for centuries and has produced significant results. However, with the development of technology, different types of vaccines have emerged, and often people are confused as to which is the best. This paper have analyzes three main types of vaccines that have been developed and commercialized: DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines, and inactivated vaccines, to gain insight into the issues associated with vaccines. This paper explained the mechanisms of action and the process of their production, and identified some of their potential advantages and disadvantages. Finally, this study draw the conclusion that each type of vaccine has unique properties that cannot be replaced by others and that it was not easy to determine the best among them.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a kind of neurodegeneration disease and often happens in older people. Age is an influencing factor in the prevalence of AD. Up to now, AD is still difficult to cure and only limited medications can relieve some of the symptoms. Therefore, research on the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases has become more and more popular in recent years. Multiple studies offer some proof that the tau protein mutation and AD are related. This review described the structure and the purpose of the tau protein. The linkage between abnormal tau mutation and AD is further clarified, and a summary of two medications for AD is also included.
People are always amazed by the crunchiness of a great cookie or cupcake. What are the substances involved? The author discovered a chemical dubbed "trans-fat" in the nutrition table while browsing it. We discovered that trans-fat is formed by hydrogenated vegetable oil through data collection. Hydrogenated vegetable oil is extensively used in foods such as cream, biscuits, and ice cream. People taste and appreciate the food at the same time. People are wondering about whether these butter goods are beneficial to their bodies and how much they should eat on a daily basis when they taste the cuisine. This research using a literature review examines how hydrogenated vegetable oil is produced and used, as well as how it affects the human body. This study uses the strengths of previous authors' work to determine how to lower the trans fatty acid content of hydrogenated vegetable oil products and how much trans fatty acid-containing hydrogenated vegetable oil products should be consumed daily.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the four biggest killers of the elderly, along with heart disease, lung cancer and cerebrovascular disease. However, the current understanding of the underlying causes and treatment of AD is based only on some hypotheses, which makes our research on AD urgent. Based on the common inducing hypotheses of Alzheimer's disease, such as β-amyloid deposition hypothesis, tau protein phosphorylation hypothesis, and viral infection hypothesis, this article will search and summarize a variety of specific drugs for different pathological hypotheses in the medical community, including those that have been marketed and those that have shown good therapeutic effects in clinical trials. Find, understand and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each specific drug, so as to better and faster help to study the latest specific drug for Alzheimer's disease, and change the quality of life and physical condition of people with Alzheimer's disease and their families.
ADSCs are stem cells found in adipose tissue that can self-renew in vitro and undergo multidirectional differentiation in containers. They may have anti-aging effects through their growth factors as well as their multidirectional differentiation function. In this paper, we searched PubMed, Web Of Science, CNKI, and other databases for related articles in recent years through relevant keywords, and the results showed that ADSCs have significant effects on facial anti-aging such as inhibiting skin wrinkle increase, whitening facial skin, and promoting hair regeneration. This paper presents a multifaceted analysis of the underlying mechanisms of action and related research on the application of adipose stem cells in facial skin anti-aging. It will enable medical aesthetic physicians to have a better understanding of the role and mechanism of ADSCs in facial anti-aging so that they can better provide healthy and standardized medical aesthetic services.
Metastatic breast cancer continues to have high mortality rates despite the numerous advances in drug therapy. Breast cancer patients have acquired resistance to current treatments, and severe adverse effects, such as cardiotoxicity caused by Trastuzumab, further contribute to the high mortality rate. Therefore, novel drugs with greater specificity and less severe adverse effects must be developed to combat the rise in treatment resistance. Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is an attractive drug of choice since lapatinib is not associated with cardiotoxicity, given its greater specificity to HER2 receptors compared to trastuzumab. This review provides a brief overview of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their overall mechanism of action in treating HER2+ cancers. The study further summarizes the mechanism of action of Lapatinib, its pharmacokinetic properties, its clinical applications, the tools of the act of lapatinib resistance, and recent advances in developing derivatives of Lapatinib to combat lapatinib-acquired resistance.
Since the spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 from China to different parts of the world, every country’s government has tried their best in conducting policies to protect their people and their economy. Their approaches can be generally classified into three types, moderatism represented by Singapore, conservatism represented by China and liberalism represented by the United States. To investigate the effectiveness of these measures, the data about the economy (in particular the Gross Domestic Product) as well as about the coronavirus (in particular the fatality rate and the number of confirmed cases) is studied and analysed. The relationship between GDP and the number of confirmed cases can be deducted. The development of the virus against time can be simulated and discussed. The results and further discussions can be helpful in clearing the pandemic from the Earth especially from less developed countries and in better preparing us when facing future possible pandemics.
Due to the rising prevalence of obesity, it has become a major public health problem. This paper explores the effects of the Mediterranean diet on obesity and the possible mechanisms through literature research. According to the findings, a strong adherence to the Mediterranean diet was linked to greater weight loss and a lower risk of obesity. Prevention of obesity is key, and strategies to change the eating habits of people are needed to slow the progression of obesity prevalence.
Blood flow in vessels is affected by several factors like vessel shape, blood thickness, and heart function. Swirling patterns of flow, called vortices, are often seen in blood vessels and can affect how blood flows. This study aims to understand how vortices affect blood flow and the reasons behind these changes. Different instruments, like particle image velocimetry (PIV), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were used to measure and analyze blood flow. CFD simulations were done using realistic blood vessel models to study how vortices form and how they affect blood velocity and pressure. The results show that vortices can cause significant changes in blood velocity and pressure, which can lead to changes in blood flow. The increased wall shear stress may contribute to the development of heart disease. This research highlights the importance of considering the impact of vortices on blood flow dynamics when designing and assessing cardiovascular devices and treatments.
Dementia continues to be a serious problem worldwide. A negative relationship between the prevalence of dementia and the level of socioeconomic status (SES), such as income can be observed in most countries. The aim of the study in this paper is to explore the possible pathways that contribute to this negative relationship. This article analyses and presents three possible causes of health inequalities between SES gradients in dementia and possible solutions to them, through a large collection of articles. Differences in health literacy, housing levels and social support caused by SES such as different incomes lead to social inequalities in health through behavioral/cultural pathway， material pathway and psychosocial pathway respectively.
Many studies have revealed that the recurrence of heart failure (HF) in patients with diabetes is significantly higher than that in patients without diabetes, and insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism are common in patients with HF. Therefore, heart failure is an important clinical problem in diabetic patients. Diabetes and heart failure are "killers" that go hand in hand. They share common risk factors. Patients with heart failure frequently have hyperglycemia, and heart failure is a typical complication for diabetic patients. Based on the possible association between the two diseases, this paper will further analyze the therapies of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and explore whether it can have an effect on how to address heart failure. The study's findings demonstrated that treating type 2 diabetes did have some influence on the management of heart failure and that treating type 2 diabetes did reduce the progression of heart failure symptoms.
The most common cause of mortality is Cystic Fibrosis, a fatal genetic disease. However, in recent years, there have been a growing number of papers concentrating on CRISPR-Cas9, a gene-editing tool that is being used to permanently cure this genetic disease, named by a biopharmaceutical company EditasMedicine, invested in by Bill Gates. However, before the breadth of search and study of this technology continuously expands, challenges and remaining issues should be addressed. This paper reviews the mechanisms of cystic fibrosis and discusses its technical challenges, such as efficiency, safety and delivery of gene editing, potential side effects, and ethical issues, this paper also talks about the future applications of CRISPR-Cas9 in other diseases, so as to provide an alternative treatment method for the diseases with gene editing better results can be obtained.
Sepsis is a severe syndrome that is associated with both inflammatory responses and immune system dysfunctions. The most frequent location of injuries caused by sepsis is the respiratory system, followed by the digestive system, and the circulatory system. Researchers have revealed the relationship between T cells and sepsis. To be specific, during the pathology of sepsis, T cells could be damaged, deactivated, and inhibited, while they could also act as an agent that amplifies the sepsis syndrome. This paper focuses on analyzing 3 types of T cells: CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and regulatory T cells. The populations of the first two types would be reduced, while the functions of regulatory T cells could lead to further immunosuppression during sepsis. Although to date there is no effective treatment to cure this disease, treatment plans targeting immune stimulation and Treg suppression are also examined and analyzed in depth in this paper.
Research Question: Can oridonin inhibit small cell lung cancer growth by blocking the Notch signalling? Purpose: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive illness with a low 5-year survival rate. Oridonin is a Chinese medicine extracted from the leaves of the Rabdosia rubescens, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, which has been proven to have many medical effects in opposition to the tumour. Notch signalling is an essential pathway in multicellular organisms and transfers information into living organisms. Methods: This study will use a human small-cell lung cancer cell line (H1688). Migration assay will test the influence of oridonin on cell migration. A Xenograft mouse tumour model is created to determine the effect of oridonin on tumour growth. Annexin V will test cell apoptosis, and a western blot is used to test whether Notch signalling is activated. All the assays are repeated three times, and the statistics are analyzed by calculating the means and doing the student's t-test. Possible results: There are three main possible results:(1) Oridonin can inhibit SCLC growth by blocking the notch signalling. (2) Oridonin can inhibit the tumour growth of SCLC cells but not by blocking notch signalling. (3) Oridonin cannot inhibit tumour growth but can block the notch signalling. Conclusion: The study will show whether oridonin can inhibit the growth of SCLC by blocking the notch signalling. It will provide a new method of treatment for those with SCLCs.
Type 2 diabetes is a very common type in diabetes, which is also called noninsulin-dependent diabetes. This paper focuses on the correlation between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and aging from the perspective of oxidative stress (OS), including the pathway that T2D produces oxidative stress and the effect that oxidative stress imposes on T2D. This paper also mentioned some specific mechanisms, like a glycolytic pathway, enhanced formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), activation of protein kinase C (PKC), and deactivation of the insulin signaling pathway. In addition, this paper also talks about the important influence of OS in the process of aging. And, the attention was focused on the excessive ROS produced by mitochondria. On this basis, this paper sorts out the correlation between aging and T2D in OS and finds some experimental evidence, through which this paper also offers some enlightenment from the way of anti-aging to anti-diabetes.
Lung cancer has become one of the most widely infected cancers around the world and is getting more attention from scientists and the public. Thus, based on the dataset Lung Cancer uploaded on Kaggle in 2022, this paper reviews previous research on risk factors about their effects and mechanisms on lung cancer. Besides, by transforming categorical variables into numerical ones and using chi-square tests of independence, this paper examines whether independent variables in the dataset are associated with lung cancer development. This paper finds that variables ‘gender’, ‘smoking’, ‘chronic disease’ and ‘shortness of breath’ are not tested associated with lung cancer development; variable ‘yellow finger’ and the other nine independent variables are tested as factors contributing to lung cancer. Identifying these risk factors and analyzing their mechanisms can effectively help people prevent lung cancer and support the development of lung cancer treatment.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive weakness and atrophy of the muscles including the bulb (the part of the muscles innervated by the medulla oblongata), limbs, trunk, chest, and abdomen following injury to upper and lower motor neurons. However, the reasons for developing ALS are still not very clear. Both genetic defects and environmental factors may damage motor neurons. At present, ALS is a difficult disease to cure. For environmental factors, people can change their lifestyles to reduce or avoid the effects of the environment. However, inherited genetic defects are hard to avoid. Therefore, in this paper, the author explores the treatment of ALS by analyzing and summarizing a large number of papers and experimental studies learning the relationship between genes and ALS. In conclusion, the gene TARDBP and the gene C9ORF72 were found in a large number of disease-causing genes. Mutations in these genes can lead to changes in the encoded proteins that cause the development of ALS disease.
Small molecule Proteolysis Targeting Chimera (PROTAC) is an effective therapy for patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia (AML). By activating the ubiquitination system, PROTAC can generate protein and kinase degradation upon FLT3 to perform outcomes of antiproliferative activities. The focus of this study revolves around the investigation of the efficacy of VHL and CRBN-based PROTAC on FLT3 degradation compared to conventional immunotherapy agents such as quizartinib. By assessing the performances of PROTAC on MOLM-14 and MV4-11 cells with other therapies, comparing both adverse effects and benefits could demonstrate crucial approaches to applying PROTAC for AML treatments. The VHL-recruiting PROTAC based on the modification of quizartinib has shown promising effects where FLT3 within MV4-11 injected athymic mice had experienced around a 60% of decrease. The CRBN-based degrader TL12-186, on the other hand, had also demonstrated antiproliferative outcomes where 14 out of 7559 proteins of the MOLM-14 cell have been successfully degraded, showing a more than 25% decrease. Even though there seem to be some improvements in the VHL-recruiting PROTAC compared to traditional immunotherapy agents like quizartinib, CRBN-mediated PROTAC has shown a relatively less significant result. Critiquing in a variety of aspects, quizartinib has demonstrated better performance in cell permeability, low nanomolecular concentration, and degradation. The significance of this study provides an overview of existing PROTAC technology that shows effects on the treatment of FLT3-mutated AML. Further studies may be conducted on the foundation of this study to demonstrate the enhancements of each modified PROTAC compared to existing therapies.
Protein is an essential part of food and makes a large contribution to the nutritional value of food. This paper evaluates protein by finding out the impact of different cooking methods on protein, and the influence of protein properties on the choice of cooking method. The results of this paper indicate that deep-frying maximizes the nutritional value of sturgeon. Cooking time and temperature have an impact on protein denaturation and nutritional value. Controlling heating time and temperature precisely can maximize retention of the color, flavor, and aroma of food. Using low-temperature vacuum cooking can reduce the loss of nutrients and moisture and also prevent secondary contamination. Different processes before cooking, such as basting, can not only increase the nutritional value but also enhance the flavor. The analysis can provide detailed information about the protein value and know what is the best way to cook sturgeon. It also provides a better understanding of the choice of cooking method and how to handle the food before cooking.
In recent decades, with the help of computer brain imaging technology and other advanced science and technology, a wealth of research achievements has been made in brain science related to games. These achievements explain the deep mechanism of games and provide scientific theoretical basis for the application of games. This paper analyses the effects of games on the brain. On the one hand, it focuses on the analysis and discussion of the positive effects on the brain in four aspects, including games make the brain excited, become more intelligent, improve agility skills, and improve observation. On the other hand, it summarizes the negative effects of excessive games on the brain, including the structural changes of the brain, mental malaise and brain stunting. In the end, the paper summarizes and summarizes the full text.
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is crucial in the metabolism pathway that converts isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. When isocitrate dehydrogenase is mutated, IDH produces 2-hydroxyglutarate instead of alpha-ketoglutarate. The newly formed IDH, with the ability to dysregulate the metabolic pathways of cells, can potentially lead to the development of cancer. The mutation leads to malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia and glioma. Current treatment for IDH-related malignancies includes IDH inhibitors, epigenetic modulators, immunotherapies, and cancer vaccination. The development of a cancer vaccine requires the discovery of a suitable epitope being found. Newly developed deep learning algorithms have the ability to predict protein structures and thus have the potential to help discover suitable epitopes for cancer vaccines. This study discusses the structure of IDH and gives an overview of how mutated IDH can potentially cause malignancies. In addition, this study proposed potential approaches with deep learning to aid the investigation of preventing IDH using cancer vaccines.
Immunotherapy is a form of treatment for cancer that works by provoking the immune system of the body into tracking down and destroying cancer cells. CAR-T-CT is a treatment that makes use of CAR-T cells (CARs), which are T cells (T-Cs) that have been modified in some way by the incorporation of engineered synthetic receptors. This therapy is designed to destroy cells that express a specific target antigen, and its primary objective is to do so by locating and killing those cells. Due to the fact that Immune CPI inhibits the production of specific proteins (checkpoint protein) on immune cells as well as on cancer cells thereby preventing the immune system from combating cancer, Immune CPI are used to treat cancer. By inhibiting the activity of these proteins, CPI is able to contribute to the process of stimulating the immune system to specifically target and destroy cancer cells. However, there are still some limitations that exist, and these have the potential to reduce the effectiveness of the treatment or produce some side effects that are life-threatening. This article makes a few suggestions for innovative steps that could be taken in order to both improve the current state of affairs and find answers to any problems that may arise in the near or distant future. The article makes these suggestions in order to improve the current state of affairs and find answers to any problems that may arise in the future.
