Currently, many countries around the world are facing the crisis of COVID-19. Most of them cannot solve the problem of the spread of COVID-19. This study aims to analyze the four main pandemics’ prediction models through their advantages, shortages, the basic structures, appropriate scene as well as the improvement methods to ameliorate the whole statistical system of COVID-19. Today, the researchers have widely criticized the means and medium of data collection for the sake of pandemic spreading. Although the government has undertaken steps on the control of COVID-19, there were always many positive cases appeared at one time so that the viruses spread widely. In summary, this study offers new in sight for arranging the pandemic’s prediction method against the potential of the outbreak of all the epidemics.
People's lives are still greatly impacted by the novel coronavirus outbreak, which has no effective treatment; however, the SARS virus two decades ago quickly disappeared. The study aims to find out how the SARS virus spreads, and also compares the SARS virus to the novel coronavirus. In the whole study, the author used the SIR model and the SEIRP model. It also combines specific cases of specific cities. Finally, through analysis, it is found that the epidemic of COVID-19 can be defeated by mass immunization and improving medical treatment. And how to prevent the spread of novel coronavirus.
Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in the human body. In recent years, Human society as a whole is increasingly aware of the nutritional role that zinc plays in human health.This paper mainly discusses the relationship between zinc and human health and how to supplement zinc scientifically and lists the various effects of zinc on human metabolism. In this paper, the trace element zinc was studied through literature analysis, case analysis, data analysis, and review methods. The research data mainly came from various types of zinc literature and newspapers and magazines. This paper finds that zinc is extremely important element for human growth and development, it can resist and eliminate pathogens in the body. Meanwhile, the relationship between zinc and the metabolism of our human body is very close. Only by obtaining enough zinc, can the cells in our various organs and tissues maintain a relatively high metabolic rate.
The black hole has been a mystery and a source of detection motivation for the human race ever since our quest of the discovery and research of other space. In general, the black hole can be defined as a special time-space structure where the gravity is strong enough to trap the photons, i.e., the light will be unable to penetrate or escape from it. In this paper, the current theorem and state-of-art detection paradigms are discussed in detail. Primarily, the categories of the black holes are demonstrated. The four different types of black holes all present their unique features. the quest for black hole exploration has never ceased. It has achieved stunning breakthrough with the first ever photo taken of the black hole by NASA in 2019. The future analysis of black hole excavation and research has been brought a bright future, as technology and outer space exploration plans continue to evolve. These results shed light on guiding further exploration of cosmology as well as the astrophysics.
A patient with acute lumbar disc herniation (LDH) was admitted to the outpatient department of our hospital, who, having lifted heavy objects, suffered tingling pain in the lumbosacral region accompanied by limited movement, especially limited flexion, and radiating pain from the outside of right lower extremity to the right ankle. The patient was given a 30-minute ultrasound drug penetration once a day. After the treatment, the water cupping was applied to acupuncture points such as Large Intestine Point (大肠腧), Life Gate (命门), Lumbar Yang Pass (腰阳关), etc. for 10 minutes once every other day. A course contained three days and there was a one-day break between two courses. The patient's lumbosacral pain was relieved and there was no radiating pain in the lower extremities after the treatment of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. This method provides a simple, low-cost, easy-to-operate, safe, and effective Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatment for clinical patients with acute LDH.
PD-L1 is an immune protein in human body that can play an important role in cancer immunotherapy. By binding to antibodies, the binding activity of PD-L1 and PD-1 is blocked, which in turn inhibits cancer cells. Thus the structure of PD-L1 is very important in studying the binding of antibodies to it. However, experimental methods to solve the structures of PD- L1 and numerous complexes are expensive and consuming. Thus, it is essential to exploit computational methods to help biologists figure out the structures and the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we explore whether AlphaFold2 is able to accurately predict the structure of PD-L1 and whether we can use AlphaFold2 to capture the binding sites of PD-L1 when binding to different antibodies. Our results show that AlphaFold2 has high confident scores and accuracy in predicting the structure of PD-L1 and the binding sites with atezolizumab and durvalumab. For the interaction between PD-L1 and the antibodies, AlphaFold2 can capture most of the hydrogen bonds as well as the salt bridges. Our work suggests that AlphaFold2 can not only be used as a tool to predict the structure of proteins, but also serves as a useful tool for antibody discovery, e.g. providing high-quality predicted structures for downstreaming docking, which brings new hope for drug discovery.
Photoredox catalysis is a relatively new concept, and it involves the absorption of light for more productive use of lower energy radiation and to catalyze selective reactions. Traditionally, catalysts used for oxidation or reduction reactions were metal catalysts, such as iridium. However, these metal catalysts are not environmentally friendly and are expensive, prompting the use of organic catalysts. Pyrylium salt, an organic catalyst, can be used as a catalyst. However, the oxidizing ability of basic pyrylium is not that good and can still be improved. In this project, a pyrylium salt with substituents that include fluorine and chlorine (halogens) was synthesized to boost its oxidizing ability in an alcohol oxidation reaction due to its electron-withdrawing groups. Despite unsuccessful oxidation, there is still much research to prove that it can substitute for metal catalysts.
With the reform of the international intellectual property system, the intellectual property rules in regional trade agreements are gradually leading the development of the international intellectual property system. On September 16, 2021, China formally applied to join the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). The CPTPP intellectual property rules will have a profound impact on China's intellectual property legal system. CPTPP stipulates the drug patent link system, and China is also trying to build a drug patent link system. In order to integrate with CPTPP intellectual property rules and build a drug patent link system in line with China's national conditions, it is suggested to further clarify the patent availability standards of pharmaceutical inventions, simplify the drug marketing approval procedures and improve the patent invalidation procedures.
Autonomous driving is a very hot development direction in the future. With the application of electricity and the development of technology, autonomous driving technology will also be widely adopted. This study discusses the ethical issues of autonomous driving in society from the perspectives of social exclusion and private issues. The results demonstrate that although automatic driving is an excellent technology, it still needs more time to improve the whole systems and hardware facility to provide the best experience for people.
Cancer is undoubtedly the number one killer in today's society. Traditional surgical treatment methods have their own limitations, especially in the treatment of end-stage or hematological tumors. Emerging immunotherapy is an unprecedented breakthrough technology in cancer treatment. For example, PD-1/PD-L1 and CAR-T immunotherapy. CAR-T has been proposed for many years, it is only in the last few years that it has been improved and applied in the clinic. Its effectiveness in the treatment of cancer in hematology is encouraging. For example, it has a great curative impact in the acute leukemia, in the field of non-Hodgkin lymphoma ,it is also recognized as one of the most prospective and developed tumor treatments. Clinical application of CAR-T has attracted extensive attention. This therapy is characterized by the ability to detect tumor-associated antigens preferentially detected by T cells, which has a significant anti-tumor effect. This article will focus on HCC, list the existing HCC CAR-T treatment targets and briefly describe associated clinical research.
Obesity is a prevalent disease found among adolescents in the United States. The rising incidence in recent years has raised concerns among the public, for obesity is known as the risk factor for several chronic and severe diseases. Programs aimed at treating and preventing childhood obesity are therefore in high demand. Since the enrollment of American youth–who are between 5 and 17 years old–in schools is higher than in any other institution in the United States, schools can implant effective obesity-targeted programs by providing cheap, convenient, and accessible settings for treating and preventing obesity for the student population. This article will review and analyze the success of primary preventive initiatives implemented in schools by comparing the effectiveness of four out of eight components of am integrated comprehensive model for school-based prevention of obesity: physical education courses, food service and nutrition environment, school-site health promotion, and health service. At the end of this article, a future research plan will be introduced. A sample of 154 residential students from a local high school located in Fryeburg, Maine will be observed and surveyed to test the effectiveness of the school-based primary prevention model for obesity.
The theory of groups exists in many fields of mathematics and has made a great impact on many fields of mathematics. In this article, this paper first introduces the history of group theory and elementary number theory, and then lists the definitions of group, ring, field and the most basic prime and integer and divisor in number theory that need to be used in this article. Then from the definitions, step by step, Euler's theorem, Bézout's lemma, Wilson's theorem and Fermat's Little theorem in elementary number theory are proved by means of definitions of group theory, cyclic groups, and even polynomials over domains. Finally, some concluding remarks are made. Many number theory theorems can be proved directly by the method of group theory without the action of tricks in number theory. Number theory is the thinking of certain special groups (e.g., (Z,+),(Z,×)), so the methods of group theory work well inside number theory.