Heart Failure (HF) is one of the major causes of death from various heart diseases and is a common complex clinical syndrome. HF has a high incidence and its 5-year survival rate is similar to that of patients with malignant tumors, which has a serious impact on the quality of life of patients and has become a major public health problem of worldwide concern. At this stage, the clinical treatment of HF is still mainly based on drug therapy. As clinical research progresses, more and more new HF therapeutic drugs are being introduced one after another, new uses of drugs are being discovered and clinical options for drug use are becoming more and more diverse. The drug therapy for HF is also changing from monotherapy to multi-target and multi-mechanism combined mode of action. Innovative mechanical therapy products are also bringing new strategies to the treatment of HF. This article reviews the medication treatment and device implantation strategies for the clinical treatment of HF.
Chronic diseases, such as sleep apnea and Parkinson's disease, are characterized by insidious onset, complex etiology, slow course, and easy-to-cause other complications, which seriously affect life quality of the patients. Real-time monitoring of biological information can effectively reveal the occurrence and development of chronic diseases. It also helps in aspects of early diagnosis and treating options. In current study, the dynamic change rules of biological signals caused by chronic diseases have been explored, from which one can realize the auxiliary diagnosis and evaluation of these diseases. Attention has been focused on physiological fluctuation and coordination of biological information similarity, including pulse fluctuation detection in patients with sleep apnea and plantar pressure coordination assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease. In the biological similarity study, the heart rate from sleep apnea patients has been recorded two minutes before and after breath pulse. Information of the average plantar pressure from both foot of Parkinson patients has also been recorded and analyzed. Results show that: for sleep apnea patients, their heart rate fluctuation level has significantly reduced. That is because the human body enhances its sympathetic nerve activity to open the airway. The heart rate starts to change periodically, resulting in its fluctuations tending to be consistent. Compared with ordinary people, PD patients have weaker biological information similarities of plantar pressure on one foot. Also, information similarity between left and right feet of PD patients was more diversified. It revealed that the left and right foot plantar pressure fluctuated more and tended to be more consistent together with gait disorder and weakened balance. Such results show that the similarity of biological information can effectively excavate the fluctuation and coordination of physiological signals, and effectively contribute to the recognition and auxiliary diagnosis of chronic diseases. Data mining methods applied here helps to explore the physiological and pathological mechanism of the studied chronic diseases and sheds light on early diagnosis and severity assessment. It becomes more promising to develop algorithms, software, and hardware systems that is helpful for patients and facilitate promotion of human life quality and health cause.
This paper uses the main concept of centrality accompanied by the theory of “the strength of weak ties” to explain how social networks facilitate the spread of major diseases. The major diseases that this paper would take a look at are the COVID virus, smallpox, and cholera. Be-fore doing so, a brief introduction would be made and the paper would infer some research that utilizes social network models and helps the paper to further elaborate. Eventually, the paper would conclude with the reasons if applying social networks to the study of the spread of diseases could help with understanding the spread or not. As well as the fact to see what factors could interfere with the process.
Greek yogurt has become increasingly popular among consumers in recent years because of its high protein and low fat properties. There are two main processes for the production of Greek yogurt, i.e. whey filtration process and non-whey filtration process. The whey filtration process is to separate the whey from the regular yogurt; the non-whey filtration process is to add whey protein to the regular yogurt to increase the protein content of the yogurt. In China, due to the short time of developing Greek yogurt, the utilization efficiency of whey is not high, so the production is still mainly based on non-filtered whey process. At this stage, many companies have developed various flavors of Greek yogurt to meet the consumers' demand for different flavors and tastes of Greek yogurt. In this paper, by comparing the raw material ratios and processes of plain Greek yogurt with fruit flavored Greek yogurt, rose flavored Greek yogurt and chia seed Greek yogurt, the results obtained show that the added flavor additives have a small effect on the raw material ratios of Greek yogurt production, and the nature of the added flavor additives will have an effect on the time they are added in the production, resulting in a product with uniform texture and smooth taste.
Lactose intolerance is a digestive problem with a high incidence worldwide. The disease occurs mainly due to a lack or deficiency of lactase in the body, which prevents effective digestion of lactose. Congenital lactose intolerance is caused by a genetic defect that prevents the body from producing enough lactase, and its incidence is relatively low. Secondary lactose intolerance is caused by other gastrointestinal disorders, such as celiac disease, and is relatively common. Functional lactose intolerance is the most common form of lactose intolerance, in which lactase activity is reduced or lactose absorption is impaired, but there is no apparent organic disease. This article lists several possible solutions for different types of lactose intolerance based on the latest research. In studies of lactose intolerance, scientists have found that the rate of lactose intolerance varies widely across populations, with significant differences in prevalence by race and region. In addition, several studies have shown a link between lactose intolerance and the composition of the gut microbiome. Therefore, the study of lactose intolerance has important implications for understanding how the human digestive system works and the relationship between the gut microbiome and health.
Protein, one of the most basic structures of biological molecules, have its own four level structure that corresponds with its function. The structures make every protein unique and diverse. Studies of protein must be based on the understanding on protein's structure. Thus, methods must be applied to predict the protein structure. Old methods include homology modeling that are both expensive and time consuming. With the development of modern technology, new methods such as Foldit and AlphaFold was invented. The report would introduce these methods and comparisons would be made between these methods.The introduction aims to improve the understanding about protein prediction for relative researchers.
G protein-coupled receptor can be written in GPCR, it has a big great family and this species include 800 human genes, it become the important part of human body. Although each species has their own unique skills, it can make different kind of medicine that can save human’s life. And then there's the G-protein-coupled receptor mechanism. The GPCR desensitization regulator - arrestin was further analyzed, and researchers discovered that GPCRs could be activated not only through the G-protein-dependent pathway but also through the non-G-protein-dependent pathway, known as the -inhibitor pathway, to control the ingestion and desensitization throughout vivo and even start a new wave of signal transduction. The development of G-protein-coupled receptor drugs followed. GPCR is strongly associated to pathological conditions and has an essential function in cell signal transmission. More than 40% of the medicines on the market today target GPCR, which is the reached a high point family of pharmacological targets. The intracellular effector proteins (G proteins, etc.) that are activated by the GPCR play an important role in the regulation of its physiological function.
Chromatin Transposase Accessibility Sequencing is a new high-throughput sequencing technique developed by Professor William Greenleaf in 2013 which uses DNA transposase to probe chromatin accessibility with Tn5 transposase. This technique, which is simpler and more sensitive than DNase-seq, MNase-seq and FAIRE-seq and requires fewer cells, has been used to study chromatin accessibility using Tn5 transposase. ATAC-seq is important for the study of epigenetic molecular mechanisms because it can map chromatin accessibility on a genome-wide scale, compare open chromatin regions in different tumour samples, compare differences in transcription factor binding between treatments, reveal nucleosome localisation information and transcription factor binding sites, and can be used to locate specific unknown transcription factors, which can be used in combination with other methods to screen for specific transcription factors of interest. It is possible to combine this approach with others to investigate specific regulatory factors. Herein, ATAC-seq is systemically profiled to present that ATAC-seq has enormous potential to drive future discoveries in the field of genomics and beyond.
Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances, also known as pollutants, into the environment. As all living things depend on clean air, water, and land for survival, pollution is a significant problem on a worldwide scale. In addition, heavy metals are the most essential and common contaminants in soil environments. These pollutants are widely diffused, harmful to human health, and persistent in soil environments. Owing to the circumstances locally and worldwide, pollution assessment and bacterial remediation techniques for polluted soil have gained substantial attention and become essential. Here, this review covers four bacterial processes involved in bacterial remediation technology, including heavy metal adsorption and adhesion, redox transformation of heavy metals, and the function of mycorrhizal fungi. Also, a case study of a detailed experiment on pollution treatment is presented. This research aims to eliminate heavy metal pollution by using bacterial remediation technology in order to save human beings and the environment since long-term exposure to heavy metals can cause lung cancer and bone fractures in humans, thus posing a significant security threat and hidden danger to human society.
This meta-analysis explores the potential benefits of bird interspecies cooperation, which is less common than cooperation within a species but can yield more complex advantages. The study identifies various forms of interspecies cooperation, such as alarm calls, foraging flocks, and mobbing behavior, and suggests that these behaviors are primarily geared towards enhancing foraging efficiency and reducing predation risks. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the intricacies of animal behavior and can inform efforts to conserve and manage ecosystems. Studies on bird interspecies cooperation can provide valuable insights into the behavioral dynamics of different bird species and their interactions with other animals, which can be useful in understanding the intricacies of ecological systems. This knowledge can have significant implications for conservation efforts, as well as sustainable agricultural practices, particularly regarding pest control. Additionally, research on bird interspecies cooperation can inform our understanding of human behavior and contribute to environmental education efforts.
Due to the global pandemic, we are producing a large number of discarded masks every day. At the same time, some of them will find their way into the ocean and affect the Marine ecology. This paper will analyze the damage of waste masks to the ocean, and give solutions for reference. Through case analysis, this paper concludes that waste masks have brought certain impacts on various Marine organisms and destroyed the stability of Marine ecosystems, but there are still some solutions to improve the problem. This article will provide solutions that can be adopted by governments today, as well as some directions and goals that can be developed in the future. In the future, we can better protect the Marine ecology and pay attention to environmental protection although there will be some cost burden for the government. To protect animals while improving the overall environment of the earth on which human live.
The greatest achievement of the 20th century is the invention and use of antibiotics. However, the abuse use of antibiotics caused by poor regulation has become an urgent issue worldwide, and has risen to be a threat to the global public health, bringing a great financial burden on society. From the perspective of the world, the United States has a long history of development in the discovery, application and regulatory process of antibiotics, forming sufficient cognition and relatively perfect countermeasures. Although the European Union and its member states started the measures to curb antibiotic resistance late, they also caught up and gradually established a complete monitoring system. As the largest developing country, China still has a lot to work on, especially the construction of basic medical facilities and systems. It can be seen that the importance of antibiotics use and management have become a global consensus. This article elaborated and focus the current situation of antibiotic resistance in the United States, the European Union and China as well as the corresponding countermeasures taken by each country. Countries should collaborate together and establish a global system to monitor the use of antibiotics in order to control antibiotic resistance.
Cancer is a major problem plaguing human society today. With the research and development of nano-drug delivery technology and new non-surgical treatment methods, many types of early cancers can be cured or effectively controlled. However, the current treatment methods for advanced cancer are still limited, and efficient early cancer identification is crucial for enhancing patients’ prognosis and survival rates. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray technologies are currently the mainstream and generally applicable means of early cancer detection. However, there is a lack of unified comparison and interpretation for their respective applicable cancer detection types. Herein, the paper first provides a comprehensive comparison and explanation of the working principles of the two technologies, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Further, this article introduces the application of MRI and X-ray technology in the early detection of different common cancer types, including lung, breast, and brain cancers. The paper found that MRI is crucial in the early detection of brain cancer, and X-ray is a common method for lung cancer screening. With further advances in technology, cancer-related deaths can be further curbed.
With the increasing aging population and prevalence of chronic diseases, the demand for vital signs monitoring is becoming more and more crucial. Pulse wave, blood oxygen, and respiratory wave are the three fundamental vital sign indicators that can provide essential health information and play a critical role in disease diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is increasingly important to utilize digital signal processing techniques to accurately monitor and analyze these vital signs. This paper talks about the how to measure the signal of the cardiopulmonary system with the digital devices and how to use the MATLAB to analyze the date to give a perspective about monitoring the health information.
stomata are channels for respiration of plants, and they are vital to keep it unblocked. In nature, in order to avoid the surface stomata being covered by water and ensure the normal respiration of stomata, plant leaves in nature are realized by a variety of methods, among which the difference surface wettability plays a crucial role in the distribution density of stomata. To explore the relationship between the wettability and the stomata density, this thesis investigates how the top and bottom density of stomata on plant surface affect the survivability of elm leaves (plant in the Ulmaceae family). Here, we find its lower surface with superhydrophobic function is covered by large amount of stomata. While the bottom surface with hydrophilic performance is smooth and covered by a small amount stomata. This research reveals the significant of waterproof function to the survival of leaf and has potential application in air exchange underwater.
The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is currently spreading throughout the world. The severity of the situation has increased efforts to create efficient prevention and treatment strategies. SARS-CoV-2 has been the subject of numerous experiments, and as a result, scientists now understand it better. Usually, the virus exits the cell through exocytosis. However, SARS-CoV-2 utilizes deacidified lysosomes as a means to egress from the infected cell.This proposal shows a deep understanding of lysosomal viral secretion and elaborates on the impact of the lysosomal proton pump, which functions to regulate the pH value of the endo-lysosomal environment, on lysosome functioning. Experiment are proposed to test the ability of a lysosomal proton pump inhibitor to impede the egress of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and analyze its potential application in a therapeutic target.
In March of each year, dormant spores of filamentous cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flosaquae) responsible for algal blooms in Dianchi Lake start to revive as the temperature reaches around 14 degrees Celsius. The apparent succession phenomenon between filamentous cyanobacteria and microcystis algae has made it one of the dominant species of eutrophication in Dianchi Lake. So far, China has invested more than 50 billion RMB in the treatment of eutrophication in Dianchi Lake, but the situation remains far from optimistic, with water quality only being classified as Class IV. To achieve sustainable development in Dianchi Lake water quality treatment and restoration, it is important to consider the economic value of the treatment products while implementing the remediation. Filamentous cyanobacteria, one of the main pollutants of eutrophication in water bodies, can be used to extract AFA-phycocyanin, which has been identified as a complex of C-phycocyanin/allophycocyanin, phycobiliproteins (including the chromophore phycoviolobilin), AFA-photosynthetic pigments, and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA). These extracts can be used in nutritional cosmetics and pharmaceutical compositions for the prevention or treatment of diseases, disorders, or symptoms involving acute or chronic inflammation, oxidative denaturation of cellular or tissue, or uncontrolled cell proliferation. By extracting and processing filamentous cyanobacteria, its economic value can be increased, treatment costs can be reduced, and contributions can be made to the sustainable development of algal bloom pollution control in Dianchi Lake.
The discovery of dihydrolucilactaene as a secondary metabolite in fungus Fusarium sp. RK97-94 showed a 100-fold increase in potency in antimalarial activity compared with its analogue—lucilactaene. Although dihydrolucilactaene shows a high level of antimalarial activity and had been shown to be a promising drug lead candidate for malaria treatment due to its highly selective cytotoxicity towards malaria-causing pathogens and negligible cytotoxicity towards other cells at lower concentrations, its complete biosynthesis pathway in Fusarium sp. RK97-94 is still to be determined, making mass production of the molecule via biological means less than desirable. In this work, we propose a complete chemical synthesis route for dihydrolucilactaene via a series of reactions involving commercially available reagents for the potential industrial application and mass production of dihydrolucilactaene.
Abnormal cell growth in the main part of the stomach is what usually leads to gastric cancer. 44% of newly diagnosed gastric cancer cases worldwide occur in China. Overall, gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death. In recent years, some progress has been made in treating gastric cancer, and it has been found through research that hereditary gastric cancer does exist. The treatment options for gastric cancer will be analyzed and studied in this article. The various stages of gastric cancer will be introduced, along with the various treatment options based on the staging. Through research, early, middle, and late stages of gastric cancer can be distinguished. Early gastroscopy, a CT scan, positron emission tomography, local excision in the middle and late stages, chemotherapy, immunology, and medications for treatment are a few of the treatment options for gastric cancer. Different gastric cancers and patients use various diagnostic and therapeutic approaches depending on the type of cancer they have. Patients can better combat tumor cells and increase their five-year survival rate by using various diagnostic techniques for various time periods. Gastric cancer diagnostic research is anticipated to significantly lower the incidence of the disease with better early detection and chemoprevention for patients.
As sessile organisms, plants have evolved sophisticated regulatory systems because they must respond to a variety of environmental stimuli. Salt stress, in particular, affects the growth of crop plants and limits crop yield in many saline regions around the world. Therefore, developing salt-tolerant crop cultivars has great significance in global food security. Epigenetic regulation, which contributes to phenotype plasticity without altering the genotype, have important roles in how plant respond to salt stress. Moreover, the heritable nature of epigenetic modifications makes it possible to maintain the information and pass it down to the next generation as stress memory, thus enables the plant and its progeny to cope with recuring stress more efficiently. This paper provides an overview of major achievements in this field by analyzing previous studies, and concludes that major epigenetic regulatory pathways, including histone modifications, DNA modifications and small RNAs, are essential in plant salt stress response, and further insights into these mechanisms are of great value.
Neuropixels technology has revolutionized neuroscience research by allowing scientists to obtain physiological firing data from single neurons in the central nervous system with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. While the technology is already highly advanced, researchers continue to work on improving it further. In this article, the authors summarize several current studies on improvements and applications of Neuropixels probes. This technology is used to capture the characteristic waveforms of neurons in different brain regions, record particular types of neurons, and acquire detailed data. The improvement of the Neuropixels is the AMIE, which solves the problem of implanting the device in unrestrained mice and recycling, enriching the electrodes and the recording sites on each Neuropixels device. By discussion and investigation, the current conduct and some refinements of the Neuropixels are demonstrated in this brief review. However, fragility and ethical problems are still inevitable obstacles of Neuropixels, and their potential harm to human beings still deserves attention.
Social behavior plays an essential role in our daily life, not only in humans but also in other species, contacting with others through sociability can help organisms to contact with comrades and distinguish surrounding environments to survive well in different situations. This paper will focus on some techniques that are used widely in detecting neurons and the role of the nervous system in conducting animals' social behavior through mouse models to provide new ideas for the treatment of social disorders.
As the largest freshwater lake and the largest connecting lake in the Yangtze River basin, Poyang Lake stores abundant water resources, and undertakes multiple ecological functions. The water pollution of Poyang Lake is related to the ecological environment of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and also affects the regional economic and social development. After sorting out and summarising other literatures, we analysed the main pollutants in Poyang Lake. The discharge of some industrial waste and frequent human activities are the main reasons for the increase of total phosphorus nitrogen, heavy metal pollutants and microplastic pollutants in Poyang Lake.
Seabirds play essential roles in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems, but oil spill and habitat loss through reclamation and degradation have long been adversely affecting their populations worldwide, and thus affecting the well-being of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. In this study, using Bohai Bay in north China, a semi-closed continental sea where oil and gas activities and habitat loss are happening at a rapid pace as an example, threats for seabirds and their overlap with highly-risked areas in terms of an oil spill are reviewed. The results showed that while Bohai Bay is one of the most important sites for seabirds and waterbirds on the eastern China coast, oil spills and habitat loss are affecting the population of the birds. We concluded that sea birds in Bohai are at severe risks of oil spill and habitat loss, oil spill risks are especially high for autumn migrants, residents and winter birds, while habitat loss harms less ocean-dependent species. Accordingly, more focused and oriented efforts should be done in establishing conservation areas among Bohai Strait and the north side of the Shandong Peninsula and the western Bohai coast where overlap between bird diversity hotspots and potential exposure to habitat loss and oil spill occurs. And a general insight into how are given species affected by the two factors is given. This study enhances our understanding of seabird’s vulnerabilities, what has been neglected, and what should be more well-noticed in future conservational endeavors.
Every year during the June migration season, many animals in the Serengeti Savannah of East Africa begin to migrate southward. Whenever the climate alternates between wet and dry, herds of hornbills and zebras make a spectacular migration from the Serengeti Savanna in Tanzania northwest to the Masai Mara Savanna in Kenya. This paper looks at the genetic differences between zebras and antelopes from a biological perspective. This study is about the migratory habits and processes of hornbills and zebras in the Serengeti Savanna of East Africa. Zebras and horses are closely related, but over the course of a long period of evolution and genetic variation, zebras gradually diverged from the genus Equus to form a unique zebra subgenus. It is a species under the genus Equus. It is hoped that this study will give scholars a different understanding of the two animals and call on people to start the importance of protecting wild animals.
In recent decades, the alarming rate of amphibian disappearance has become a pressing environmental issue. The primary cause of this decline and extinction is habitat destruction, posing a significant threat to global biological diversity. This destruction is often the result of habitat fragmentation, wherein contiguous habitats are split into smaller, increasingly isolated patches. Transportation infrastructure, particularly roads, is a significant contributor to the fragmentation. Roads have a huge impact on economic development and ecology, connecting urban areas, rural areas and countries while promoting global economic development. However, at the same time, the accelerated road construction creates barriers, leading to increased wildlife death, habitat degradation and act as a contributor of species extinction. Amphibians are notably liable to road impact because of their unique behavior traits. The relationship between habitat fragmentation, accessible habitat, and populations is complex and multifaceted, with different species responding differently. Therefore, it is crucial to continue the exploration to counteract the problems of habitat fragmentation, the decline in amphibian abundance and biodiversity caused by the development of transportation infrastructure.
Both humans and dogs have a high incidence of mitral regurgitation with increasing age. Nowadays, because of the improvement of life quality, people pay more attention to the health of themselves and their pets and pursue a higher and better life. This paper mainly introduces the comparison of mitral regurgitation between human and canine. MR Can be divided into acute bicuspid insufficiency and chronic mitral insufficiency according to the progression of the disease. Acute mitral insufficiency: mild cases can only slight labor dyspnea, severe cases can quickly develop acute left heart failure, even acute pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock. Chronic mitral insufficiency. The degree of clinical symptoms experienced by patients with chronic mitral insufficiency is influenced by the degree of mitral regurgitation, the rate at which the condition progresses, the amount of left atrial and pulmonary venous pressure, and other factors, the level of pulmonary artery pressure, and the combination of other membrane damage and coronary artery disease. Heart structure, routine interventions, diagnosis, treatment, and MR Phases were analyzed. Through comparative analysis, this paper can better let people understand and pay attention to the disease of mitral regurgitation in dogs.
With the development of food processing, public concern was aroused by safety issues regarding the application of artificial additives. Ultra-ultra-processed food is made through a process by adding additives such as antioxidants, preservatives, and coloring agents to modify the properties of the food product and cater to customer demands. This essay focuses on food chemistry to research how additives present in ultra-processed food affect health. Moreover, common food additives used in food processing and their potential threats will be discussed. The fact is that many cases have proved that sodium benzoate, vitamin C, vitamin E, Yellow No.5, and Yellow No.6 do have an impact on human health. Other types of additives such as those present in nature do not have a significant relationship with cancer molarity and health problems. There need further studies on the relationship between synthesized additives and carcinogenicity. The purpose of studying chemical additives is to understand the chemical properties behind food additives will inform people of the actual harmful ingredients in ultra-processed food and avoid large dose intake.
Class-1 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules plays an important role in the immune system by exposing antigens to T cells for identification and destruction. Cancer cells often evade the immune system by downregulating MHC expression, avoiding detection from immune cells. Therefore, Class-1 MHC molecules are potential targets for cancer treatments. Recent studies have shown that increasing MHC expression in cancer cells can enhance T cell recognition and enhance the efficacy of immunotherapies, such as checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell transfer therapies. In addition, some therapeutic approaches are aimed at directly targeting Class-1 MHC molecules. This paper summarizes the mechanism of MHC expression, the current status of cancer treatments, relevant research status of class-1 MHC as a target in cancer therapy, and how this technique can be improved. These findings highlight the potential of Class-1 MHC as a promising target for cancer treatment, and further research is needed to fully exploit this target for the benefit of cancer patients.
Traditional low-alcoholic beverages were promoted to be healthy drinks with multiple bio-functions. Research into Japanese sake and Chinese rice wine (CRW) in terms of the preparation process, bacteria diversity, authentic quality control and bio functions is of significance. Japanese sake and CRW are representative alcoholic beverages which were proven to bring health benefits. For instance, sake was found to contain bio-functional components of CRW were found to obtain antioxidant activities. In this article, the production mechanisms and their bioactive components in Japanese sake and CRW were discussed. Red yeast rice is made by fermenting the rice with Monascus. However, commercial lovastatin (a structure that similar to monacolin K) is recently reported to be illegally added to common red yeast rice to meet drug quality standards, herein, there are many safety issues of rice wine, and it is especially important to dress the authentication assessment of the CRW. A new era of CRW as a low-alcoholic healthy beverage is coming. Prospects for the future development of CRW, with an emphasis on the absorption of the successful regulation experience from Japanese sake productions which are with high reputations worldwide, are presented.
Coffee especially cold brew coffee is widely popular around the world, so people have conducted deep research on how to make a cup of coffee. This paper studies the types of coffee beans, the chemical composition of coffee beans, the roasting degree of coffee beans and the extraction technology. Among them, there are a lot of biochemistry reactions such as Maillard and Caramel reaction. Moreover the extraction technology focuses on the cold extraction technology, which is compared with the hot extraction technology in the content of flavor substances. In addition, the flavoring substances are matched with their aroma to compare the flavor differences between hot brew and cold brew coffee. Finally, the adjustable influencing factors in the cold extraction technology were studied and summarized to provide theoretical reference and practical guidance for the flavor improvement and industrial production of cold brew coffee. Furthermore, there will emerge other problems of coffee producing which will be issues to solve in the future.
Seaweed oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates derived from various types of seaweed. They are widely studied due to their numerous potential health benefits for humans. There are several reasons why studying seaweed oligosaccharides is important. Firstly, seaweed is a renewable and sustainable resource, and it can be harvested without damaging the environment. Additionally, seaweed contains high health value and high levels of minerals, vitamins, and other bioactive compounds, which makes it a valuable source of nutrition. They can also help to modulate the immune system, improve gut health, and lower cholesterol levels. Research suggests that seaweed oligosaccharides may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of various diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and cancer. They have also been discovered to have a number of applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. In conclusion, studying seaweed oligosaccharides is important because they offer numerous potential health benefits for humans and have a wide range of applications in various industries.
COVID-19 is a virus-borne infectious disease that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome and was first found in Wuhan, China. It was widely spread all over the world and caused a huge number of deaths. Beyond that, the COVID-19 epidemic has also had a huge impact on the mental state of the population. People's mental state may become more negative. These negative mental conditions would likely trigger some unpleasant behavior. Thus, it is necessary to pay more attention to the mental effect of the pandemic. The aim of this article is to introduce the symptoms of each mental disorder separately, suggest some possible consequences when these symptoms occur, and discuss the possible factors that will influence these disorders. Then, this research will indicate some treatments and suggestions.
Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders in the elderly. The disease has a long course and brings a heavy burden to individuals, families and society, and there is no clinical cure for it. Currently, in families, family members often act as caregivers to take care of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Past studies have examined the care patterns, roles, strategies, and influence of family caregivers on Alzheimer's patients. However, there is little literature review to understand the care mode, effect and influence of family caregivers on Alzheimer's patients. Therefore, this study sorted out and recognized the impact and the role of current family caregivers' interventions on Alzheimer's patients. A range of intervention strategies and models employed in family care are included as well. It was shown that family caregivers can effectively alleviate the cognitive decline of Alzheimer's patients through cognitive-related intervention models and can help them return to normal life.
Food production is an important factor in causing environmental pollution, and the processing of food contamination information data, classification, and ultimately rating of the degree of food contamination is an important way to recognize food contamination. Rating the environmental friendliness of food can help people to choose more environmentally friendly food in their daily life and allow companies, scholars, and research organizations to recognize which food can be reduced by technological advances. This study focuses on the contamination rating of foods that are most referenced to help scholars and people understand the environmental contamination capabilities of different foods. This study focuses on the different foods in the Kaggle data, and their contamination aspects of the data were processed. The study began with the classification of foods. This study uses data from Kaggle on various environmental pollutants of food. It uses the linear regression model in the R Studio to select the most suitable pollution objects for evaluation. Finally, this study scored different foods according to different contamination aspects and obtained the following results: 1) detailed food scoring graphs, 2) animal-based food has a greater total contamination capacity than plant-based food.
As a non-renewable energy source, oil has an unshakable position in the development of human beings. Still, no one has noticed that the oil buried deep in the ground is also inextricably linked to the birds flying in the air. This article focuses on how oil, except diet, has been linked to bird deaths. The first research direction is to study the feather structure and function of birds. It is concluded that oil will damage the functionality of feathers and make the feathers of birds unable to function. The second research direction is about the inversely proportional relationship between the flight speed of birds and oil and the directly proportional relationship between energy consumption and oil. It is concluded that oil will affect the speed and energy consumption of birds and make birds more vulnerable to predation by natural enemies. The third research direction is the analysis of the damage degree of oil to birds' eggs and young. Based on these studies, it is possible to find out feasible methods that can effectively reduce the harm of oil extraction operations to birds without affecting normal human activities. Let birds have a way to reproduce healthily and safely without hindering human development.
People's lives are still greatly impacted by the novel coronavirus outbreak, which has no effective treatment; however, the SARS virus two decades ago quickly disappeared. The study aims to find out how the SARS virus spreads, and also compares the SARS virus to the novel coronavirus. In the whole study, the author used the SIR model and the SEIRP model. It also combines specific cases of specific cities. Finally, through analysis, it is found that the epidemic of COVID-19 can be defeated by mass immunization and improving medical treatment. And how to prevent the spread of novel coronavirus.
The theory of groups exists in many fields of mathematics and has made a great impact on many fields of mathematics. In this article, this paper first introduces the history of group theory and elementary number theory, and then lists the definitions of group, ring, field and the most basic prime and integer and divisor in number theory that need to be used in this article. Then from the definitions, step by step, Euler's theorem, Bézout's lemma, Wilson's theorem and Fermat's Little theorem in elementary number theory are proved by means of definitions of group theory, cyclic groups, and even polynomials over domains. Finally, some concluding remarks are made. Many number theory theorems can be proved directly by the method of group theory without the action of tricks in number theory. Number theory is the thinking of certain special groups (e.g., (Z,+),(Z,×)), so the methods of group theory work well inside number theory.
In recent years, the role of big data technology in various industries has become increasingly prominent. With the rise of the pet trend, the pet medical industry has been developing rapidly. However, the current application of big data in the pet medical industry is single and elementary. This study aims to improve the current situation of big data technology in the pet medical industry and build a pet medical information management system supported by Spark computing framework, HDFS, and HBase. This study uses descriptive research method and comparative analysis method to prove that big data analysis based on Spark framework can greatly improve the efficiency of treatment and reduce the time cost. The information management system based on Spark framework can realize the rapid storage and calculation of massive data, reduce the technical threshold of data application area in pet medical industry, and help to promote the accelerated development of big data industry and pet medical industry.
With economic growth, ship transportation plays a major role in global logistics. The optimization of the ship form based on minimum resistance has been the research focus of ship builders for hundreds of years, but the actual process is quite complex, which also brings huge benefits. Ship drag reduction is not only conducive to industrial economic growth, but also helpful to improve the global energy consumption and environmental problems. In this paper, the Reynolds number and the Froude number are obtained by a dimensional analysis, and then the data are obtained from the model ship experiment with the same Froude number by the law of similarity. The total resistance is subdivided into four kinds with different causes, namely the friction resistance, wave-making resistance, form resistance, and additional resistance. In this way, the ship resistance can be reduced more scientifically and efficiently.