With the increasing degree of informatization in today's society, the presentation of problems has become more complex, which puts forward higher requirements for people's ability to solve problems. Python is a popular language recently, and it is very popular among developers because of the many mature libraries that are encapsulated in it. People can use related libraries in Python and use open-source related libraries for algorithm research. The main purpose of this paper is to study the optimization platform of the model based on Python. This paper mainly analyzes the characteristics of the Python language and the structure of Python programming, and uses the relevant database of Python to realize the modeling work. The experiment shows that the accuracy of the decision tree model is 96.94 %, the accuracy of the KNN classification model is 89.05%.
Lower limb exoskeleton has been proven to be effective in gait training and locomotion assistance. Specifically, control strategies of exoskeletons play the most important role in safe and effective interaction between the user, the exoskeleton, and the environment. In this paper, an analysis on the control strategies of hip exoskeletons and exosuits is performed. The controls are divided into three levels: high, medium, and low. The definition of high-level control as well as the corresponding control methods are listed and the principle of each is explained. Then, the mid-level control section is divided between detection and action layer and each control that belongs to one of the two categories is analyzed. The definition of low-level control and its control methods are then explained. At last, according to the results of various studies, the advantages and potential disadvantages of each method are put forward. The purpose of this paper is to provide reference and guidance for future researchers who hope to develop new controls or improve existing control strategies for hip exoskeletons and exosuits.
CRISPR/Cas9 technology is a third-generation artificial nuclease technology that has been successfully applied in several fields, given its simplicity and efficiency. Although it has been widely used, its application in marine organisms, especially in eukaryotic marine phytoplankton represented by marine diatoms, is just beginning. As one of the most important marine primary producers, marine diatoms have a variety of irreplaceable ecological significance and potential applications, and therefore need the support of genetic engineering technologies to advance their further development. This paper will first introduce the mechanism of action and the history of CRISPR/Cas9 technology. It will also present the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in the genetic engineering of marine diatoms and discuss its prospects.
In recent years, the role of big data technology in various industries has become increasingly prominent. With the rise of the pet trend, the pet medical industry has been developing rapidly. However, the current application of big data in the pet medical industry is single and elementary. This study aims to improve the current situation of big data technology in the pet medical industry and build a pet medical information management system supported by Spark computing framework, HDFS, and HBase. This study uses descriptive research method and comparative analysis method to prove that big data analysis based on Spark framework can greatly improve the efficiency of treatment and reduce the time cost. The information management system based on Spark framework can realize the rapid storage and calculation of massive data, reduce the technical threshold of data application area in pet medical industry, and help to promote the accelerated development of big data industry and pet medical industry.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common, frequent, age-related diseases, and it is also an important cause of chronic renal failure and end-stage renal diseases. It has always been one of the research hotspots. The high cost of treatment will bring a great burden to society and families. Therefore, it is very important to study the pathogenesis and treatment methods of DN. At present, many methods have been put forward for clinical diagnosis and treatment like Thiazolidinediones, renin inhibitor drug -aliskiren, tregs cells. These methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. However, the etiology of diabetic nephropathy is complicated and the course of the disease is long, and current treatments cannot achieve the expected target. Scholars also have studied many symptomatic treatment methods for different pathogenesis. However, the specific pathogenesis of DN has not yet been fully elucidated, and there is no special medicine for DN yet. This article briefly reviews the pathogenesis and treatments of DN based on the existing kinds of literature and new advances to provide some references for its clinical diagnosis and treatment.
The most fundamental way to comprehend mathematics is through its history. It is becoming more widely acknowledged that studying and teaching mathematics history has important epistemological implications. However, learning about the history of mathematics is also a good way to get a liberal education. This paper, through a method of literature review, introduces the functions of mathematics history education and provides several suggestions for mathematics history education.
Chlamydia trachomatis leads to the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide, resulting in short-term and long-term health issues. The treatments for chlamydia trachomatis infection are often a hot research direction. The efficiency of antibiotics, the conventional therapy for chlamydia trachomatis infection, is decreasing gradually because of resistance, especially azithromycin. Thus, it is necessary to find new therapies to treat chlamydia trachomatis infection with higher specificity and effectiveness. Among all the trials, gene and peptide therapy stand out. As for gene therapy, IRF5 and IL-10RA are related to macrophage-chlamydia interactions. Their roles are vital in order to cure chlamydia trachomatis infection. With regard to peptide therapy, pep-1, LL-37, and melittin showed outstanding abilities in inhibiting the growth of chlamydia trachomatis. However, multiple challenges for the development of these therapies remained. Deep researches are required to address these problems in order to put these treatments into clinical use. This review summarizes the conventional treatments, and introduces gene therapy and peptide therapy for chlamydia trachomatis infection.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world. Globally, nearly one-sixth of deaths are caused by cancer. Cancer raise wide attention from the researcher in recent years, chemotherapy is the main cancer treatment, but chemotherapy has many side effects, the common effects are weight loss, hair loss, and figure. These side effects will bring many pains for patients, as result, sciences made a research to reduce the suffering for patients. In this article, the research method of archival research is used to retrieve the relevant research on the side effects of chemotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. By reviewing the previous literature on chemotherapy, we can understand the history, classification, and mechanism of chemotherapy. Through the relevant research on chemical side effects and side effect adjuvant therapy, the following conclusions can be drawn. The common side effects of chemotherapy are bone marrow suppression, gastrointestinal adverse reactions, neutrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and easily overlooked taste change. The adjuvant treatments are Chinese herbal therapy, physical therapy, trace element therapy, and psychological therapy. It provides a basis for future medical researchers to study the side effects and auxiliary treatment of chemotherapy, and non-medical researchers can have a clear understanding of chemotherapy. At the same time, it provides a research direction of possibility and increases the interest for my future study.
In the biological lab of Zhejiang University, we justified and tested a type of bacillus to improve the anti-bacteria ability of commonly affecting diseases of fruits, such as pear and grape, which would lead to a large amount of economic loss and unpredictable negative influence if they were rotten before being sold. Using techniques such as gram staining and bacteriostasis test, this paper explores and confirms the results that bacillus sp. 22T has a strong ability to inhibit the growth of penicillium expansum on pear and grape. After 96 hours of exposure to fermentation broth containing bacillus sp. 22T to suppress the growth of penicillium expansum, 33.33 percent of pear and 16.66 percent of grape were not impacted by the bacterium.
With economic growth, ship transportation plays a major role in global logistics. The optimization of the ship form based on minimum resistance has been the research focus of ship builders for hundreds of years, but the actual process is quite complex, which also brings huge benefits. Ship drag reduction is not only conducive to industrial economic growth, but also helpful to improve the global energy consumption and environmental problems. In this paper, the Reynolds number and the Froude number are obtained by a dimensional analysis, and then the data are obtained from the model ship experiment with the same Froude number by the law of similarity. The total resistance is subdivided into four kinds with different causes, namely the friction resistance, wave-making resistance, form resistance, and additional resistance. In this way, the ship resistance can be reduced more scientifically and efficiently.
The Enigma machine is a kind of advanced mechanical encryption system used by the Nazi German military during World War II, with the rotor structure as the main structure. Cryptographic machines generally take the form of a boxed structure. When encrypting a string of characters, the user enters the information into a machine or system and gets ciphertext. The original information can be obtained by reverse operation of the ciphertext. As the operator enters the message to be encrypted, a sequence of plain-length passwords can be recorded based on the sequence of letters lit up on the lamp board. This article will focus on the simple structure of the Enigma machine and the mathematics behind it, thus illustrating its importance and security in the history of human encryption. Then, to further explore the working principle of the Enigma machine and help to better understand its internal nature, the essay has provided a simple code that can realize the simple function of the Enigma, and also shows a simply equipped Enigma machine.
With the development of Internet technology, human information data grows by a huge amount. Traditional data storage media are no longer suitable for large amounts of data storage due to their inherent shortcomings, such as high power consumption, large physical size, and short storage life. DNA information storage, on the other hand, can overcome these shortcomings to a certain extent. This paper introduces the process and mechanism of DNA storage, such as the DNA synthesis method, DNA coding, DNA preservation and sequencing, the history of DNA storage, its defects, and shortcomings. This article introduces the principles and mechanisms of DNA storage, including DNA synthesis method, data storage, and DNA preservation, as well as the history of DNA storage and its shortcomings and prospects for improvement, using the comparison of traditional storage methods and DNA storage methods as an import cut.