As the world has grown rapidly over the past century, so has the aviation industry as a whole. This has led to a huge volume of aviation market and at the same time the aviation market excessive reliance on fuel, with a consequent huge environmental impact. As a global community, we are moving towards an electrified transport architecture. And some studies of aircraft propulsion systems have shown that electric and hybrid electric propulsion systems offer significant benefits over conventional fuel propulsion systems. However, there are also some researches have shown that while some electrified propulsion strategies can result in significant reductions in CO2 emissions, the overall cost of the aircraft can also increase significantly. The economic efforts made in terms of purely electric and hybrid propulsion have not been significant, so this technology is not yet in significant use in the aviation market. This paper considers some of these systems and analyses their structural advantages, technical requirements, etc. This is followed by a discussion of the current difficulties and future trends in the application of purely electric and hybrid propulsion systems. It is also significant to convey that the current immaturity of this technology and the areas for improvement.
In this day and age, people's lives are inextricably linked to electricity, which is being used more and more in everyday life. The traditional transmission of electrical energy usually uses materials such as metal wires and cables as the transmission medium, and the losses and potential damage (line deterioration, tip discharges) caused by this transmission medium are inevitable. The introduction of radio has been very effective in reducing this situation, and the development of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology has seen three major developments since then, with Tesla lighting a phosphorescent lamp at the Colombian World's Fair in 1893, igniting hopes for WPT. This new way of transmitting electrical energy has expanded the imagination of people in terms of power supply methods by making it possible to provide more freedom in situations where cable charging is not suitable.The working theory, fundamental design, and potential applications of wireless energy transmission technology are covered in this study. By doing this, it offers insight into the development and use of wireless energy transmission technology as it is now. In the end, it is envisaged that the market will adopt wireless energy transfer technology extensively.
At 9:00 Beijing time on October 15, 2003, the Long March II F rocket was successfully launched into space, and the ShenZhou V manned spacecraft carried by it was also China's first manned rocket launched into space. Yang Liwei, the ShenZhou V astronaut, became China's first astronaut , which also showed the great progress of China's space industry. This paper studies the Long March II Series rocket piloted by Yang Liwei, and analyzes the forces on the rockets in the expected state from the aspects of aerodynamics, basic mechanics, and gravity through the Long March II rocket parameters published to the public. The final data shows that air resistance and gravity will cause a great consumption of the rocket fuel.
A constructive Function is a computer program that transforms a Constructive Real Number (CRN) into another CRN. A left number is a program that generates an increasing sequence of rational numbers with an upper bound. We use algorithmic functions to generate CRNs and Left numbers. In this essay, we will prove the continuity of such functions on Left numbers in topological space with the base of right rays.
With the continuous improvement of science and technology, optimization has become an indispensable and important part of people's lives. Optimization problems also help people find the optimal solution in their lives. It is necessary to mention the practical application of optimization problems in reality. The purpose of the experiment in this paper is mainly to find out whether the optimization problem is far away from people through practical application examples, or whether it is closely related, and to explore whether it helps people's lives. This experiment is a verification of this problem. This experiment mainly uses Python and the gradient descent method to prove the practicality and efficiency of optimization problems. Specifically, it is based on the background of buying a house. The data comes mainly from practical examples of Guangdong, Baoan. The results are also obvious, successfully demonstrating that the practical application of optimization problems can improve people's lives, improve efficiency, and are closely related to people's lives.
Over 1.6 percent of senior citizens who are 65 years or older in the United States have Parkinson's disease, which leads to economic, psychological, and physical problems for the patient and their families. Parkinson's disease patients usually have tremors in their hands, which takes away their ability to eat independently. According to research, the main food source for seniors is liquid food, since it is easier to digest. To solve this, this research created a prototype of an inexpensive liquid feeding machine for Parkinson's patients that is easy to use and install. This study used 3D-printed parts, laser-cut parts, and off-the-shelf parts. The feeding machine can replace the job of a caretaker so that seniors will be able to eat independently.
Mobile games have become a popular form of leisure and entertainment around the world. China's economy is growing as mobile games take a larger share of the country's mobile gaming landscape. Many people's efforts have gone to waste as online scammers steal their game accounts, private information, and virtual property. There are many problems in network security, such as increasing trust in fraudulent accounts; posing as an active party to swindle player information, transmission of Trojan viruses. Therefore, this paper puts forward countermeasures to these network security problems, summarizes the application of encryption technology and identity authentication technology in the transmission of personal privacy information, and proposes the use of part of the RSA encryption algorithm. So as far as it is possible to reduce the network game security problems and improve the network anti-theft system defense ability.
In 2020, Airbus tested an plane called "albatross", which is a small version of Airbus A321. It is made of carbon composite and glass fiber reinforced resin and has been continuously developed in Felton, South Gloucestershire, England for more than 20 months. This paper describes various plane designs using variable technology, and introduces the albatross as an example. And the nonlinear dynamic characteristics and aerodynamic interference caused by the deformed parts will be discussed. Finally, the general and special challenges of these problems to civil plane operation are summarized. The research results of this paper can provide theoretical reference for the design of deformable civil plane in the future.
As a drawback to the widely accepted standard Big Bang model, the Flatness problem has been highly controversial. Due to the presence of dark matter and difficulty in measuring distances between galaxies, the universe's density in the present day has high uncertainty. There are three models consistent with the cosmological principle. The Flatness problem originated from the uncertainty of the density parameter and the puzzling fine-tuning of omega and the point of the Big Bang; its potential to identify a shortcoming in the standard cosmological model has drawn considerable attention from the scientific community. Different approaches were taken as attempts to resolve this problem. However, arguments against the Flatness problem have also been proposed, disproving the existence of the Flatness problem from the perspective of classical cosmology. This paper examines the Flatness problem by quantitatively describing the flatness problem, presenting the historical development of the Flatness problem, analyzing past approaches to the Flatness problem, and considering arguments against the problem from the perspective of classical cosmology.
Glauber Monte Carlo model is frequently used in analyzing high-energy heavy ion collisions. This paper focused on implementing the Glauber model in the simulation of two 208Pb particle collisions and furthered the computation of the basic structure of heavy ion collisions. Not only did this research give a method to calculate the impact parameter and number of participating nucleons, but it also discussed the calculation of participant eccentricity and triangularity. Description of assumptions that goes into the computation are included, and a comparison of theoretical result and estimation are delivered.
The work briefly summarizes the Standard Big Bang Model, with some new frontier works demonstrating a more realistic Big Bang scenario. The main contributions are from the development of String Theory and Cosmology. The deduction and establishment of the Big Bang Theory undergo continuous contributions, from the microwave background radiation and the observation of Hubble's constant, the first impression resulting in the basic structure of the theory, to the later works, such as Friedman's equation, which introduced the theory to be rational. While there are still many details waiting to be fully understood, in this summary, we review the extensive bang process from the perspective of frontier research in string theory, both singular and non-singular models, and the related scenarios derived from the standard model of the big bang theory. We also examine the evidence supporting the model and the pre-big bang cosmology and provide a brief overview of the universe's fate based on the trend of Hubble's constant about string theory. The scenarios under different evolutive trends of Hubble's constant, related briefly to the string theory, were roughly calculated and proved to demonstrate the final state, or the universe's fate, where there is evidence for an always-existing universe. We also demonstrate the possible scenario of a cyclic model, which may be an alternative model for the real sense of the universe's evolution.
The study of the properties of analytical functions is described as complex analysis. The residue theorem is an important conclusion in complex analysis. This paper introduces the origin of imaginary numbers from Cardano Formula defines the conversion of complex number formats from the Euler Theorem, and proves the intermediate theorem Cauchy Integral Formula before reaching our final conclusion and the goal of the paper, Residue Theorem. The name of the theorem comes from the concept of residue, which is defined using a function’s Laurent series. We could then derive the Residue Theorem from the Cauchy Integral Theorem, also called the Cauchy-Goursat Theorem. We will be able to formalize our prior, ad hoc method of computing integrals over contours encompassing singularities. Additionally, it is a theorem that may be applied to zero-pole qualities and curved integral properties. The Residue Theorem is the basis of many essential mathematical facts revolving around line integrals, particularly in solving ODEs and PDEs and describing physics models.
Dark matter is counted as two of the significant discovery and research topics in the academic and scientific fields. Found later that dark matter does not belong to any of the present areas of known matter, dark matter was discovered in the late 19th century and early 20th century by indirect measuring of the abnormal velocity and mass dispersion pattern detected by multiple astronomers and mathematicians. In the last several decades, scientists from different physics fields have determined the property, location, potential candidate, origin, and interaction of dark matter. Starting with the history of the discovery and research of the dark matter, the dark matter property will be illustrated in the abstract. One of the properties of dark matter is the property that dark matter does not absorb, reflect or interact with any photons and any kinds of electromagnetic waves. The two potential dark matter candidates are WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle) and axion. The reason the scientist suspected that the two particles are the candidate for dark matter is also listed. Experiments about the candidates and other observations and theories are also listed in the paper.
Since winglet be added on the motorcycle in 2016 first, the extreme speed of the motorcycle competition improve a lot. The engineers of motorcades not only focus on the efficiency of the engine, but also put some of their attention on the design of the aerodynamic kits. This paper is focus on the shape of the racing track to see how it effect the choosing of winglet. Since different surface area of winglet may have some effect on the force provided on the motorcycle. This paper finds that for the racing track which has more strait roads, the motorcycle should reduce the drag force, so that the winglet should has less surface area, vice versa. The research significance is to help motorcades to choose suitable aerodynamic rate and give some suggestion to the rider who want to add winglet on their own motorcycle.
This paper presents an analysis on a parametrization of ALICE open data on the Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76TeV created by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We will use the tracklet method to calculate the differences in pseudorapidity values (∆η), generate ∆η distributions for different centrality ranges, and investigate the centrality dependence of the number of particles produced. This document presents findings of a negative correlation between centrality classes and the number of particles produced.
The transformation of the sun, the moon, and the stars, the visible but unreachable universe, has made generations of people fascinated by it. The rapid development of science and technology is the cornerstone of human exploration of space, and spacecraft is an indispensable and essential part of human space exploration. This paper introduces the development process of spacecraft from 1960 to the 21st century using literature collection, data integration, and other methods, focusing on the evolution of spacecraft power sources, supplemented by the evolution of spacecraft structure. According to the research results, it is concluded that the power source of the spacecraft shows a development trend from relatively low energy and efficiency to relatively high efficiency, and the structure of the spacecraft is in a development state from only supporting spacecraft exploration to realizing manned navigation.
The upper atmosphere has drawn increasing attention as remote sensing technology has advanced. People start looking into how radiation in the high atmosphere spreads and what materials exist. This paper mainly introduces the radiation of the upper atmosphere from three aspects: the properties of the upper atmosphere, the actual contents of radiation, and the factors affecting radiation. These three aspects explain several extraordinary natural phenomena, such as auroras and magnetic storms. In-depth explanations are provided for the three atmospheric qualities, the particle motion law, and the interference of natural and human forces with radiation. The gas transport theory introduces the interaction of particles in the atmosphere while providing a complete analysis of electronic communication's fundamental operating principle and propagation mechanism. This article finally analyzed the nature of the upper atmosphere and the various kinds of radiation in the upper atmosphere, including what the radiation particles are, as well as the interactions and applications of these particles. This article's main contribution is bringing together a large amount of data about irradiation in the upper atmosphere. Through the collation of this article, later, people can study the content of this piece more easily.
There are different approaches to reduce the drag on a car in motion, and at the same time, the resistance of the car is affected by many factors. This paper focuses on reducing the resistance of the car from three aspects, namely the weight, the windward area, and the aerodynamics, so as to improve the acceleration and speed of the car. This paper also introduces specific optimization models and sketches through data comparison and calculation. It is reflected that the improved vehicle structure can better reduce the drag, thus achieving the purpose of increasing the speed.
Nowadays, China is experiencing extreme heat wave weather this year. Currently, domestic citizens are suffering from the excessive hot weather and have no idea how to protect themselves efficiently from getting illness or having heat stroke. Therefore, we have a research on temperature change rules in some major cities (Shanghai, Guangzhou and Beijing) in China from 2015 to 2020. We collect and obverse several temperature data of Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou to see if there are upward or downward trends in temperature. We attempt to understand how temperatures have changed over time in these cities in China and how these trends can help forecast future temperatures. This research can help people know the probable temperature changing trends in the three cities in the next few years and take some precautions in advance.
The search engine (SE) is a senseless artificial program. SE matches the user's information demands with the input information and then provides an ordered list of answers. However, the outputs are frequently subjected to bias, which can affect the depiction of issues like gender inequality. Studies have shown that search engines may unconsciously inherit biases from their creators and users throughout their life cycle. In this paper, focused on Google as our research case, we evaluate and summarize different factors that can lead to the bias issue. The factors are depicted in computer science social domains. And in response to these causes, we propose a workshop idea to raise awareness of the problem of search engine discrimination, especially regarding gender issues. Based on our current workshop solution, we also list some potential improvements.
Automated blind guidance has been a hot research topic, which aims to develop efficient and inexpensive technologies to help blind people meet their daily needs. Benefiting from the rapid development of deep learning and machine vision, artificial intelligence-based blind guidance technology, especially blind guidance technology based on simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), has become a promising alternative. In this paper, we introduce the relevant research results of YOLO-SLAM technology in the guidance of blindness. We began by highlighting the power of YOLO, SLAM technology, and the promising prospects for current research in this field. In order to ensure that the information has a higher reference value, we focus on the practical application and improvement optimization of related papers in the past four years. We analyzed existing surveys and looked at current work, using several dimensions such as the data obtained, the sensors used, the models learned, and the human-machine interface. We compared the different methods, evaluated their testing sessions, summarized their similarities and differences, and drew conclusions by analyzing future trends in the field.
Intubation is an emergency medical procedure used to rescue people who are unconscious or unable to breathe on their own. In the process of tracheal intubation, traditional intubation is difficult due to narrow viewing angle, trachea bending, and occlusion of internal structures. Thanks to the rapid development of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and virtual reality (AR) technologies, intubation aids are also developing towards intelligence and automation. Based on the collection and analysis of a large number of literatures, this paper conducts an in-depth study of the existing SLAM-based intubation-assisted technology. Specifically, on the basis of analyzing the current research on the application of equipment, visualization schemes, and algorithm schemes in tracheal intubation and intubation training, this paper studies the application progress in terms of efficiency, versatility, accuracy, and user feedback. Further, we summarize the existing key issues and discuss future developments.
According to current astronomical developments, Doppler and lensing methods are the two most important methods used by astronomers to detect extrasolar planetary systems. Unlike the lensing method, which requires the use of high-precision astronomical telescopes to measure stellar luminosity variations, the Doppler method can rely on simple stellar redshift phenomena and calculations to accurately predict the existence of extraterrestrial planets, their masses, orbital radii, and other basic characteristics. Therefore, Doppler's method will be the most widely used method to measure planetary systems. Based on the derivation of Kepler's third law, the formulas for calculating the masses and orbital distances of planets are discussed and a python program for easy calculation is presented. Also, the limitations of Doppler's method and possible calculation errors are collected, organized, and explained.
Deep learning is a key technological tool in the field of image identification with wide application prospects because of its significant benefits in feature extraction and model fitting. Deep learning entails numerous stages of non-linear transformations. The primary implementation of the current deep learning technique is the deep neural network, the connection pattern of which takes its reference from the way that the visual cortex of animals is organized. Among all the deep learning methods, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is one of the most renowned means to process image. It has excellent performance in terms of large-scale image processing. A convolutional neural network consists of convolutional layers, a fully connected layer, a pooling layer, and associated weights. Convolutional neural networks have fewer parameters to consider than other deep, feed forward neural networks, making them an attractive deep learning architecture. There are several traits in CNN, including pooling, shared weights, and local connections. With the help of these features, the network's complexity and the quantity of training parameters can be decreased, and the model's level of invariance to scale, shift, and distortion can be increased, along with its robustness and fault tolerance. This paper firstly summarized the history of convolutional neural network, then briefly discussed the components like the neuron and multilayer perception. The main structure of the CNN is showed afterwards. The paper also mentioned the features and the applications of CNN, mainly in the field of Computer Vision (CV).
COVID-19 has been the most serious public health problem of the past decade. To date, the pandemic has taken a huge toll on the globe in terms of human lives lost, economic impact and increased poverty. However, due to its viral characteristics, determining whether a patient carries COVID-19 is not easy. RT-PCR methods are the gold standard for detecting COVID-19, but their time cost, as well as the need for specific equipment and instrumentation, limit their ubiquity in some medically underdeveloped areas. Chest X-rays, a test with high ubiquity and rapid results, require a certain number of professionals to read and determine whether a patient is likely to have COVID-19. Therefore, it is important to have a system to assist in the determination in areas where professionals are lacking. In this experiment, a convolutional neural network-based machine learning technique was used to create a model for recognizing COVID-19. Although there is no clinical evidence to prove its effectiveness, the model can assist professionals in judgment to a certain extent.
Today, probability theory is becoming more and more useful in our daily life, and it is used more often in sports, especially in table tennis. As a well-known table tennis player from China, Ma Long is an experienced player in table tennis. The data from this study is mainly from @tingwalker who was famous for statistical table tennis data. This paper uses the probability theory to find the effects of the win rate of Ma Long as well as calculate the actual rate, including the effects we have to consider. It is more accurate than just considering the win rate of each competition or looking at the total winning rate of Ma Long. With the help of probability theory, the paper considers factors that affect Malone's winning rate, such as competition system, different players, independent events, and miss rate. Finally, it can be concluded that Ma Long's winning rate against Zhang Jike is as high as 78%~82%.
In this project, we decided to collect and analyze the data about this cluster from several perspectives. Due to the consideration of distance, we used python to simulate their motion trajectory and position and choose Gaia data release as our data source. Hence, we listed four diagrams out of those data. By analyzing these graphs, we can get some information, such as the distance between M13 and earth and the age of those stars.
The scramjet is the representative of the future jet engine, and it has irreplaceable advantages in terms of working performance and service life. Although it has been developed more than fifty years, there are many problems in the driven system of the scramjet engine. This paper mainly focuses on the problems of the effective thrust and the combustion stability. The research shows that how the pressure ratio affects the positive thrust and the combustion stability. Furthermore, this paper also shows that the elements which can affect the pressure ratio. The lower inlet air temperature is beneficial to enhance the thrust. According to the relevant research which apply the CJ detonation theorem to find the possible reason for the combustion instability. For the possible improvements, the research found that the engine thrust at different speed and the allowable maximum speed. The type of fuel and the reactivity of the fuel can influence the thrust.
In this world of information explosion, people require more effective ways to filter useful information from millions of data. Email as one of the most frequently used form of communication, carries important messages, yet along with messages of fake news, misinformation and scams known as spam emails. Manually categorizing them from non-spam emails requires a lot of time and money and other human along with material resources. In order to deal with this, deep learning, or natural language processing models in particular, is introduced to categorize emails faster and cheaper. The Natural Language Processing model used here is called Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT). Since BERT is already a pre-trained model, the main task is to do the Fine-Tune part on it, with a dataset that contains around 5000 emails (85% spam emails and 15% non-spam ones). After that the model is tested on a group of 5 emails including 3 commercials/spams and 2 non-spam emails. The result shows that this model could separate them by giving commercials scores closer to 1 (spread from 0.5 to 0.7) and non-spam emails scores close to 1(spread from 0 to 0.1). Therefore, it can be concluded that this model works on small sets of data.
Petroleum is mainly used in the transportation industry and it is now becoming rarer in the world. Petroleum Geologists and analysts have predicted an imminent global peak of petroleum consumption, at which the maximum rate of petroleum extraction will be reached, and then followed by an irreversible decline. To date, 50 countries have passed the point of no return. Therefore, there is no time to delay the saving of petroleum. Since petroleum is mostly used by various means of transport, vehicles that are more efficient with less use of petroleum are needed. Under this context, this paper introduces three types of vehicles making full use of energy. Through case studies, the development tendency of future vehicles is illustrated, and a conclusion can be drawn that clean energy hybrids and hydrogen-powered fuels have become a future development trend for vehicles.
After a period of scientific research practice, the author has acquired some relevant knowledge, and it is hoped to have the Milky Way rotation curve of the gradual improvement process presented. The author uses the literature method to summarize the history of the study of the galactic curve, and show the process in the relative descriptive discourse.
This project studies and analyzes depression through statistical principles, reveals the influence and behavior of depression, so as to improve people's attention to depression. This study was completed from: looking for basic information data sets of depression, reading data sets, making charts, analyzing data and data prediction. The results showed that the affected population was concentrated between young people and middle-aged people, and the influencing factors of the disease included marriage, gender, employment and so on. For this disease, research is still in the development stage and there are still many questions to be addressed, so it is very important to study this disease.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) is becoming more and more popular, artists use them to find their own inspirations, computer scientists use it for data synthesis, workers use it for machine fault diagnosis and so on. However, GANs are flawed despite its popularity: they are unstable. GANs are based on game theory. In a typical GAN model, the generator and the discriminator are both improved by competing with each other. Therefore, in this highly competitive training process, GANs can easily run into trouble while they move towards the optimal solution. In most cases, the case of such instability arises from the loss function, or in other words, the gradient of the loss function. This research proposed a new set of GAN that replaces its objective function with supcon, or the supervised contrastive loss to solve gradient-related problems. We have also proved that under our model, the GANs are less likely to suffer from these two factors of instability. Finally, we have compared our model and the traditional generative adversarial nets.
To mitigate or avoid losses caused by earthquakes, it is necessary to understand them deeply. In our project, two idealized second-story structures with different properties with multi-degree of freedom-free vibration will be analyzed. The displacement response of the first structure is analyzed under the conditions with and without an available load by the modal superposition method. As a result, the properties, including the natural frequencies, mode shapes, and the second-floor story shears, have also been obtained. Moreover, the same properties of the second structure are obtained, too, except for the story shear. Moreover, the displacement response of each phase of the impulsive loading of the second structure is also computed by using Duhamel Integral.
The passage mainly discusses the solution to overfitting. Overfitting usually happens when people are training their machine learning models. When a model is overfitted, it only fits one particular dataset and misses most of the data points from another dataset. This problem affects the model's performance and makes it unable to use for its purpose. So how to solve this problem with significance and practical meaning? At the beginning of the passage, I will introduce some theoretical foundations for overfitting. Then I will define the concept of overfitting and show an example of overfitting in the machine learning model. After that, I will tell you how to pick the correct model with the testing set. Then, the passage focuses on the discussion of regularization, which is a helpful technique for solving overfitting. And I will compare the L1 and l2 regularization to help you find the suitable one.
As the global climate starts to change due the exploitation of natural resources by human, internal combustion engines are no longer the favorite son of mankind. Instead, alternatives such as hybrid power systems and electric motors have drawn the attention of various car manufacturers and numerous scholars from worldwide. At the same time, the automobile industry has not given up internal combustion engines yet, and kept producing innovative engine designs aiming to minimize the negative impact of fossil-fuels on the environment. By researching, analyzing, and comparing data and information from various sources, this article will discuss the fundamentals and working basics of internal combustion engines, hybrid power systems and electric motors, the iconic innovations on internal combustion engines by several car manufacturers, and will compare traditional engines and its alternatives through various aspects. This essay will mainly focus on internal combustion engines and some of the more environmentally friendly alternatives available today, as well as a comparison between them and their advantages and disadvantages.
Dark matter has been proposed to fulfill the missing mass from Astro-observation. Many theories have been raised to explain dark matter, and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are one of them. In recent decades, dark matter detection sensitivity has improved significantly. However, solid evidence for their existence has not come yet. This paper outlines some methods for detecting dark matter, including direct detections, collider searches with the ATLAS detector at LHC, and collider searches with CEPC.
This paper expounds the basic concept of group theory and its application in Rubik’s Cube transformation and restoration formula. The different states of the magic cube are regarded as the elements of the magic cube group, and the set generated by six basic operations is equivalent to the homomorphism of the magic cube group for analysis, from the mathematical characteristics of the permutation group to some practical examples. The collection of possible states of Rubik's Cube is a group, called Rubik's Cube Group, which can be analyzed with the knowledge of group theory. The essence of the magic cube group is the subgroup of the substitution group. There are six basic operations of the magic cube. The combination of basic operations can only produce even pairs of blocks to exchange positions or flip directions at the same time. Therefore, there are some restrictions on the transformation of the magic cube. Some practical examples give some ideas for creating the magic cube formula.
The simple pendulum is a typical model of the compound pendulum. In this model, resistance and buoyancy are negligible. This paper researches how air resistance affects the vibration period in the simple pendulum model but with exact conditions. There are two simplified air resistance models that can apply in the models, one is the first power air resistance model, and the second is the second power air resistance model. But the first power air resistance model is quite complex, there is no equipment to measure its coefficient of it, so it only applies the second power air resistance. This paper studies the formula that revealed air resistance and related suitable cases. The results show that the time from the formula is longer than the experiment a little bit.
This paper mainly demonstrates the development history, types and structure composition, measurement and control technology, development requirements and prospects of aeroengines. As the "flower of industry", aeroengine is an extremely important scientific and technological product in the new era. At present, in China, the measurement and control technology has achieved a great breakthrough, but still needs to be improved. It has obtained the view that there is much room for improvement in big data, energy conservation and environmental protection, materials and efficiency in the future, and the application of variable mode aeroengine, wear-resistant coating, intelligent manufacturing technology and hydrogen fuel is also a possible development direction
Whether an item is popular or not depends largely on its cost performance. For manufacturers, it is very important to create the most high-quality items with the least amount of money. For example, in the case of the same material, what kind of bridge structure is the most material-saving and long-life, what specific design can make the car more fuel-efficient and faster, and what kind of special pipeline design can make the flow of water resources more efficient are problems that manufacturers need to constantly explore, and fluid mechanics can help and solve these problems to a large extent. This paper mainly introduces the application of fluid mechanics in bridge engineering, automobile design, and agricultural production. The author analyzes the working principle of fluid mechanics, including some speculations on the future development direction of fluid mechanics.
Aeroplane-One of the greatest inventions of the twentieth century. Since ancient times, man has dreamed of flying in the sky like a bird. In modern society, due to the rapid development of science and technology (fluid mechanics, automatic control system, etc.), aircraft has become a basic means of transportation. This paper mainly studies how the aircraft takes off and the role of its individual components. Through the method of literature reading and analysis, the force of aircraft takeoff, as well as the role of wings and flaps (Kruger flaps, slit flaps, fuller flaps) in the take-off process are summarized.According to Bernoulli's principle, the lift of an aircraft is mainly generated by the wings, and parts such as flaps are used to regulate the flight state of the aircraft. At the same time, the aircraft must overcome a variety of drags during flight, including frictional resistance, tip resistance and induced resistance.
Because of the rapid development of social economy and urbanization, people's quality of life has been significantly improved, while people's requirements for housing construction. The requirements of space and environment are also increasing. To effectively meet people's needs, it is necessary to dig deeper into the functions of buildings, increase innovation, promote the integration of architecture and structure, and increase the development growth and to contribute a high level of construction building design. This paper discusses the application of structural design innovation in architectural design, discusses architectural structure design principles, and discusses design innovation countermeasures from the level of integration of architecture and structure in order to promote the further development of the construction industry.
An aerosol is a system of liquid or solid particles in suspension in a gas, which includes both the particles and the suspended gas. The aim of this paper is to study the thermophoretic forces in aerosol systems. We introduce the concepts of particle size distribution, DLVO theory and multiphase flow models, followed by four case studies of thermophoretic deposition. This study has some limitations that need further investigation for a number of specific reasons. Firstly, the impact of thermophoresis is often overlooked in discussions about aerosols and their walls. Additionally, the focus has only been on solid walls, while the same problem applies to soft walls such as the human respiratory tract. The complexity of fluid models that involve multiple particles and forces also presents challenges. The task of examining the effects of temperature fields and temperature variations will be even more daunting. There is a pressing need for further research in this area.
Wireless power transfer (WPT) is one of the most frequently discussed topics. Due to its straightforward implementations and designs, it is also one of the most commercialized. It is a technology that allows power to be transferred from one electrical transmitter to another electrical transmitter across an air gap. Inductive coupling, magnetic resonance coupling, and radio-frequency transfer are the three widely used wireless power transfer technologies, and this study provides a thorough summary of their respective histories. Latest implementations are also introduced. Current implementation of the technology in vogue are confronted with some challenges, which may be seen as future research trends, in hope of miniaturizing gadget complexity, enhancing device transmission duration and reducing costs.
To solve the problems of not being easy to bring the traditional fan and the weak wind, the single function of the portable, and other limitations, this paper studies the improvement of a kind of multifunctional portable fan. The multifunctional portable fan achieves its purpose of portability. It must have a small size and battery. A modular design is adopted in this paper to solve these problems. After designing the plan. This paper tested the shell's various functions, which were created using 3D printing technology. The test results show that the design can effectively play to the versatility of the fan. A modular design will enable tools to be extensible. It reduces the cost of using tools and the waste of resources.
AADRES has been further optimized over the past hundred years for diminishing fuel consumption, yet there is still a sharp reduction in traditional energy around the world. Recently, the energy structure of automobiles has also been transforming from gasoline power to electric power in order to save energy and reduce the CO2. However, electric cars have one fatal problem which is battery capacity. Therefore, AADRES should be redesigned for electric cars. In order to find an AADRES suitable for electric cars, this paper briefly explains the resistance principle of cars and instances some existing aerodynamic drag reduction methods. By analyzing and identifying those methods, a personal scheme of new style AADRES for electric cars is also presented, which primarily follows the wedge car shape but incorporates a deflector, embedded door handle, and pitted non-smooth surface while removing door mirrors.
Most map applications play the job of navigating users and informing them of traffic jams. However, they often cannot deal with an emergent situation when a disaster such as a flood takes place. This paper aims at providing a solution for map and navigation applications how to ensure users’ safety when natural disasters of floods happen. The subject uses sensors, programming, and perceptrons to prompt the study and take the Beijing-Hangzhou canal as a sample since each river has its warning water levels. Nevertheless, this paper provides a solution to the research aim, no experiments are involved.
We discussed possible improvement methods for a dual-species atom interferometry test of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) at the 10^(-12) level. The original research tested the WEP by comparing the acceleration difference of the free-fallen rubidium isotopes atom clouds. Based on the percent uncertainty presented from this test, AC stark shift is the most significant obstacle to improving precision. This article will discuss a precision-improving method to the original test by suppressing the background AC stark shift by centering the interferometry lasers to their "magic frequency." The expected improved precision of the uncertainty level is below the 10^(-18) level. Due to the limitation of instruments, we have yet to test this improving method in the actual measurement. Still, we analyzed the possible difficulties in practical usage and discussed solving strategies that correspond to the problems.
Gliders are heavier-than-air fixed-wing aircraft that do not rely on power plants to fly, and are now widely used in scientific observation, daily entertainment, and other fields. After taking off, it only relies on the reaction force of air acting on its lifting surface for free flight. Different gliders can stay in the air for different amounts of time in different environments, which is mainly determined by the airfoil. Therefore, through literature reading, this paper understands its flight principle, and studies and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of existing airfoils by comparing the influence of different airfoils on flight performance. In view of the problems existing in the airfoil, rationality calculations and improvements are put forward, hoping to promote the development of the aviation industry. After research, the concave wing is by far the most suitable gliding airfoil, which can provide relatively large lift and stability, but there is still the problem of insufficient load. In order to improve these deficiencies, the airfoil is optimized by increasing the contact area between the airflow and the wing. For example, the defect can be improved by lengthening the length of the entire wing, reducing lateral airflow, and increasing the upward curvature of the wingtip.
Numerous civil infrastructures, such as bridges, dams, and skyscrapers are getting to be vulnerable to losing their planned capacities as they break down from utilization. In spite of the fact that many people have been propelled to examine these structures by the concern on a regular basis, there is still diagnosis in need for onsite inspections on closing bridge frameworks or building structures for diagnosis, due to lack of personnel. In that case, many researches team have come up with structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques. This paper will investigate a few strategies for SHM techniques. The scope is primarily on machine learning strategies, such as vision-based strategy for SHM techniques. Based on other correlated articles, vision-based strategy is fine to be used for structural health monitoring and detection. Models that are well defined will be applied to different kinds of issue. There's much to think about and research here. To summarize, machine learning techniques for SHM have been shown to be more successful than traditional strategies. The primary paper employments territorially upgraded multiphase division procedure, which is prepared with SVM, which has been shown to be superior to previous methods. Overall, ML methods are gradually becoming crucial perspectives on SHM challenges.