As the world has grown rapidly over the past century, so has the aviation industry as a whole. This has led to a huge volume of aviation market and at the same time the aviation market excessive reliance on fuel, with a consequent huge environmental impact. As a global community, we are moving towards an electrified transport architecture. And some studies of aircraft propulsion systems have shown that electric and hybrid electric propulsion systems offer significant benefits over conventional fuel propulsion systems. However, there are also some researches have shown that while some electrified propulsion strategies can result in significant reductions in CO2 emissions, the overall cost of the aircraft can also increase significantly. The economic efforts made in terms of purely electric and hybrid propulsion have not been significant, so this technology is not yet in significant use in the aviation market. This paper considers some of these systems and analyses their structural advantages, technical requirements, etc. This is followed by a discussion of the current difficulties and future trends in the application of purely electric and hybrid propulsion systems. It is also significant to convey that the current immaturity of this technology and the areas for improvement.
This article will summarize the results of recent years of exploration into deeper causes of Alzheimer’s disease with possible therapeutic strategies. The most popular pathological hypothesis for the causation of Alzheimer’s is the Aβ cascade hypothesis. Aβ has a dominant role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, according to genetic and pathological data. Another significant histological characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease brains is the presence of neurofibrillary tangles made of the protein tau, which is related with microtubules. In the brain, neuronal loss, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress can result from the cascade consequences of tau toxicity. But as research has progressed, it has been found the Aβ. The accumulation of protein and neurofibrillary tangles composed of phosphorylated tau are only manifestations of AD, not the result. This is also the reason why many drugs fail the phase III clinic. So people began to look for a way out of the problem, starting in the direction of the gene. How to diagnose AD early in the MCI stage, how to find markers for early diagnosis and how to inhibit the progression from the MCI stage to the dementia stage are all questions that need to be investigated in the future.
This research explored the difference between Chinese Yanbian yellow Beef and Simmental Beef in nutrients, meat quality and flavor, aimed at providing a basis for the development of Chinese Yanbian yellow cattle resources. Eight Chinese Yanbian yellow cattle and eight Simmental cattle were selected in this experiment. All the experimental cattle were fenced to 30 months of age under the same feeding conditions and slaughtered to determine the quality and flavor substance content of beef. The results showed that the contents of crude protein, ether extract and various amino acids in Chinese Yanbian yellow beef were significantly higher than those in Simmental beef (P<0.05). The shear force of Chinese Yanbian yellow beef was significantly lower than that of Simmental beef (P<0.05). The results of Gas chromatography. mass spectrometry (GC-MS) also showed that the kinds of flavor substances in Chinese Yanbian yellow beef were more than those in Simmental beef. In conclusion, the nutritional level and flavor of Chinese Yanbian yellow beef are better than those of Simmental beef. In conclusion, the nutritional level and flavor of Chinese Yanbian yellow beef are better than those of Simmental beef.
Artificial intelligence has emerged with big data technologies in natural language processing and been applied to creative solutions for overload information especially around the time of the COVID-19 epidemic. This paper provides a comprehensive review of research dedicated to applications of artificial intelligence in misinformation detection. This work organizes the necessary background material for COVID-19-related misinformation detection in NLP, concentrating on the transfer learning technique. Database, data preparation, and modeling make up the major body of information. In the part of modeling, it will merge the attributes of the pre-trained model with the specifical task scenario to explain and present pertinent comments on the future model's improvement under the task scenario. This research will benefit the decision-making and information screen for people's inability to distinguish truth from fiction during the COVID-19 pandemic.
With the gradual expansion of the population of diabetes and obesity, type II diabetes is more common in obese patients, and the most worrying is the increasing number of type II diabetes among adolescents and young adults. People have had to look for ways to stop or delay the onset of diabetes, and artificial sweeteners, which cause good sweetness properties and high safety without the associated high-calorie content of sugar, are widely used in the food sector as the main way to address high sugar food intake. However, despite the very widespread use of artificial sweeteners, obesity and diabetes have not been reduced as expected, and even their numbers continue to increase rapidly. In recent years, with more in-depth research on artificial sweeteners, it is gradually found that artificial sweeteners have many adverse effects on diabetes and obesity. This article describes consumers in more detail from different perspectives on the effects of artificial sweeteners and concludes that artificial sweeteners do affect insulin resistance and gut microbes, which are detrimental to diabetics and obese people. However, whether all artificial sweeteners have a significant adverse effect on the human body needs to be further investigated.
Since the beginning of 2020, COVID-19 has swept the world and continues to threaten human society. Forecasting the future trend of the epidemics is very important for the prevention of COVID-19. The SIR model is an important mathematical model to forecast future epidemic in epidemiology. In a press conference from London on July 5th, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson said the British government will end nearly all of the coronavirus restrictions starting July 19. This paper aims to use the SIR model to predict epidemics after deregulation of social distance. The results show that as of July 8, 2021, the number of people infected will continue to increase after deregulation, reaching approximately 30000 per day. The British government should reconsider completely liberalizing epidemic control.
In this day and age, people's lives are inextricably linked to electricity, which is being used more and more in everyday life. The traditional transmission of electrical energy usually uses materials such as metal wires and cables as the transmission medium, and the losses and potential damage (line deterioration, tip discharges) caused by this transmission medium are inevitable. The introduction of radio has been very effective in reducing this situation, and the development of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology has seen three major developments since then, with Tesla lighting a phosphorescent lamp at the Colombian World's Fair in 1893, igniting hopes for WPT. This new way of transmitting electrical energy has expanded the imagination of people in terms of power supply methods by making it possible to provide more freedom in situations where cable charging is not suitable.The working theory, fundamental design, and potential applications of wireless energy transmission technology are covered in this study. By doing this, it offers insight into the development and use of wireless energy transmission technology as it is now. In the end, it is envisaged that the market will adopt wireless energy transfer technology extensively.
With the explosion of the MetaVerse concept and the burgeoning of VR (Virtual Reality) technology, VR has been applied in diverse scenarios，for example，social networking, games, education, online retail, house inspections, exhibition tours, training, virtual concerts and so on. Learning in the 3D environment of virtual reality can bring people an immersive interactive experience, which can improve the learners’ efficiency and deepen understanding. Music learning mainly includes the cultivation of rhythm (or sense of music, also including intonation), mainly relying on ears, followed by muscle memory, and the immersion of VR games is an optimal solution for music learning. This work proposes a VR-based drum learning game to solve several troubling problems such that when drummers practice real drums at home, the sound gets too loud, and the real drums occupy a large space, going out to practice drums will take much time. But to play drums in VR game, just put on a portable VR glass and pick up the touch controllers, drum players can practice at anytime, anywhere. What's more, it's very easy for novice to get started quickly. Another conspicuous advantage of VR is it provides an immersive experience for users，including a 360-degree panoramic screen, spatial audio, and authentic atmosphere.
Spontaneous thought is a cognitive process that ubiquitously happens in daily life. Humans spend 30-50% of their lives in spontaneous thinking, but the impact and consequence of spontaneous thought have not been widely studied in cognitive neuroscience. It is crucial to expand the research involving spontaneous thought since it benefits human's memory encoding and decision-making abilities. This review has two main aims: the first is to explore the cognitive impact of goal-directed and spontaneous thought; the second is to discover the benefits of spontaneous thought to humans. This paper concludes that spontaneous thought has the role of improving memory encoding and facilitating future planning.
Currently, obesity became a prevalence concern in terms of its scale and health-related impact among the global. Medical comprehensive intervention among dietary pattern and living manners are recommended by guidelines as foundation of obesity treatment. Identifying alternative dietary weight loss strategies become a common and safe choice for many obsess people’s medical consolers and clinical doctors. Many positive impacts of Intermittent Energy Restriction (IER) have been suggested by preliminary study, but it still lacks well-powered intervention studies. This passage objects at clarify the metabolic parameters, summarized evidence of preclinical studies of IER’s role in used as a weight loss strategy compared to other common strategies the guideline recommended, for instance, continuous energy restriction (CER), etc. Specifically, the randomized studies last 8-26 weeks performing in overweight and obsess adults. The result is compared in a paradigm of IER with CER, suggesting the outcome of weight loss and change in biomarkers of metabolic parameters. The evidence suggests that IER produce positive impact on weight loss and some positive but indirect effect on metabolic diseases.