Quantum computing is the engineering of utilizing the properties of a quantum, as so could be understood as the using the rules of nature at the scale of an atom, to calculate faster and more complicated problems than traditional computers. These new inventions are not merely a device that calculates faster than the speed convention computers, the only similarity between them might only be some essential hardware and their names, because unlike conventional computers that uses classical physics to transmit electronic information, quantum computers utilize quantum physics to perform calculations. Quantum computing has the potential to replace conventional computers in solving important problems in fields such as chemistry, cryptography, materials science, medicine, and artificial intelligence, which are all task that are uneasy and sometimes devastating for conventional computers to do. Quantum computers’ characteristics includes but are not limited to: stronger information processing abilities and a faster calculation speed. Compared with traditional computers, the greater the amount of information it processes, the better a quantum computer can calculate a more accurate result. This paper is focused on researching and explaing the characteristics of quantum computers and their possible contributions to the human society.
Dust is a ubiquitous feature of the cosmos, impinging directly or indirectly on most fields of modern astronomy. Dust grains composed of small (submicron-sized) solid particles pervade interstellar space in the Milky Way and other galaxies: they occur in a wide variety of astrophysical environments, ranging from comets to giant molecular clouds, from circum-stellar shells to galactic nuclei. The study of this phenomenon is a highly active and topical area of current research. Dust absorbs optical and Ultraviolet (UV) photons and re-emit them in the infrared. The heating and cooling of dust interact with their environment closely. Dust is closely related to the star formation process, and study on dust could put constraints on the star formation history. While extensively studied in the optical, the extinction property of dust in the UV is still an open question. UV photos are absorbed by earth atmosphere and cannot be accessed from ground-based observations. NASA space mission Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), on the other hand, provides critical data to this question by surveying the whole sky in two UV bands. By comparing the optical and UV properties of blue and red (dust-absorbed) quasars selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we shape the extreme UV dust extinction curve for the first time. The measured UV dust extinction curve will help us characterize the size distribution of dust grains and their compositions which could not be easily accessed by other methods.
The idea of the study was mainly from the concerns about whether wheels of different shapes can also fit well in cars. This paper mainly involves the demonstration of some theoretical features of the Reuleaux triangle and some practical situations of using the triangle as wheels. The aim of the study is to find out some basic features and mathematical rules of the Reuleaux triangle, in addition, the practical uses of this shape will also be studied. In order to learn expertise about this triangle, the author went through papers about geometry and some demonstrations by different mathematicians from different times. The author then made a few assumptions and tried to prove himself to find the rules of this shape more deeply. In conclusion, it found out that the Reuleaux triangle is actually a perfect constant width curve and it can be used as wheels under proper conditions. Apart from that, this paper also concluded an exact method of drawing different constant width curves.
It is known well that electricity is an important part of our life and most of it is wasted. However, the natural resources of energy are being wasted and reduced. To utilize the mechanical energy of rotating wheels, in this research report, the device structure of generating electricity voltage is designed, and the relations between the voltage generated by rotating wheels and the geometry and physical parameters of the structures are derived, and the effects of the geometry and physical parameters on the voltage are analyzed. The theoretical results show that the voltages are in proportion to the weight and speed of rotating wheels. The experiments with piezoelectric film and wheels are used to verify the theoretical analysis. The experimental results show that the theoretical analysis is in good agreement with measured results.
In this era, molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods have become the primary simulation methods. With the emergence of computer simulation research methods, it has been possible to solve the sizeable computational volume and some other problems in the simulation process. At present, molecular dynamics simulations have taken an essential place in the substantial computational system and have a remarkable ability to solve multi-body problems. Therefore, researchers widely use it in many fields such as physics, chemistry, and materials science. Meanwhile, the Monte Carlo method is also a very effective statistical simulation method. This method can far surpass ordinary integration in efficiency with guaranteed computational accuracy. Furthermore, the derived kinetic Monte Carlo method can simulate and study dynamics problems. It can be seen that both simulation methods play an vital role in various disciplines. Therefore, it is very significant to understand the mathematical principles behind them and to know their advantages and disadvantages.
At the end of the 19th century, with the development of Newton's classical mechanics and Maxwell's electromagnetism, a great number of individuals believed that the laws of physics had reached the point of perfection. Physicists like Pierre-Simon Laplace even thought that Newtonian mechanics could be used to calculate the future. However, the "dark clouds" such as the Michelson-Morley experiment and black body radiation demonstrated the flaws of the classical theory. With the efforts of quantum mechanics pioneers such as Planck, Einstein, Schrodinger, and Heisenberg, the discipline of quantum mechanics has gradually developed and has become the key to opening the door to the microscopic world. This paper demonstrates the cracks that occurred in classical physics at the end of the 19th century, and then illustrates the birth of the quantum mechanics and some of the most important concepts of it. Finally, some cutting-edge technologies related to quantum are introduced.
With the increase in the demand of space exploration in recent years and the increase in the amount of communication data between the earth and spacecrafts, the development of deep space communication is undoubtedly a great support for space exploration. Deep Space Network (DSN) is an important organization that helps people to get in touch with spacecrafts. This paper introduces the communication technology and achievements of the DSN and the problems that are still facing by it, and look forward to the future development trend of deep space communication and exploration technologies, so as to promote the development of Deep Space Network.
Despite the vast research on spinning black holes and jets, little is known about details of jet formation. This paper is aimed to study whether Penrose’s prediction that black hole spin power jets can be verified. Once proved, a deeper understanding of energy/momentum transfer near event horizon is to be achieved. This paper compares two dominant spin measuring methods. Thermal continuum fitting method makes use of thermal emission to measure the spin, where a theoretical flux profile is created by inputting parameters (inclination of X-ray binaries, distance of X-ray binaries from the earth, mass of black hole, etc). X-ray reflection method uses broadened Fe-line to measure the spin, and that corona geometry is often required. This paper also compares various definitions of jet power and spin-jets relation. In conclusion, transient jets are highly possible to be powered by black hole spin, but more evidence is required to confirm this. Steady jets remain in a vague relation with spin. It has also been found that different measuring methods of both spin and jets can affect the spin-jets relation.
In the field of air control, fighter has always played a vital role. Airfoil, as an indispensable part of fighter, has always been attached importance to research and development. Since the 1940s, the airfoil shape has undergone many significant changes, and the technical level has gradually realized from subsonic to transonic and then to supersonic. This paper mainly analyzes and summarizes the design characteristics and changing trends of the airfoils by analyzing the aerodynamic shapes of the first to fifth generation fighter airfoils. The performance that the airfoil needs to meet gradually improves over time. In the new era, the demand for airfoil design is more diversified. Countries pay attention to improving the aerodynamic performance, stealth performance, mechanical stress structure, material technology and morphing technology of airfoils. To meet the development needs of the new generation of fighter, this paper proposes that it is necessary to improve the level of stealth technology and morphing technology of fighters, and at the same time, improving of the CFD and the Navier-Stokes equations matter a lot. What’s more, the comprehensive application of multidisciplinary technology may make the future fighter more information and intelligent.
On April 27, 1900, the famous British physicist William Thomson (Baron Kelvin) delivered a speech entitled "The Dark Clouds of the Nineteenth Century on the Theory of Heat and Photodynamics" at the Royal Society. In his speech, he pointed out that, in the "edifice of physics" based on force and heat, there were two hypotheses that could not be solved at that time. One was the ether medium and the other was the black body radiation. Later, the flaws of physics were proved and the quantum mechanics and relativity were thus created. This paper introduces the origin of the concept of aether and the inference of its reality through subsequent scientific experiments. It also illustrates the emergence of a series of hypotheses such as blackbody radiation, which laid the foundation for the beginning of quantum physics.
Rational numbers can be serialized, in other words, rational numbers can be expressed in a regular, ordered way. This paper discusses the background, reasons and methods of rational number serialization, and also identifies the rules of rational number serialization, derives a unique sequence of rational numbers, identifies the expressions for rational number serialization, and lays the foundation for the use of rational number sequences in mathematics. The purpose of serializing rational number in this paper is to make transmitting and storing data more easily, and gives a better way for researchers to do further Mathmetics studies.
This paper deals with special classes of quartic polynomials and properties pertaining to their Galois groups and reducibility over certain fields. The existence of quartic polynomials irreducible over Q but reducible over every prime field is first proven, after which criteria are established for the Galois group of polynomials with this property. By constructing classes of V4-generic polynomials and comparing them with criteria put forth in previous studies for determining polynomials with this property, it can be shown that a polynomial of the biquadratic form x4 + ax2 + b has this property if and only if it can be written as x^4 - 2(u + v)x^2 + 〖(u -v)〗^2 with u, v ∈Q such that none of u, v, or uv can be expressed as ratio of two squares, and 2(u+v),(u−v)2 ∈ Z . The general form for biquadratic polynomials irreducible over Q and reducible modulo every integer n is found to have a general form similar to this one.
The hybrid flow shop scheduling problem is a flow shop scheduling problem that combines the two scheduling characteristics of the classical flow shop and the parallel machine. It is also one of the research hotspots in the field of shop scheduling. In this paper, the algorithm for solving the problem is reviewed, and the research status of the related expansion problems of the mixed flow workshop is summarized. Finally, combined with the development trend, the existing problems in the current research are analyzed, possible solutions are proposed, and the application of the algorithm for solving the problem of mixed flow shop scheduling in new fields in the future is discussed.
Robert J. Lang has proposed a theorem that when solving equations using multi-folds origami, general equations of order n can be solved using n-2 simultaneous folds. However, recently Jorge C. Lucero proved that arbitrary five order equations can be solved using two simultaneous folds. Combining this with the fact that one single fold can solve general quartic equations, the writer questions that whether the theorem may be altered into general equations of order n can be solved by n-3 simultaneous folds. Thus, in this paper, a method of geometric graphing -Lill’s method is used to try to solve six order equations with three simultaneous folds. By conducting case analysis using theoretical knowledge, it can be found that the six order equations can be possibly solved by three simultaneous folds. Besides, a comparison of solving equations with origami constructions and compass-and-straightedge is carried out. The result will encourage more research on using origami to solve higher order equations and inspire people to pay more attention to origami construction, which is more powerful, accurate, and efficient than the compass-and-straightedge people usually use.
Kagome materials haven been one of the recent research hotspots, which cause many important phenomena such as ferromagnetism and superconductivity. The present study analyzes the electronic structure properties of Kagome materials, which reveals that the energy band structure is effectively regulated by the electron hopping term and that its flat band properties will disappear when the hopping terms cannot cancel each other. Meanwhile, it is also found that the effective mass and velocity of electrons are significantly dependent on the energy band structure. The results would help us better understand the properties of Kagome materials and contribute to their industrial applications.
In the table tennis sport category, the different spin formula of table tennis ball will show different motion state, in which the important physical knowledge that is permeated aerodynamics. Besides the effect of aerodynamics, the balls can obtain different trajectories because of Magnus effect and Bernoulli principle. By using these three mainly professional knowledge, this paper analyzed the forces that the top-spin ball and back-spin ball acquired. What is more, the movement of side spin balls also be introduced through these professional knowledge. In addition to these analysis, 40mm and 38mm table tennis balls are compared in the paper. By using the principle of physical mechanics to reveal the secret and mechanism of the spin of table tennis ball, it provides a theoretical basis for improving the spin skill of table tennis ball.
In the current case of China's rail transit as a major part of public transportation, the complexity of the line has brought more transfer stations. After the investigation and observation, the long waiting time of transfer stations is one of the biggest problems at this stage. In the investigation of the transfer station, taking Chengdu as an example, the author chose the third-line transfer station with moderate universality and complexity as the research goal, and investigated the transfer efficiency and influencing factors. After the study and discussion of the conclusion, the author decided to establish a mathematical model to optimize and improve. For the more neglected problems, the fine regulation of the transfer station structure and the train schedule. The scheduling optimization model of this paper, as a universal and simple data collection model, can be universally applied. Meanwhile, this paper gives a new perspective on the rail transit transfer optimization, with the transfer time and passenger experience as the main consideration factors.
Using the finite element method to solve heat transfer problem in solid medium has been popular since last century, but heat convection effect in fluid medium makes the problem cumbersome to solve efficiently. Thermal transfer calculation of fluid medium is complicated, because solving heat convection and Navier-Stokes equation is hard. By making proper assumptions, intricate equations can be skipped, and it is possible to give rough estimate of heat transfer result through a simple and efficient calculation. Which is significant for design and verifiction of heating system for physicists and engineers. The study aims to solve the temperature distribution of a certain heat system, using finite elment method and with given assumpted air circumfluence. In the calculation, the room domain is subdivided into finite elments, and the boundary condition is given according to the heat influx and emmision, air circumfluence is introduced to simulate the effect of convection. The simplified model illustrated that the finite element method is effective in giving quantitative result of heat transfer calculation. It also qualitatively showcased the significance of heat convection, when the result is compared to calculation without any air flow.
Rocket propellant is an important part of the rocket. Solid or liquid propellant will burn in the engine combustion chamber, and then a large amount of high-pressure gas will be generated. High-pressure gas will be ejected from the engine nozzle at a high speed, generating a reaction force on the rocket, so that the rocket will advance in the opposite direction of the gas injection. This paper mainly analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of current propellants and conceives a theoretically feasible propellant selection method. The main method of research is to calculate the theory of each propellant and make diagrams. Some of the research data were based on existing research reports. Each fuel has its own characteristics, they have one aspect of excellent ability, such as heat conduction, high thrust, high reliability. This paper summarizes the characteristics of current propellants and provides a more convenient query for future researches.
The subject of this paper is the RedCap technology. RedCap devices (known as Reduced Capability devices) are a new technology that is being studied by 3GPP in the R17 phase of 5G. RedCap can be defined as a lightweight version of 5G technology. The IoT application scenarios are extremely complex and diverse, and different scenarios have different requirements for network metrics. RedCap devices have emerged to fill the gap left by the withdrawal of 4G, i.e., to cover the needs of medium and high speeds. Specifically, it was designed to cover the needs of LTE Cat.1 and LTE Cat.4. Therefore, this article will introduce the reader to Release 17 RedCap devices by describing them from multiple perspectives, i.e. the history of RedCap devices, application scenarios, requirements, and their technical features. RedCap devices are well-balanced in their capabilities, using simpler demodulation (meaning significantly lower RF and baseband requirements), targeting bands with smaller spectrum bandwidths, and reducing the number of transceiver antennas and the number of MIMO layers. These changes have resulted in a reduction in the rate of RedCap devices, a reduction in coverage capability, and an increase in latency. Based on these changes, RedCap devices are expected to be 2-5 times less expensive than 5G. The main applications for RedCap are wearable devices (e.g. smart watches), industrial sensors and video surveillance devices.
A n-dimensional topological manifold is defined as an n-dimensional local Euclidean space M that is also a second countable space and a Hausdorff space. If a topological space has a countable base, it is referred to as a second countable space. At the same time, continuous function and metric space can help people to understand topological space better. This article will express some basic ideas about continuous functions, metric space, topological space and its properties, and topological manifolds. Moreover, the paper shows some basic ideas of how topological manifolds, topological space and function could be recognized and proved. Through analysis, this paper demonstrates the connection between them, such as using properties of continuous function to prove the definition and properties of topological manifolds and spaces.
At present, the electromagnetic propulsion technology and the electrostatic propulsion technology are more mature than before. With the increase of available power on the spacecraft, the performance can be better improved. This paper mainly reviews the electric propulsion technology for long-term space travel. It can be concluded that, compared to traditional chemical rocket systems, electric propulsion systems are more suitable for long-term space missions and have the ability to transport relatively heavy objects in space.
The tube is a type of airplane that is shaped as a hollow cylinder. In common sense, it seems impossible that an airplane has no wings, however, the tube airplane can fly even longer in the sky comparing with normal airplanes. In this paper, the practical experiment related to Bernoulli’s theorem and Magnus Force will be introduced. In order to understand those equations more deeply with logic, a paper airplane model called “the tube” is going to be studied. The author makes the models with different shapes and angles so as to figure out the relationship between the angle of the index and the flying time of the airplane. Results show that the angle of the index has an impact on the time of the airplane staying in the sky, and the angle affects the angular and linear rotating speed of the airplane so that the time required for the airplanes varies.
Acquiring properties of microscopic particles helps establish modern physics models and theories, and detectors are the main method. This literature review researches on modern particle physics papers, summarizing the detection principle adopted for four types of particles, concluding the detection principle of the most commonly used detectors, scintillators, and summing up the use of scintillators in the four main kinds of particle detection. Based on the investigation, various kinds of detection materials absorb particles or their secondary particles based on different interaction mechanism in detection, and different kinds of particles have their suitable detectors. Scintillators are classified into three categories based on difference in physical properties, and detect particles by releasing energy during de-excitation in electric pulse signal forms. They can be made into large size, have relatively large detection efficiency and is suitable for γ ray detection. These ability gain scintillators a wide range of application in detection of the principal types of detectors.
The additive manufacturing technology of metal components is an advanced technology in the field of mechanical engineering and material science. Laser selective melting (SLM) is one of the most widely used methods in additive manufacturing. The temperature field of SLM process is the key factor to determine the quality of additive, so it has important research value. In this paper, the influence of laser power and additive speed on the temperature field of aluminum alloy additive manufacturing is studied by CFD numerical simulation technology. The results show that the CFD model can well simulate the SLM process. The additive temperature decreases with the increase of additive speed and increases with the increase of laser power. By adjusting the additive manufacturing parameters, the quality of additive manufacturing can be corrected and improved.
No transiting exoplanets have previously been found in the Pleiades. The Pleiades is a relatively young star cluster near us, which makes it valuable for investigation. This study aims to determine the existence of exoplanets in Pleiades using the transit method. Specifically, it sought to determine if the listed 83 stars have exoplanets by inspecting on light-curves from data of Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The TESS mission, with a better resolution and observed sky area than the previous Kepler mission, aimed to find more exoplanets around stars. To test the hypothesis that exoplanets do exist in the 83 stars of the Pleiades, we downloaded their light-curves using Jupyter notebook and the Lightkurve package, then checked using BLS method and fitting if there were transits. The results showed no clear sign of transiting planets in those stars. These results suggest that the 83 stars checked likely don’t have a transiting exoplanet, but 83 stars cannot represent the whole Pleiades star cluster. Other methods should be used in analysis to gain more accurate results and more stars should be checked to investigate whether or not transiting exoplanets exist in the Pleiades star cluster.
Quantum mechanics has evolved over the last hundred years and has had a profound impact on other fields. It is poised as a very powerful tool that can drastically improve our ability to carry out scientific research. This paper uses some concepts and examples to show how quantum mechanics influences many interdisciplinary applications. This paper first introduces the development of quantum mechanics to pave the way for the rest of the article. Then, the author selects two inventions to reflect the specific role of quantum mechanics. Finally, this paper also introduces two relatively advanced research areas, one is quantum computing and the other is quantum biology, with the basic framework and a simple and intuitive explanation provided, enabling the reader to see the recent study based on quantum mechanics. Through this paper, relevant researchers can not only draw a framework of quantum mechanics but also clarify some areas of future development.
Ornithopter, in the past, was a vehicle that appeared in science fiction movies and novels. However, due to advances in materials science and human research into aerodynamics, this fantasy is becoming increasingly possible. In this paper, the development history of the ornithopter is briefly described, and the research results of the ornithopter aerodynamics in recent years are reviewed. This includes the first draft of Leonardo Da Vinci's ornithopter design in the Renaissance era, to the modern ornithopter, as well as a summary of the results of the research on the aerodynamics of the ornithopter and prospects for future applications of the ornithopter. In this paper, through the introduction of the flapper and the discussion of the flapper dynamics, a more reasonable application field of the modern flapper and the prospect of the future can be obtained.
Since the actual use of the small windshield in Formula One (F1) cars is still unknown, the influence of the shape of the windshield edge on the driver's head will be the main research direction of this paper. In this paper, FLUENT is used to model three different shapes of windshield and the driver's head. The author analyzes the impact of windshield on the driver's head from the perspective of aerodynamics, speculates the actual use of different shapes of windshield, and gives some optimization schemes. Results show that the difference among the three shapes of windshield on the driver's head comfort is negligible, but the main role of the windshield is probably to create turbulence, allowing air to flow smoothly into the aerodynamic components at the rear of the car.
With the collection and use of large amounts of data in various disciplines, it has become a necessity to analyze these data that people cannot handle by means of mathematics and information theory. A review of statistical analysis on previous work like data analysis, data mining, and machine learning are conducted in this paper. Specifically information theory in conjunction with machine learning based on basic statistical evaluation are focused on. Many mathematical instruments are used in this area, including evaluating the performance, loss functions, and activation functions. In this paper，all these methods from previous work are concluded and the future potential development in this area is discussed. Finally, this paper broadly summarizes the development history about machine learning and information theory, and discusses the pros and cons of both of them and their future development.
This paper reports the first measurement of charged particle elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at √(s_NN ) = 5.02T eV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is performed on more than 20,000 events in 40-50% centrality class on both long-range 2 < |∆η| < 4 and short-range |∆η| < 1 regions. The two-particle correlation method is used over long-range region, in the transverse momentum range of 1 < p_T < 1.5GeV , and the elliptic flow signals, given by v_n =√(V_n ) , are v_2 = 0.17 ± 0.01,v_3 = 0.07 ± 0.01,v_4 = 0.04 ± 0.01,v_5 = 0.03 ± 0.01. Since V_1 is obtained as -0.0013, it does not have a square root value. In addition, for n=2-4, it is found that v_n increases as p_T increases. The Q-vectors method is also used to determine the values of v_2. The magnitudes of the Q-vectors are fitted to a function. The values of v_2 produced by the two methods are compared and discussed. At the end, the vectors are used to analyse high-energy jet particles.
Nowadays gear is one of the most important mechanical components in the industry history, especially in the car industry and airplane industry. This paper demonstrates and explains the simulation for several specifical gears to object the static strength, stress on the gear teeth. By using simulation software Ansys, this paper collects data and analyzes to object the accuracy and efficiency from 3 fields in mesh size, mesh method and refinement of structure to ensure a better mesh way on gear simulation in the future, offer some references for better ways to mesh specific gears on Ansys.
Since the 20th century, countries have been conducting researches on near-spacecraft and have proposed a series of representative space vehicle concepts. This paper reviews the brief history of the development of reusable near-spacecraft and focuses on two combined cycle propulsion modes, SABRE and RBCC, with the goal of improving the performance of future near-spacecraft propulsion systems. An improving idea of combining the RBCC with the SABRE is proposed, and its possibility is discussed by analyzing the specific impulse curve. Two combining configurations of them and design principles are obtained by citing the literature and studying similar configurations. The two designs are also compared and the more optimized one is suggested, so as to offer some inspiration for future studies.
Rowing as an on-river sports has a long history dating back to the 16th century. The deeper understanding of fluid dynamics theory and the development of advanced material and manufacturing science and technology have inevitably fueled the continuous improvement on the world record of the rowing sports. The current paper focuses on the accurate extraction of the kinematics information including the boat’s location, velocity, and acceleration, resulting from the athlete’s rowing motion. A consumer-level digital camera is used for imaging the rowing motion at 50 frames per second from a distance, corresponding to a specific field of view ranging from 12 m – 36 m. Furthermore, due to large-scale imaging lens distortion, the physical resolution is varying significantly due to imaging location change. A video-specific calibration method using fourth order polynomials are developed to calibrate the physical resolution of each pixel based on the physical length of the boat. The resulting data is pixel-level accurate and provides detailed record for athlete’s training. The acquired information is extremely useful in gauging athletes’ performance and can be further analyzed to provide concrete technical improvement advice.
Accurate segmentation for Functional Tissue Units (FTUs) is a challenging issue in past decades. In this study, a model using the dataset of tissue section images will be built to evaluate and mark FTUs across five human organs as clearly as possible. We have the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) as training data and the data from Human BioMolecular Atlas Program (HuBMAP) as testing data. To balance accuracy and inference speed, this study applied Unext, an efficient network based on Unet, as the basic model. We also aim to use some tricks to further improve the performance of the model. First, we used several image enhancement methods to diversify the input image. Second, several structures like Feature Pyramid Network (FPN) and the Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling are added to improve model performance and convergence speed. As a result, we successfully segment functional tissue units among images of different sizes. Our proposed model scored 0.56 out of 1.00 by the judge of the competition.
Variable cycle engines (VCE) have always been a hot topic in aircraft engine research. Because of its variable thermal cycle characteristics, it has a wide range of optimum operating conditions (altitude, flight Mach number). In this paper, a typical double bypass variable cycle engine is used as the object of study, and the Gasturb11 software is used to simulate the engine in two main modes at different altitudes and Mach numbers, to observe the engine operation performance, as well as the relationship between the range and endurance from the derivation of cruise equation. The results show that VCE has a best thermal cycling pattern for a given altitude and Mach number, and for a range of lift-to-drag ratios, resulting in the longest range or endurance of the aircraft. This paper investigates the relationship between range, endurance and thrust of a variable cycle engine and altitude and Mach number to help make the VCE better suited to the needs of an aircraft with multiple missions, long range and high endurance.
Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices have the characteristics of high voltage resistance, fast switching speed, high working frequency, small on-resistance, and high-temperature resistance, and have broad application prospects in high voltage and high-power occasions. However, the application of SiC is faced with the problems of high-frequency switching transient voltage, current overshoot, ringing, and short circuit protection. Based on the problems encountered in the application process of SiC power devices, the characteristics and drive protection technology of sic devices are studied in this paper. In this paper, the static characteristic parameters of SiC device are studied, the switching characteristic parameters are tested, the influence of parasitic inductance parameters on the switching characteristic is analyzed, and the design method of PCB Roche coil is analyzed, the anti-interference performance of loop winding turns is analyzed and the driver protection circuit is designed.
This study focuses on the classification of multi-cluster events based on a parameterization of data from a time projection chamber using machine learning. Samples containing a mixture of single and overlapping two-cluster events, both in one and two dimensions, were studied using multi-layer perceptrons and other MVA algorithms provided in the Scikit-learn package. The classification was based on various sets of features and classification accuracies of up to 97% for 1D clusters and 97% for 2D clusters were obtained. This study demonstrates that the efficient classification of signals for further processing through machine learning is feasible and efficient.
As the development of the Brain Computer Interface, it can be a possible way for human to control the external devices by the mind. This can be good news for the handicapped people whose life qualities are greatly decreased. In this paper, designed an assistive robot arm for those disabled. The assistive robot arm mainly contains a filter, a microcontroller and a motor drive system. The filter can filter out the noises while the microcontroller judging the brain signals and turn it into an actual control signal. The actual control signal will finally drive the motor and for the sake of safety and stability, a PID circuit was add in the motor drive system. The mechanic arm designed can turn what people think to the actual robot behaviour and this will obviously increase the life quality of the disabled people. It’s also a light weight system with a wide range of versatility and will bring benefits to all the handicapped.
Engines are very important for human-beings and it is necessary for people to find a perfect kind of engines since they are used in many vehicles. In this paper, it will mainly focus the traditional engines and the hybrid engines, and compare there main performances including economical performance and environmental performance. For economical performance, researches have found that hybrid engine has higher thermal efficiency and lower thermal efficiency loss compared with traditional engine because hybrid engine does not have the inherent defect of crankshaft linkage mechanism as traditional engine. Also, since hybrid engine is consist of both electric motor and internal combustion engine, consequently it will have lower fuel cost. For environmental performance, hybrid engine not only reduce the consumption of non-renewable fuel but also more environmental since using electric to give vehicles power is relative environmental than using fuels only like traditional engine. This paper also find that both traditional engine and hybrid engine have development prospects in the transportation industry.
Linear regression analysis is one of the most basic and vital methods in statistical applications, especially when examining the relationship of one or more variables. This method initially used to analyze the relationship between father and child height has also been developed for nearly two hundred years. The development of computer technology has brought more efficient and accurate data processing, which allows us to use linear regression models to deal with high-dimensional and more complex scenarios. This paper mainly elaborates on the development of high-dimensional linear regression and the most classic models and tries to understand how some models can be improved. Finally, how to accurately apply model theory to practice will be a significant research direction in the future
With the social progress and the rapid development of people's economic level, people pay more and more attention to the external image of bridges, which greatly promotes the emergence and development of special-shaped arch bridges. But because of the particularity of the special-shaped arch bridge structure, its plane stress characteristics, which are different from the traditional arch bridge, become more complex. In this paper, three types of arch bridges commonly seen in special-shaped arch bridges: leaning type, inclined span type and butterfly type arch bridges are selected for a brief structural stress analysis. The results show that most of the arch structures of special-shaped arch bridges only play an auxiliary role in bearing loads, and due to the more complex stress, the finite element analysis software needs to be used to optimize the structure for many times to reach a relatively reasonable range. In addition, some arch structures are used more for aesthetic purposes than to bear loads, and their mechanical performance is basically zero.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare states that about 18% of people in Australia, which is 4.4 million, suffers disability. Hosseini et al argued that physically disabled people experience more restrictions in social activities than healthy people, which are associated with lower level of well-being and poor quality of life. To improve the life quality of disabled people, a study is carried out to determine an effective and accurate way to realize what disabled people think. Although there are similar products been made, the previous built products are heavy, clunky, slow in response and inaccurate. In order to solve the problem, an integrated circuit (IC) with a microcontroller is used instead of a laptop and a control system is also implemented to accelerate the response and improve the accuracy. An isolating circuit is implemented as well to improve the stability and durability of the system. Experiment result shows that the IC implemented weighs around 5g, which is 400 times lighter comparing with previous products. The deviation is controlled to be within 2% and the response time is measured to be 0.5s the power consumption is measured to be less than 100μW, which is well within the budget.
Today's VR games on the market use computers to connect a head-mounted monitor and two grips to build a virtual game world for players, providing players with a fresh sensory experience. However, the current VR game only uses the player's hand movement as a way of human-computer communication, the way is relatively single, and the player can not express their desire to play through only two hands, which cannot fully express the player's will. There are currently two types of motion capture used in consumer VR devices: optical capture, which is based on inertial sensor motion capture. These two are faced with the problem of extremely high cost and burden. The ultra-broadband system has the advantages of high positioning accuracy, low latency, cheap price, being light and portable, etc., which is very suitable for this kind of application scenario. This paper considers using two main technologies RTT ranging motion recognition and keyframe to achieve the aim.
Deep learning is an intrinsic learning style and representation through which knowledge acquired helps interpret data such as words, images and sounds. The ultimate aim is to enable computers to analyse and recognize data, such as words, images and sounds, in the same way as humans. In artificial intelligence, loss function is a very effective method. In the deep study, the loss function is used to determine the relationship between the target and the prediction. This paper analyzes and summarizes the loss functions in face recognition, object detection and face recognition, and focuses on some key loss functions.
As a part of image recognition, Chinese character recognition has a great application market in China, such as license plate recognition, logistics information recognition and so on. In recent years, the application of CNN has set off a frenzy of computer vision. Especially in the task of image recognition, CNN is widely used because of its high accuracy and few calculation parameters. However, CNN’s local operation of using repeated filters to process images also has its shortcomings, for example, it can’t pay attention to the relationship between distant pixels in the image. To solve this problem, we tried to add non-local operation to CNN to improve its performance. We chose the classic model of ResNetV2-50 as the foundation, and added non-local blocks to it. We compared the results of the two models and found that the accuracy increased by 4%.