Fluorescent probe technology was discovered in the 19th century and imaging techniques were applied to microscopy around 1670. Fluorescence microscopic imaging is a classical method for observing the structure of organisms in the life sciences. In this regard, single-molecule fluorescence imaging uses fluorescent probes to label, detect, and analyze individual molecules, helping scientists to clearly observe the activities of individual molecules without disrupting the normal physiological state of the organism. In this paper, the principles and applications of fluorescent probe imaging techniques are described and analyzed. The common detection methods of fluorescent probes are spectrophotometry, electrochemistry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Rapid detection results can be obtained depending on the specific method.
At 9:00 Beijing time on October 15, 2003, the Long March II F rocket was successfully launched into space, and the ShenZhou V manned spacecraft carried by it was also China's first manned rocket launched into space. Yang Liwei, the ShenZhou V astronaut, became China's first astronaut , which also showed the great progress of China's space industry. This paper studies the Long March II Series rocket piloted by Yang Liwei, and analyzes the forces on the rockets in the expected state from the aspects of aerodynamics, basic mechanics, and gravity through the Long March II rocket parameters published to the public. The final data shows that air resistance and gravity will cause a great consumption of the rocket fuel.
Alzheimer’s disease is a major degenerative disease characterized by impaired memory, aphasia, apraxia and the changes of personality and behavior. As the population ages, the incidence of AD is increasing. According to an analysis of 10000 people with up to 30 years of follow-up data, elderly over 55 years old, the risk of dementia increased nearly four- fold if they have three or more chronic diseases at the age of 55. The pathogenesis of AD has not been fully studied, a lot of mechanisms such as neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal metabolic are related to the pathology of AD. The abnormal deposition of Aβ and hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein are identified mechanism of AD. Finding new drugs for AD has always been a research hotpot, preclinical work of new anti-AD drugs is being carried out on a large scale in the world. However, in all types of new developing drugs for AD, the failure rate is about 99%. The drugs approved to treat AD such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and glutamate receptor antagonists, only slow symptoms other than change the progression of this disease. Deep researches are required to study the pathogenesis of AD, developing drugs that can reverse the progression is the key to the treatment for AD. This review introduces new developing therapy and potential targets of future research into treatments of AD.
This paper mainly introduces the basic structure and the function of each part of servomotor. At first, it talks about what is servomotor and where does it used for. Three parts are introduced in the article, the integration part, the addition part, and the feedback part. In each part, the article talks what the electronic components that are used in each part and how do these electronic components make the arithmetic come true. At last, the paper will discuss the advantage of the feedback part.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a well-known mental illness and memory loss is its most common symptom. Until now, the reason of AD has been an unsolved mystery, with the two most prominent previous hypotheses being β-amyloid deposition and Tau protein phosphorylation. However, this year, a seminal paper studying the β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis was found to be falsified, therefore, a large number of scientists have questioned the research value of this hypothesis. This paper is a review of the β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis. The development of β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis is described and previous studies on Aβ*56, Aβ42, and Aβ40 are reviewed. It is concluded that β-amyloid precipitation should continue to be studied. The author also argues that the falsification does not mean that the "amyloid" hypothesis is wrong; the only protein suspected of falsification is Aβ*56. The Aβ hypothesis can still be pursued because there are many other Aβ oligomers that have been shown to be neurotoxic.
Brain diseases, like majority illnesses, are influenced in some way by nutrition. Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by brain cell deaths and memory loss, is significantly influenced by sugar intake. The frequency, quantity, and type of carbohydrates can influence AD development and outcomes. Whether highly processed or not, carbohydrate-rich foods influence AD. This paper discusses how a high-carbohydrate diet increases the chances of AD development and aggravation. General introduction to carbohydrate diets and the etiology of AD are explained. Subsequently, details on nonmodified and modified AD risk factors are addressed. The present paper moreover examines the imperative relationship between AD and high-carbohydrates diets. Particularly, the paper elucidates how: carbohydrate-rich diets impair cognitive function; how the diet aggravates AD ramifications. Furthermore, the paper evaluates how high-carbohydrates diets: alter AD biomarkers; interact with age to influence AD; and how carbohydrate-rich diets prevent brain cell growth and repair. The report addresses the prevailing therapeutic methods that can be employed to prevent and manage Alzheimer’s disease. Such interventions include the use of caffeine to significantly less cognitive deterioration in AD patients is addressed. Other interventions addressed regard how ketogenic diets can effectively aid with AD prevention; minimal sugar consumption; and how physical activities can aid AD prevention and management. Besides, AD-derived diseases are also addressed. The paper finds that high-carbohydrate diets should be avoided, and healthier lifestyle practices are integral for AD prevention and management.
A constructive Function is a computer program that transforms a Constructive Real Number (CRN) into another CRN. A left number is a program that generates an increasing sequence of rational numbers with an upper bound. We use algorithmic functions to generate CRNs and Left numbers. In this essay, we will prove the continuity of such functions on Left numbers in topological space with the base of right rays.
In order for investors to maximize their benefit by having better forecasts of the complex dynamics of the stock market, there are many factors that affect the stock market, from a company's financial ratios to investor sentiment and reactions to financial news. This project aims to collect UK business news from the Guardian and uses NLP techniques to transform unstructured text data into usable structured sentiment data to predict the movement of the FTSE100 index. The program uses two different libraries TEXTBLOB and VADER to extract sentiments from both the headlines and main bodies of the business news articles. Four machine learning algorithms including Logistic Regression, Naive Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbours and Support Vector Machines and a voting classifier were used to predict FTSE100 index movement given the business news sentiments of the previous day.
Asthma is one of the common chronic diseases in children, and so far there is no cure for asthma. Asthma sufferers are estimated to be more than 300 million people worldwide, and the number of asthma treatments is growing every year. In recent years, thanks to advances in therapeutic medicines, asthma symptoms can now be successfully controlled with inhaled corticosteroids and, if necessary, in combination with bronchodilators. However, even with maximum use of these drugs, the effect may be insufficient, and there are still some patients with refractory asthma that are not adequately controlled with general treatment. Drugs called biologics may become a drug that works well for previously poorly treated asthma and is recently available in children with severe asthma. Three biologics are currently available for use in children: omalizumab, mepolizumab (6 years and older), and dupilumab (12 years and older). However, there is still a lack of clinical research evidence for the specific clinical improvement rate. Therefore, in this study, this paper conducted a literature review on the latest clinical trials of biological agents at home and abroad, summarized the clinical trials of common biological agents, and introduced the latest treatment methods. The differences and deficiencies between each other achieve the effect of enhancing the prevention and cognition of asthma.
Brain tumors are difficult to be totally cured , and also associated with high rates of mortality and morbidty, therefore the therapy is always a hot issue.This review introduces glioma treatment techniques through literature summarization and qualitative analysis. According to the data, technologies that can improve median survival and potentially substitute contemporary techniques during the treatment, including photon therapy, and hyperthermia. Moreover, some techniques can improve the accuracy and safety of surgical, such as Intraoperative Neuromonitoring and Neuronavigation During Resection. Other treatment methods, such as gene therapy and immunotherapy, are feasible based on their principles. However, their current effects have not reached expectations, so they are not widely used at this stage, and further innovation and experimental proof are needed.
With the continuous improvement of science and technology, optimization has become an indispensable and important part of people's lives. Optimization problems also help people find the optimal solution in their lives. It is necessary to mention the practical application of optimization problems in reality. The purpose of the experiment in this paper is mainly to find out whether the optimization problem is far away from people through practical application examples, or whether it is closely related, and to explore whether it helps people's lives. This experiment is a verification of this problem. This experiment mainly uses Python and the gradient descent method to prove the practicality and efficiency of optimization problems. Specifically, it is based on the background of buying a house. The data comes mainly from practical examples of Guangdong, Baoan. The results are also obvious, successfully demonstrating that the practical application of optimization problems can improve people's lives, improve efficiency, and are closely related to people's lives.
In this paper, we describe a content-based movie recommendation system and provide an overview of the movie recommendation systems in today's market. Our findings show 1): Summary-Based and Feature-Based movie recommendation systems will provide different recommendation results. 2) Combined recommendation system’s result is consistent with the Summary-Based recommendation system but different from the Feature-Based recommendation system. Based on our recommendation system, we also made some innovations and fusion and conducted several control tests to improve the quality of our recommendations.