The total weight of the minimum spanning is the smallest in the connected graph. It can be used to solve many practical problems in urban life. Prim’s algorithm and Kruskal’s algorithm are greedy algorithms for solving the minimum spanning tree problem. But they make greedy choices in different ways. The paper focuses on two greedy algorithms for solving the minimum spanning tree problem. The author will evaluate each algorithm’s complexity and determine their most suitable condition as well. The author compares the running process of the two algorithms and analyzes the relationship between their algorithm complexity and the number of edges, which can describe the sparsity of the graphs. The result shows that Kruskal’s complexity is related to the number of edges, so it is better for sparse graphs. Prim’s complexity is related to the number of vertices, so it is better at analyzing connected graphs with lots of vertices, that is, dense graphs. As a consequence, Prim’s algorithm is better for dense graphs.
Stepper motors work stably, are not affected by external factors, and errors do not accumulate. These advantages make them mostly used for open-loop control, so the control system is simple and is widely used in machinery, instrumentation, and automation fields. In this paper, three kinds of stepper motor driving circuits are designed based on the use of specific chip driving methods, using L297, L298 and ULN2003A driver chips, and AT89C51 microcontroller, respectively, and each circuit is introduced in detail in this paper. Each of these three circuits has different functions and requires different operation methods to achieve control of the stepper motor. By comparing the functions, application scope, and operation methods of the three circuits, it is concluded that the third driver circuit, which is composed of AT89C51 and ULN2003A, is widely used and convenient to use.
This paper presents a way to determine how lead influence the detection rate of muon at the earth’s surface. There are four sets of data on different thicknesses of lead above the detectors included in the experiments, and the largest set has 45054 groups of data. After using python modules to analyze the data of muons and other background particles such as electrons detected by desktop muon detectors, the discussion about identity of muons, especially about the detection rate, was conducted, as well as their relations with other factors. Then, the comparison was made between the average rate of muon detections of varied thicknesses of lead above the detectors to define the correlation between them. The result of data analysis mainly demonstrates an exponentially decreasing relationship. Accordingly, the calculation of the attenuation coefficient of lead which influences the exponential relationship was conducted as well.
With the maturity of UAV technology, drones can carry different instruments in the air to help people complete their work more efficiently. However, different working environments also bring different challenges to UAV control systems. This paper mainly discusses the quadrotor UVA and compares the stability of the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller and Active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) under the disturbance of gusts at sea. The flight principle of the quadrotor and the dynamic model of the quadrotor will be discussed on this basis. Then the composition and mathematical formula of the PID and ADRC controllers are introduced and compared. In general, this paper focused on the anti-jamming ability of different controllers under the influence of gust, which shows that although the ADRC controller has a more complex system and tedious parameter adjustment process in comparison with the PID controller, it has excellent anti-gust interference ability and can better serve the offshore operation of UAV.
The rear spoiler is one of the main components that affect the aerodynamic performance of the F1 racing car. At present, numerical simulation technology is becoming a research hotspot to study the aerodynamic performance of the F1 racing car. In this paper, we discuss the F1 racing car rear spoiler airfoil selection and three-dimensional design and use three-dimensional simulation software to calculate the impact of different attack angles, velocity, and airfoils on the rear spoiler’s drag force and negative lift. The results show that the RAE2822 airfoil has a good lift-drag ratio at low velocity. When the attack angle is 30°, the maximum lift-drag ratio can be obtained. When the velocity exceeds 60 m/s, the impact on the lift-drag ratio is almost negligible.
Gliese 486 b, also known as GJ 486 b, is an exoplanet orbiting around a red dwarf near our solar system. The celestial body is fair target for TESS to observe and related data of it have been collected by TESS. This paper firstly focuses on methods used to obtain planetary parameters and the theoretical base behind them. Then, it turns to some further calculation with our best-fit data, and analogy to the methods that previous researches used. Finally, the paper introduces analysis on the changing period and the relevant potential causes. The paper concludes with some discussion on directions of future investigations.
In this paper, we present some light curves and schematic diagrams related to our methods. The data released from TESS are our basic resources for finding exoplanets. Exoplanets may exist inside both single stellar system and multi-stellar systems. We will present 4 planets according to our findings. However, we first carefully chose 2 binary systems from a catalog of 4584 eclipsing binaries to give a fundamental analysis through details in the light curves. Then comes the ways of detecting exoplanets inside extrasolar systems, mainly transit, radial velocity (or Doppler method) and microlensing. The methods also yield some of the properties of the exoplanets, such as their orbital period, mass, radius, etc. Finally, we will talk about both the advantages and disadvantages of our methods, and with some future improvements. We use python to help us visualize the data observed in the light spectrum, and the code will be placed in the last part of this paper.
The creation of the diffusion model was a piece of exciting news in the deep learning community. Millions of people are excited to try the new DALLE 2 AI artist and the state-of-the-art stable diffusion model. One of the greatest advantages of these AI artists is that they can apply many distinct artistic styles to the same image. Nonetheless, the image created using a specific artistic style sometimes seems too strong or too weak. The ability of adjusting the strength of artistic styles of the generated images enables users of this algorithm greater degrees of freedom in terms of creating images of their wishes. Moreover, the ability of adjusting the strength of artistic styles of the generated images can also serve an educational purpose from which users can understand artistic styles in concreate terms. This paper proposed a novel method of adjusting the level of artistic styles of the generated image which utilized the continuity of the latent space of the Contrastive Language-Image Pretraining (CLIP) encoding and calculate the augmenting latent vector. This novel method provides a greater level of tailored manipulability of the generated image.
With the Beijing Winter Olympics, curling has become one of the big hits. To research, professional curlers will brush ice at 40 ° - 60 °, because the curling brush is a universal head when the force and the direction are fixed, changing the curling deceleration movement. This work aims to use Solidworks modeling, Unity virtual simulation, mathematical regression statistical prediction, and MATLAB data visualization to find the most suitable gimbal pole angle under the integration of the sports and physics, to make curling adjustable and provide a reference for improving its competitive level. The conclusion represents the gimbal pole angle is 54.7°, and the angular acceleration is 17°rad/s², which slows down the curling deceleration and has a longer relative displacement. At 60.1°, the angular acceleration is 31°rad/s², relative displacement is the shortest. So as to help athletes formulate real-time strategies, and also promote curling to be better popularize and theoretical.
Due to the widespread application of semiconductor technology in integrated circuits, more and more design studies on analog integrated circuits are gradually being implemented. However, due to the nature of analog integrated circuits, it is time-consuming and inefficient. Therefore, there are lots of experts studying how to reduce the design cycle of analog ICs. The use of machine learning in analog circuits stands out, as machine learning-based design methods have significantly reduced the analog cycle time. This review report will first introduce the algorithms related to machine learning, and the second half will outline the existing applications of machine learning in an analog integrated circuit and compare them.
Since the discovery of the Radiation belt, scientists have had strong interests in the magnetized space that protects us from the bombardment of solar storms. Early satellite observations show that the radiation belts consist of energetic particles and exhibit a two-belt structure. The outer belt electrons are accelerated during geomagnetic storms, while the inner-belt is mostly formed by the cosmic ray. Recently, the NASA Van Allen probes discovered a temporary storage ring that locates in the middle of the two belts when solar storm event occurs, and the radiation belts may exhibit a three-belt structure. This study aims to analyze the three-belt structure from short-term variation and long-term variation. We calculated the decay time scale in the heart of the radiation belt which describes the lifetime of the high-energy electrons. The study of the decay time is of great significance in understanding the dynamics of the whole radiation belt.
In this paper, the third generation power MOSFET is introduced, and the physical model based on silicon based MOSFET is improved for SiC MOSFET, and the commercial planar gate and trench gate 1.2kV SiC MOSFET are simulated. The accuracy of physical modals is tested by comparing the static characteristics with commercial ones. The dynamic characteristics of two MOSFETs are simulated by inductively clamped double pulse circuit, and the circuit parameters are analyzed according to the static characteristics of the devices. The switching loss of the two MOSFETs is calculated and compared by using TCAD software. In the two devices with the same volume, the trench gate structure has the larger switching loss.
The relation between the abelian extension of a field and the topological groups of the field itself can be constructed using class field theory. In this piece of writing, the author will introduce the fundamental theorems of local class field theory by conducting a method of literature study. These theorems are the Reciprocity Law and the Existence Theorem, respectively. In addition to that, the author will discuss several unresolved issues in class field theory and provide examples of their applications in number theory. In class field theory, the results can be shown in two different ways. Both can be considered broad strokes. The first step is to demonstrate that the local case is true. By employing the methodology of cohomology and the theory of Lubin and Tate, one can demonstrate the Local Reciprocity Law and the Local Existence Theorem. The fundamental theorems in the global case are going to be demonstrated by utilizing the local results in conjunction with cohomology. Directly demonstrating the Gocal Reciprocity Law is another viable option.
Recent year, as technologies and research have unprecedently grow in a fast speed, human’s exploration toward outer space become enormous. Several private space exploration and aerospace manufacture corporations, such as SpaceX, have come into public which symbolize the development of human society and start to reshape the human civilization. Near Earth Objects(Neos) or Potential Hazard Asteroids(PHAs) have gradually focused by scientists. With the emerging of Neos ’observations, it has become vigilant that Neos ’impact to human civilization is obviously destructive refer to the distinction dinosaur. Neo impact technologies and strategies are tremendously vital in resort of continuing human civilization. This paper presents the time frame of launching of satellite and space station and their function of exploration and the information about near earth objects including its feature and propose several possible solutions toward Neos for short time scales and long times scales including nuclear explosive devices, kinetic impactor, asteroid gravity tractor and asteroid laser ablation. These methods have been list with their advantages and disadvantages and evaluation will be taken from the prospective of successful rate, time, efficiency and cost.
The rear spoiler of an F1 racing car is the main component that affects its aerodynamic performance. In the race, it is necessary to select the wing with different characteristics according to different track characteristics. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology is used to study four different types of stationary airfoils, analyze their aerodynamic performance under three different track conditions, combine the characteristics of the track for quantitative analysis, and finally target the most suitable airfoil. Airfoil 2 is suitable for track 1 - Spa Francolchamp, a track with many curves and changeable climate, because of its medium negative lift value. The high negative lift force generated by airfoil 4 is applicable to the high altitude track, for example, Track 2 - The Rodriguez Brothers Track in this study. For airfoil 1, the lowest resistance value is applicable to track 3 - Silverstone, which is a track with many straight tracks and high-speed curves.
In this study, we developed a machine learning algorithm for crop recommendation based on a dataset containing environmental features and corresponding optimal crop choices. The algorithm was trained on a set of seven numerical features, including temperature, humidity, pH value, rainfall, and levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the soil. We evaluated the performance of multiple classification algorithms, including naive Bayes, logistic regression, support vector machine (SVM), decision trees, random forests, and neural networks. Our results showed that neural networks performed the best. However, SVM, which provided only unsatisfactory results initially, also achieved pleasing results after we redesigned its structure and adjusted its parameters. This system has the potential to assist farmers in choosing the most suitable crops for their specific environments, leading to increased crop yield and profitability.
With the continuous improvement and development of global BIM technology, BIM technol-ogy has gradually penetrated all stages of the construction industry. Construction enterprises can use BIM tech-nology to further improve the building design, construction, cost, and other work. Improve building quality and construction efficiency. However, how to truly apply BIM technology to actual construction projects is still a huge challenge. This paper first combines the theory and characteristics of BIM technology, analyzes the construction process of BIM technology applied in actual engineering projects as a starting point, and studies the feasibil-ity analysis of BIM technology in engineering projects by reviewing the literature. And some problems exist in BIM technology and give corresponding suggestions. The utilization rate of BIM technology in all stages of the construction process is improved, the development of BIM technology in enterprises is promoted, and more BIM technology application-oriented talents are cultivated for enter-prises.
The A/D conversion circuit is an important part of switching power supply equipment, and the circuit design has a great influence on the conversion accuracy. This paper mainly discusses the current mode circuit, gives the difference between it and voltage mode, and studies the design idea and circuit of the A/D conversion circuit. In this paper, the current mode circuit is composed of basic components, and the A/D conversion of the switching power supply is realized by switching current mode. The reason of A/D conversion error is that when the current mirror is not strictly matched, it is caused by the limited input and output resistance of MOS tube, and an operational amplifier is added between the drain and gate of the current mirror to improve the A/D conversion accuracy. The results show that the current mode is used to realize A/D conversion, which has low power consumption and fast conversion speed.
Due to the advancement of technology, laser communication, fiber optic communication and optical quantum communication have been developed, not only in the field of life, but also in the field of aviation, military and information security. This paper, mainly compares the difference between optical quantum communication and other communication technologies in terms of security and effectiveness, presenting the current state of technology and applications and providing an outlook on future directions. Through the comparison, this paper argues that the application of technology in optical quantum communication can promote the rapid development of quantum communication technology and thus enhance the comprehensive strength of global communication technology.
Heisenberg deduced the famous uncertainty principle which shows that there exist several conjugated quantities that can never be measured precisely at the same time. Further, Copenhagen interpretation gives a new perspective about quantum mechanics, which claims that particles do not have properties like position or momentum until people measure it. Hence, the famous EPR paradox was proposed to question the realism and locality of Quantum mechanics, which leads to the Hidden Variable explanation. However, this theorem was proved wrong by John Bell in 1964 with Bell Inequality. In addition, Hidden Variable Interpretation was developed by De Broglie and Bohm, they came up with the Bohmian Mechanics, which can be considered as Non-local Hidden Variable theorem. This interpretation gives physical meaning to waves. Unlike Copenhagen Interpretation, this theorem claims that particles do have a determined position. Some people may argue that it can be proved contradicted by using the Turing method (self-reference). Because if the algorithm represented by physics law described Hidden Mechanics to determine particles’ state, then the future is determined and predictable. Therefore, another algorithm can be established based on that, which will lead to “Liar Paradox”. This article will briefly introduce the uncertainty principle and some interpretations about quantum mechanics. Furthermore, this article will combine some ideas in Alan Turing’s Halting Problem to the universe of non-local hidden variables as a thought experiment, which involve self-reference, to give an interesting result of locality and determinism.
The paper analyses the significance of reactive power optimization, generalizes the current situation of power system development. Various optimization algorithms were introduced in this paper such as traditional optimization algorithm, intelligence optimization algorithm, including the methods of linear programming, Newton’s method, heuristic optimization algorithm, etc. This research analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm and its application direction by comparing their outstanding performance in solving discrete variables and continuous variables. The purpose of the research is to find the optimal solution of reactive power optimization algorithm, minimize the transport network loss of power system, and improve the quality of users.
5G is another age of broadband portable correspondence innovation including high speed, low latency, and large connectivity, and quantum cryptography is a technology of the combination of quantum mechanics and cryptography. In order to combine 5G fronthual with the QKD (quantum key distribution), we conduct research on this paper. First, this paper proposes DWDM-QKD (dense wavelength division multiplexing-quantum key distribution) 5G fronthaul architecture. It contains AAU (active antenna unit) sites, multiplexer, de-multiplexer, and DU (distributed unit) sites. Second, the spontaneous Raman scattering noise interference model is analyzed theoretically, and the secure key rate calculation theory is used. Finally, the simulation evaluates the performance of QKD in the proposed architecture, the reduction of classical power can lead to an increase in the secure key rate.
A common problem about currency denomination is the change-making problem. In this paper, a generalized denomination-related problem inspired by the optimal denomination problem is discussed, namely the bilateral optimal denomination problem. The solution maximizes a certain monetary value and thus can be applied in pricing strategies. Two key issues need to be addressed. One is how to properly formulate the problem in mathematical language. The other is how to compute the corresponding result with an algorithm. The paper learns from existing denomination algorithms and provides a solution to the problem from construction to implementation. Some limitations are needed to improve the practicality of the solution. An example of threshold discounts is used to illustrate the real-life application of the proposed problem.