Constipation is common in modern society and affects people's quality of life. The symptoms of constipation vary from person to person. The frequency of bowel movements, the state of the bowel movement and the shape of the stool are some symptoms that determine whether a person is constipated. Constipation is classified as either primary or secondary constipation. Fibre is a compound of plant origin classified as soluble or insoluble fibre. Its function is to maintain a healthy digestive system, with insoluble fibre increasing bowel movements and faecal output to relieve constipation. Dietary fibre is the fibre that people obtain through eating. The prevalence varies from age group to age, as well as dietary fibre intake. In childhood, consuming "age + 5g" of dietary fibre is recommended. According to studies, adding a certain amount of dietary fibre can help children improve the symptoms of chronic constipation. In the adult population, the number of recommendations varies from country to country, and women are more likely than men to suffer from chronic constipation. According to studies, dietary fibre intake can improve the symptoms of constipation in adult patients. However, some patients with unique constipation need to reduce dietary fibre intake to relieve the symptoms of constipation. For the elderly, the prevalence is higher, and 20-25g is a more suitable nutritional fibre intake. And increasing dietary fibre intake can positively impact elderly patients with constipation.
Generally, a new targeted medicine takes a long time, usually 5 to 15 years, from the discovery and validation of its target to its actual use in treating a disease. There is no doubt that steps such as target validation and target evaluation are essential in preclinical development of new drugs to ensure safety, bioavailability, and efficacy of the drug, and in the target validation phase, RNA interference (RNAi) is a very important method. RNAi drug has double-stranded RNA function, so the targeted mRNA of a specific gene sequence is degraded, its transcription process is abnormal, which leads to gene silencing, and related protein synthesis failure. RNAi technology could specifically shut off specific genes, and, it is a targeted drug with great potential. Therefore, RNAi technology can be used to treat some rare diseases, such as acute hepatic porphyria (AHP) in adults, by using drugs as carriers. In 1998, Andrew Fire and Craig C. Mello first defined the RNAi phenomenon and was honored with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2006 for their discovery of RNAi and their outstanding contributions to the field of gene silencing. Since then, RNAi drugs have been studied by pharmaceutical scientists around the world, but many of the previous drugs have been stopped at the evaluation stage due to their chemical instability. Until October 2018, the world’s first RNAi drug (patisiran) was successfully marketed so that the RNAi drug development became popular again because of remarkable pesticide effect.
Over 1.6 percent of senior citizens who are 65 years or older in the United States have Parkinson's disease, which leads to economic, psychological, and physical problems for the patient and their families. Parkinson's disease patients usually have tremors in their hands, which takes away their ability to eat independently. According to research, the main food source for seniors is liquid food, since it is easier to digest. To solve this, this research created a prototype of an inexpensive liquid feeding machine for Parkinson's patients that is easy to use and install. This study used 3D-printed parts, laser-cut parts, and off-the-shelf parts. The feeding machine can replace the job of a caretaker so that seniors will be able to eat independently.
This article discussed three aspects of autoimmune disease, including mechanism, genetic susceptibility, and environmental factors. Molecular mimicry and dual T cell receptor are two systems of the mechanism. Genetic susceptibility is depending on the environment and polymorphism. Lastly, the environmental factors rely on latitude, industrial development, and gender bias. This article provides a review of autoimmune disease which can help the researchers to further understand the basic information.
Ischemic stroke is one of the biggest health concerns nowadays, leading to nonnegligible disability and mortality in its patients. During its pathological development, resident microglia in the central nervous system play a significant role to repair the damage, but may also expand the lesion because of the excessive microglial activation. As a result, microglial activation is considered a potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke. Since microglia polarized into different phenotypes ranging from M1 to M2 display proinflammatory and neuroprotective functions, regulation of the morpho-functional change of microglia became a further way of intervention in ischemic stroke. This review qualitatively analyses drugs for ischemic stroke that were studied by credible research in the recent ten years in terms of experimental methods, applied animal models, and potential signaling pathways, so as to provide clues for future studies on the fine regulation of microglial activation to treat ischemic stroke.
Mobile games have become a popular form of leisure and entertainment around the world. China's economy is growing as mobile games take a larger share of the country's mobile gaming landscape. Many people's efforts have gone to waste as online scammers steal their game accounts, private information, and virtual property. There are many problems in network security, such as increasing trust in fraudulent accounts; posing as an active party to swindle player information, transmission of Trojan viruses. Therefore, this paper puts forward countermeasures to these network security problems, summarizes the application of encryption technology and identity authentication technology in the transmission of personal privacy information, and proposes the use of part of the RSA encryption algorithm. So as far as it is possible to reduce the network game security problems and improve the network anti-theft system defense ability.
This paper focuses on an overview of the development progress of different cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. The CDKS are a group of kinases that are indispensable in the cell cycle. However, when it comes to cancer, the cell cycle is not healthy which causes malignancy of the cell that is able to mitosis infinitely. Considering the CDK are a group of molecules that is fundament during mitosis, researchers have developed its inhibitors to inhibit the effect that it has during the cell cycle to postpone the growth of cancer and lead to cancer cell apoptosis. This paper targets on the CDK inhibitors of pan-CDK, CDK4/6, 7, 9, and 12, also introducing their development history and current stages in clinical trials, as well as the drugs related to these CDK inhibitors that are FDA-approved for cancer treatment. In addition, the paper also introduces the future potentials of CDK inhibitors in the treatment and therapy of cancer-related diseases.
Eating a well-rounded diet has therapeutic effects on many health issues facing humanity today, such as cardiovascular events and diabetes, because all critical chemicals in mood regulation can be sourced from whole-natural food. A consensus on the important role diet plays in producing healthy outcomes can be reached through discussions around the gut-brain axis, mood-regulating neurotransmitters, and their close connection with food. Existing studies on diet and mental health have accomplished certain levels of success. More data across geographical locations and cultures is needed for dietary practices to be established as a treatment option for psychiatric disorders. Current treatment in psychoactive drugs is effective in the short term, but evidence suggests that it sets individuals up for a higher chance of relapse in the long run. The role of nutrients in mood regulation should be emphasized in both the disease prevention and recovery process. This article provides an outlook for using dietary therapy as an alternative treatment method for mental illness.
We notice the situation that when applicants are qualified and have the willingness to seek a job, the appraises of employees already in the company will have a large impact on applicants’ decisions of whether to become a member of this company or not. We believe that positive appraises will encourage the applicants to enter while negative appraises will discourage applicants. On the basis of this fact, in this paper we propose a compartmental model including the applicants population, the employed population and the resignation population. Several differential equations are set up and disease-free equilibrium is calculated. After the calculation of R_0, we complete sensitivity analysis which leads to the conclusion. The conclusion suggests that either decreasing the progression rate from applicants to employees who have negative appraises or increasing the progression rate from employees with negative appraises to employees with positive appraises can decrease the population of negative states.
In 2020, Airbus tested an plane called "albatross", which is a small version of Airbus A321. It is made of carbon composite and glass fiber reinforced resin and has been continuously developed in Felton, South Gloucestershire, England for more than 20 months. This paper describes various plane designs using variable technology, and introduces the albatross as an example. And the nonlinear dynamic characteristics and aerodynamic interference caused by the deformed parts will be discussed. Finally, the general and special challenges of these problems to civil plane operation are summarized. The research results of this paper can provide theoretical reference for the design of deformable civil plane in the future.
Breast cancer (BC) is a serious threat to women's health. Higher BC risk is allegedly related to personal lifestyle like diet. However, it is still unclear how dietary quality affect BC survivors. This meta-analyse aimed to figure out it. The highest and lowest categories of healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns were compared by using the random-effects meta-analyses, which combined relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that were multivariable-adjusted. 11 eligible articles, including two RCTs, three case-control studies, and six cohort studies, were found and included in this paper after they met the inclusion criteria. According to the pooled analyses, when compared to the lowest group, women with the highest quality healthy diet (highest quintile/quartile/tertile) had 24% lower risk of overall death(random effects (RR = 0.76; 95%CI = 0.67-0.86), 16% lower risk of BC specific death (random effects (RR = 0.84; 95%CI = 0.75-0.94), 28% lower risk of No-BC death (random effects (RR = 0.72; 95%CI = 0.63-0.83),and 4% higher risk of recurrence (random effects (RR = 1.04; 95%CI = 0.97-1.12). According to our meta-analysis, consuming a high-quality healthy diet was linked to a lower risk of all-cause death. The results could have significant effects on encouraging the use of daily dietary treatment regimen to benefit breast cancer patients. To achieve better long-term survival and better quality of life for BC patients, definitively establishing effective interventions will necessarily require further researches.
The virus known as severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 is extremely pathogenic. and has already give rise to worldwide contagious pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 new variations, particularly the Omicron strain, are a major global concern. To reduce the spread of virus, considerable efforts have been made towards the development of effective vaccines and drugs against SRAS-CoV-2. The current available vaccines include inactivated vaccines (Sinopharm and Sinovac), protein-based vaccines (Novavax), DNA vaccines, RNA vaccines (Moderna and Pfizer), viral vector vaccines (Oxford-AstraZeneca). These various vaccinations act in different ways to improve human immunity with their own strengths and drawbacks but both of them could work very effectively to prevent infection. In this review, recently significant progress in the development of COVID-19 vaccination, including vaccine type, efficacy and safety issues, and variant protection are summarized.
The global epidemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been raging since its outbreak in 2019, placing enormous strain on healthcare systems all over the world. The best course of action is to prevent COVID-19 in the future, despite the fact that its virological characteristics and pathogenesis have been largely understood. And all current treatment options probably include two types: one is active immunization and the other is passive immunization. Among them, passive immunity includes supportive therapy as well as neutralizing antibodies, and small molecule drugs and other treatments are used as supportive therapy, which only slows down the symptoms and prevents complications, and then waits for the body's immune system to heal itself. On the other hand, stem cell therapy is one type of active immunity. Typically, doctors use mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to treat patients with severe or life-threatening disorders because of their potent immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and tissue healing abilities. The remarkable developments in COVID-19 stem cell therapy during the past three years are outlined in this article, along with the current state of affairs. And it was found that although stem cell therapy has been successful in stages, it still has many limitations.
As a drawback to the widely accepted standard Big Bang model, the Flatness problem has been highly controversial. Due to the presence of dark matter and difficulty in measuring distances between galaxies, the universe's density in the present day has high uncertainty. There are three models consistent with the cosmological principle. The Flatness problem originated from the uncertainty of the density parameter and the puzzling fine-tuning of omega and the point of the Big Bang; its potential to identify a shortcoming in the standard cosmological model has drawn considerable attention from the scientific community. Different approaches were taken as attempts to resolve this problem. However, arguments against the Flatness problem have also been proposed, disproving the existence of the Flatness problem from the perspective of classical cosmology. This paper examines the Flatness problem by quantitatively describing the flatness problem, presenting the historical development of the Flatness problem, analyzing past approaches to the Flatness problem, and considering arguments against the problem from the perspective of classical cosmology.
In the field of astrophysics and cosmology, astronomical telescopes are the main and key tool for observing and capturing information of celestial bodies. Generally, there are two types of telescopes, i.e., terrestrial telescopes and space telescopes. This study will be mainly focused on the differences and similarities between the two types mentioned above. According to the analysis, the ground telescope is larger and collect data with processing instead of real picture. The space telescope, on the other hand, is smaller but hard to repair, which is able to send back the real pictures of the space. The research aims of this investigation are helping the further researchers to have better understanding to the two different types of telescopes and offering a guideline for them to choose the more appropriate resources to use for the future research. These results shed light on guiding further exploration of different types of telescopes and pave a path for the future inventions of the telescopes.
L-Carnitine, as an essential coenzyme in fat metabolism, can promote the metabolism of human fat, accelerate the burning of fat, and may achieve the desired fat burning slimming effect; This papers studies the effect of L-carnitine on weight loss and the possible side effects it may bring to the human body, explains the weight loss principle and metabolic pathway of L-carnitine from the molecular level, and discusses the relationship between exercise and L-carnitine in combination with metabolism, give the author recommendations for using L-Carnitine. A brief explanation of the current state of development of L-carnitine diet pills (supplements) in the field of health was described. Combined with the comparison and summary of existing databases, it is concluded that L-carnitine alone is not an ideal choice, and L-carnitine alone is used without exercise: For people with normal weight, L-carnitine has no effect on weight loss. Obviously, only overweight, and obese people, taking L-carnitine combined with a lot of training have obvious weight loss effect.
When receptors were found, the study of platelets turned to the signaling pathway. When platelets in the progression of some disease could provide valuable clues, the study of platelets turned to the relationship between platelets granules, platelet morphology and inflammatory immune responses. And even some geneticists through the analysis of genes tried to encode the secret of platelets and inflammation. We reviewed the study of platelets and found the substance released by platelets could perform complex functions. The formation of immunothrombosis was central to immunological platelet function. And it could lead to the release of platelets granules, thus initiating a cascade of inflammatory immune responses, which played a central role in adaptive and innate immune. And we found platelets induced epilepsy immune by S100b. In this review, we focused on sterile inflammation, pathogen infection immunity, tumor immunity and provided the latest evidence. Hoping in the future development, platelets shed new light on pathogens infection.
Glauber Monte Carlo model is frequently used in analyzing high-energy heavy ion collisions. This paper focused on implementing the Glauber model in the simulation of two 208Pb particle collisions and furthered the computation of the basic structure of heavy ion collisions. Not only did this research give a method to calculate the impact parameter and number of participating nucleons, but it also discussed the calculation of participant eccentricity and triangularity. Description of assumptions that goes into the computation are included, and a comparison of theoretical result and estimation are delivered.
In this research, researchers aim to find the existence of possible new exoplanets within the various red dwarf systems with masses of 0.1 M/Me 0.3 within 15 parsecs of the Earth. In the sample size of 600, the Team Hypothesized the existence of at least 3-5 previously undiscovered exoplanets due to the red dwarf's properties mentioned above combined with technological advancement, allowing for a more effective analysis method of the existing data. The Researchers intended to use python to access Jupyter labs through which the codes analyze to measure the relative flux graph and with the aid of other programs such as NumPy, lightkurve, BLS, and Doppler shift method. The researchers classified all flux patterns into four different types: Ordinary(there’s no worth-noticing feature) flux pattern; Wave pattern, for which the flux distribution in the graph is an approximate adjustment to the sinusoidal mathematical trend with few minimal variations; Transit patterns, graphs which got flux pattern at some specific period ,when researchers find this pattern, they will zoom in the special flux area and employ BLS method to determine whether there exists at least one exo-planet.; Flare patterns, which have a feature of windfall, they have steep and rapid changes in flux as well as patterns. Researchers recorded the fourth type in paper to offer reference materials for later researchers who may be interested in flares. Through analyzing, we found 1 case of unresearched flare and 2 cases of worth-noting patterns, but no new exoplanets were found.
Currently, the prevention and control measures are routinely implemented, which is not exactly the same as the situation of SARS. This paper compares China's different epidemic prevention measures against SARS and COVID-19 by analyzing previous literature. Both SARS and COVID-19 employed similar strategies, such as centralized isolation and treatment and regular case screening of citizens, but the degree of implementation of strategies during SARS was less than ideal for COVID-19 due to the technical limitations of the time. Government regulation and the use of advanced technologies are critical to controlling infectious diseases. The protection strategies that have been implemented have effectively mitigated the damage to society caused by the epidemic.
Eribulin (E7389) is a synthetic small molecule medication with high anti-cancer efficacy exhibited in preclinical studies. It is a structure-simplified macrocyclic ketone analog of Halichondrin B, which can inhibit the development of microtubule that is essential for the mitosis of cancer cells. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given eribulin approval as a third-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer (approved in 2010) or metastatic liposarcoma (approved in 2016). In a number of clinical trials, eribulin has shown outstanding efficacy and safety in the treatment of solid tumors, particularly for breast cancer and sarcoma. Current eribulin clinical trials focus on its use in the therapy of other various cancer types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), salivary gland cancer, cervical cancer, urethral cancer, and prostate cancer, and its application in combination treatment. The present study summarizes the mechanism, development, and future directions of eribulin, with an emphasis on the results of clinical trials.
The work briefly summarizes the Standard Big Bang Model, with some new frontier works demonstrating a more realistic Big Bang scenario. The main contributions are from the development of String Theory and Cosmology. The deduction and establishment of the Big Bang Theory undergo continuous contributions, from the microwave background radiation and the observation of Hubble's constant, the first impression resulting in the basic structure of the theory, to the later works, such as Friedman's equation, which introduced the theory to be rational. While there are still many details waiting to be fully understood, in this summary, we review the extensive bang process from the perspective of frontier research in string theory, both singular and non-singular models, and the related scenarios derived from the standard model of the big bang theory. We also examine the evidence supporting the model and the pre-big bang cosmology and provide a brief overview of the universe's fate based on the trend of Hubble's constant about string theory. The scenarios under different evolutive trends of Hubble's constant, related briefly to the string theory, were roughly calculated and proved to demonstrate the final state, or the universe's fate, where there is evidence for an always-existing universe. We also demonstrate the possible scenario of a cyclic model, which may be an alternative model for the real sense of the universe's evolution.
African trypanosomiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease. The main parasite that causes the disease is Trypanosoma brucei, also known as T. brucei, which infects its hosts through the tsetse fly. Trypanosoma brucei has an important structure, the flagella. The parasite relies on the flagella for survival and movement, so studying the flagella structure in detail is essential to understanding its function. Therefore, we use electron microscopes for multi-angle observation and photography. We identified some important structures of flagella which aligned with previous literature including the 92+2 axoneme, and the paraflagellar rod (PFR), and we even captured some novel features including densities connecting the axoneme and PFR, densities that interconnect the microtubule, and densities that bridges the different zones of PFR. We also did literature reviews and proposed hypotheses about the functions of these structures. Our structural study could shed light on the inhibition of the flagella movement, thereby treating trypanosomiasis.
Recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer is the primary reason for dying in the female population. Although advanced research in immunization may provide a potential treatment for cervical cancer, it is still one of the usual fetal female cancers globally. Previous studies on bevacizumab and chemotherapy provided efficient treatments with a survival benefit for women, but different strategies are needed to increase the overall survival rate of this cancer. Tisotumab vedotin is an investigative and pioneering immunoglobulin-medicine combination that targets tissue factor (TF), a protein in high concentrations in various solid tumours. Tisotumab vedotin bonds to tissue factor on aimed cells and then releases monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE). In addition, Tisotumab vedotin’s direct cytotoxicity may increase nearby tumour cells’ spectator toxicity and various immune-linked effects. This paper will discuss previous studies on Tisotumab vedotin, and their data will be analyzed further. The improvement toward this treatment will be proposed as well. This paper aimed to establish a thorough understanding and further analysis of the previous clinical trials and findings on Tisotumab vedotin.
In this paper, the stress and deformation of a manipulator structure are analyzed, and the structural optimization design is carried out. The initial configuration is a cantilever beam structure with rectangular section, which is fixed at one end and bears a load of 1 ton at the other end. After stress and deformation analysis with ABAQUS software and SolidWorks software, three optimizations were carried out. Geometric configuration optimization, topology optimization and material optimization. After optimization, the overall quality of the structure is reduced by 80%, and there is no great loss of strength and safety.
With the relevant anti-smoking policy introduced by the state, people realized the significance of smoking cessation. Therefore, E-cigarettes were regarded as a replacement of cigarettes. The analysis, which is about prevalence trends, the reason about taking systematical review, and the value of systematical review, explains this review’s stand. In this paper, the 9 articles from PubMed was collected and organized for classification.The dangers of human health is caused by the special component of e-cigarettes. Generally speaking, some countries’ legislate measures related to tobacco control have not fully met the requirements of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and played a role in protecting people from tobacco hazards, displaying in the lack of smoke-free legislation in public places at the national level, relatively low tobacco consumption taxes, no comprehensive ban on tobacco sponsorship. The control of e-cigarettes as tobacco products in many countries may not achieve the purpose of strict regulation. The authority believed to add punishment to people who sell novel flavor e-cigarettes should let them take legal responsibility. Furthermore, schools should increase publicity and education about public and individual health, to promote people’s health awareness and stop them from using e-cigarettes at a relatively young age.The objective of this review is to spot literature and describe the effects of e-cigarettes on public human health. Through researching and comparing articles, this article discusses the reason of smoking, the lack in policies in public health, and the solutions what people should take.
The study of the properties of analytical functions is described as complex analysis. The residue theorem is an important conclusion in complex analysis. This paper introduces the origin of imaginary numbers from Cardano Formula defines the conversion of complex number formats from the Euler Theorem, and proves the intermediate theorem Cauchy Integral Formula before reaching our final conclusion and the goal of the paper, Residue Theorem. The name of the theorem comes from the concept of residue, which is defined using a function’s Laurent series. We could then derive the Residue Theorem from the Cauchy Integral Theorem, also called the Cauchy-Goursat Theorem. We will be able to formalize our prior, ad hoc method of computing integrals over contours encompassing singularities. Additionally, it is a theorem that may be applied to zero-pole qualities and curved integral properties. The Residue Theorem is the basis of many essential mathematical facts revolving around line integrals, particularly in solving ODEs and PDEs and describing physics models.
Senescence, also known as biological aging, is the gradual deterioration of functional characteristics in living organisms. Human civilization has spent tremendous efforts dealing with senescences in the past centuries. In the process of senescence, cellular and genetic-based materials face several variations, and they can be varied beneficially by preventing cancer cell development, such as tumor cells. However, it surely will result in several problems due to cellular senescence. Moreover, factors contributing to human senescence will be elaborated in the following review paper. Telomere will be one factor that plays an essential role in growing old. Due to its unique characteristic of shortening, the ability to repair after the replication will be heavily reduced. Thus, this review intended to illustrate the overall process of human senescence, which involves fundamental causes of senescence, telomere shortening, and its consequences.
Intelligent dialogue systems, as a subfield of artificial intelligence, have very important research significance and application value. Today’s AI dialogue systems are still in a relatively early stage, but they are developing very rapidly. In recent years, intelligent dialogue systems have been applied in many fields, such as intelligent customer service in online transactions, intelligent voice assistants in smartphones, and virtual chatbots. This paper introduces the background of intelligent dialogue systems and the current research status of key technologies and discusses some challenges in this field and some recent research to improve the system. Most of the current intelligent dialogue systems can perform effective human-computer interaction and respond accordingly. But for the next generation of intelligent dialogue system, more human characteristics are needed so that it can better understand and express human language, have its own personality, and maintain the consistency and logic of dialogue.
With the continuous development of the sports in China, sports trauma is also on the rise year by year, of which the former cruciate ligament injury is quite common. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), one of the two main types of intraarticular fibrous ligament, it can provide the rotational and translational stability for the knee. When it injurys, patients' exercise ability and life well-being will decline, and even lead to a series of complications, especially in women. The risk of the ACL injury in the women is almost 3.5 times that in men. There are many factors leading to ACL injury. Studies have shown that after anterior cruciate ligament injury, most patients choose surgical treatment. With the development of the Arthroscopic technique, most of the patients would be likely to choose the surgical treatment, especially the people that are young and active. The surgical treatment have several advantages, like the post-operative recovery is fast, less traumatic, fewer complications. At present, the surgical treatment is mainly reconstruction under arthroscopy. The reconstruction materials include autografts, allografts, artificial ligaments and so on. It is necessary to understand the difference of biochemical and biological characteristics of different grafts in the process of ligament healing. For some elderly patients or patients with other special needs, non-surgical treatment can also be selected. This article reviews the pathogenic factors, surgical methods, grafts, and other aspects for clinical reference.
When it comes to diseases, heart failure is always an important issue for people around the whole world. Patients may suffer a lot when they have heart failure. Every year, there are a lot of people who dead because of having Heart Failure in and out of America. Nowadays, there are mainly two types of heart failures, HFrEF (heart failure reduced ejection fraction) and HFpEF (heart failure preserved ejection fraction). Research show that SGLT2 including Dapagliflozin, sotagliflozin, empagliflozin, and other types of inhibitors are effective when used to treat with heart failure patients regardless of whether they have had diseases like diabetes before. With the support of researches mentioned in the following passage, this idea will be reliable and we believe that with such kind of good news that the SGLT2 inhibitor are actually contributing to the process of dealing with HF, people who have been suffer from HF will one day be able to cured.
Dark matter is counted as two of the significant discovery and research topics in the academic and scientific fields. Found later that dark matter does not belong to any of the present areas of known matter, dark matter was discovered in the late 19th century and early 20th century by indirect measuring of the abnormal velocity and mass dispersion pattern detected by multiple astronomers and mathematicians. In the last several decades, scientists from different physics fields have determined the property, location, potential candidate, origin, and interaction of dark matter. Starting with the history of the discovery and research of the dark matter, the dark matter property will be illustrated in the abstract. One of the properties of dark matter is the property that dark matter does not absorb, reflect or interact with any photons and any kinds of electromagnetic waves. The two potential dark matter candidates are WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle) and axion. The reason the scientist suspected that the two particles are the candidate for dark matter is also listed. Experiments about the candidates and other observations and theories are also listed in the paper.
Nanomaterials have great application prospect in biological medicine due to their strong permeability, repair and regeneration. In particular, nano silver has excellent antibacterial ability and no toxic effect, which makes it widely used. The specific content of this paper introduces a method of using silver nanoparticles to generate silver ions, and then make it react with hydrogen peroxide, through the colorimetric device to react with different color changes corresponding to different concentrations, through this biosensor to determine the concentration of such as cholesterol lactic acid and other substances.And when detecting miRNA,AuNPs were further modified by complementing the DNA (cDNA) of target mirnas. AgNPs could not be attracted to negatively charged DNA due to electrostatic repulsion by immobilized modified gold nanoparticles on the electrode surface. After analyzing the peak of silver stripping, miRNA can be accurately detected.Furthermore, chitosan coated silver nanoparticles were designed, and polyethylene glycol was used as a stabilizer. Finally, its good blood compatibility and antibacterial ability, as well as its cytotoxicity to cervical cancer cells were demonstrated by characterization.Finally, the accumulation and changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen (RNS) induced by silver nano are introduced, and it is confirmed by measurement that they are important factors in apoptosis of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
In recent years, a variety of treatment methods for Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been used, but most of them fail to show significant effect due to the late stage of diagnosis. At present, immunotherapy has become a new way of tumor therapy and attracted wide attention, among which programmed death molecule-1(PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1(PD-L1) have been proved to relate to immune escape in NSCLC, and relevant clinical drugs have shown a clear therapeutic effect. The related drugs can relieve the immune tolerance by blocking the pathway, and play a role in tumor killing. There are now various related drugs. Here, I review the progresses of the mechanistic role of PD-1 pathway in the tumor immune escape and effect of related drugs therapy.
Bitcoin is known to the world from its birth to the present, and it only took 13 years. In the past 13 years, countless virtual currencies have flourished. In the rapid development of virtual currencies, many problems have been revealed. This article will mainly discuss (1) energy consumption, (2) miner consolidation, (3) encryption security and finally (4) miner income volatility through different types of virtual currency data. And use Android virtual currency as a case to look forward to virtual currency The direction of development. Readers can learn more about the main challenges faced by virtual currencies through this article, and explore the future development model of virtual currencies.
Down Syndrome sounds like a rare case that can only be found in biology courses that are unrelated to normal people’s life. However, it occurs once every 1200 people according to CDC. Scientifically, Down syndrome is a genetic disease caused by trisomy 21 that cannot be cured by direct means of surgery or drugs. People must study the biochemical pathway Down Syndrome interferes with human body development, symptoms usually exhibit in patients, and Down Syndrome’s relationship with other diseases like Alzheimer’s in-depth and provide advanced detection for parents inclined to have Down Syndrome babies. Due to patients’ intellectual disability, someone must make important decisions for them so that they can receive needed treatments, Nursing patients with it not only requires extensive medical care but also patient emotional support. Well-trained nursing is required to protect this vulnerable group, not only to bring patients the chance to live a normal life but also to help their families avoid living in conflicts.
Since winglet be added on the motorcycle in 2016 first, the extreme speed of the motorcycle competition improve a lot. The engineers of motorcades not only focus on the efficiency of the engine, but also put some of their attention on the design of the aerodynamic kits. This paper is focus on the shape of the racing track to see how it effect the choosing of winglet. Since different surface area of winglet may have some effect on the force provided on the motorcycle. This paper finds that for the racing track which has more strait roads, the motorcycle should reduce the drag force, so that the winglet should has less surface area, vice versa. The research significance is to help motorcades to choose suitable aerodynamic rate and give some suggestion to the rider who want to add winglet on their own motorcycle.
The length of time needed to recover memories in the hippocampus area varies greatly across the existing theories of system-level consolidation. These competing hypotheses do, however, have connections. The standard consolidation theory, multiple trace theory, and scene construction theory are the three existing models that are examined in this study. After reexamining their features, the authors test whether the three models can be integrated in terms of trace duration and function. It is better to think of the hippocampus's contribution to system-level consolidation as a functional transition from retention to rebuilding through time rather than just a question of persistence. The involvement of the hippocampus in memory retrieval may be fitted into a more thorough model in terms of functional transformation since the two functions, retention and reconstruction, are of equal significance and can scarcely be divided into two sections.
With the continuous improvement of people's economic level and the maturity of consumption concepts, natural cosmeceuticals (with therapeutic effects) have received more and more attention, which has prompted the innovative development of the cosmeceuticals industry. Natural ingredients derived from plants and the marine have attracted the attention of scientists for their sustainability and less skin irritation. These ingredients, along with low skin penetration and instability, influence formulation development. Nanotechnology is used to help improve the shortcomings of natural ingredients such as instability in formulations. However, the toxicity of nanotechnology and regulatory gaps have also raised concerns and potential concerns among consumers. This paper provides an overview of potential active ingredients in botanical and marine cosmeceuticals and how they can improve formulation innovation under the action of different nano delivery systems. Relevant literature from pub med, web of science, and other websites are studied to corroborate the most recent trends in the development of cosmeceuticals and the most recent advancements in industry regulation. As a result, a key area of research for scientists continues to be how to enhance formulations while creating natural nano-cosmeceuticals to allay consumers' worries about toxicity.
The world is entering an era of strong infectious diseases, and it is urgent to develop a new type of rapid, efficient detection system. This graph specifically illustrates the detection function of the gold nanoparticles, and the gold nanoparticles-based sensor. Gold-based nanoclusters (NCs) which has a small particle size, has a high degree of stability and no impact on the biological activity. Gold-based NCs has a surface plasma resonance effect and produces visible color, which can be detected by observing the color change using the agglomeration reaction of the detected substance with Gold-based NCs. In order to specifically detect certain biomolecules, some functional groups or small DNA molecular chains of nanolodin are usually modified on it to have a selective detection capability. In the review, we introduce a total of four nano-gold applications, for bacteria, viruses, DNA and cancer, also, respectively elaborating some recent Gold-based NCs detection applications.
The credit assessment system is an essential part of modern financial institutions, and most of them have adopted different models to perform the task according to their specific needs. Support Vector Machine has been widespread and proved an efficient classifier, especially for relatively small datasets in recent years. When using SVM, data processing, choosing an appropriate kernel function, and tuning parameters can largely affect its performance. The most popular kernel function of SVM is the Radial basis function (RBF), and its main parameters are the regularization parameter, C, and the kernel coefficient, γ. Our study based on the South German credit dataset demonstrates that parameter optimization and an appropriate ratio of the size of the training dataset to the size of the testing dataset could significantly improve the performance of SVM.
This paper presents an analysis on a parametrization of ALICE open data on the Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76TeV created by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We will use the tracklet method to calculate the differences in pseudorapidity values (∆η), generate ∆η distributions for different centrality ranges, and investigate the centrality dependence of the number of particles produced. This document presents findings of a negative correlation between centrality classes and the number of particles produced.
Brain cancer is the most aggressive intracranial disease: once diagnosed, 70% of patients will not survive. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential to improving the survival rate of diagnosed patients. Currently, imaging scans and pathological biopsies are mainly relied on to confirm the diagnosis of brain tumors. However, imaging scans do not confirm the diagnosis or tumor grade, nor do assess response and monitor treatment effect. Similarly, pathological biopsies are highly invasive and difficult to repeat. To address these limitations, the field has proposed the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a liquid biopsy method to detect circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). This review focuses on how liquid biopsy of CSF ctDNA can facilitate and complement the clinical care of patients with brain tumors. Relevant reviews in the past five years show that ctDNA is highly expressed and its content in CSF is higher than that in plasma. By sequencing the ctDNA of CSF, the diagnosis and prognosis information of brain tumors can be obtained, the best treatment method can be selected, the treatment response can be monitored, and the tumor evolution can be tracked. Because ctDNA detection is still in the research stage and lacks standardized technology, its effectiveness and practicality require further investigation before they can be used in clinical practice.
Knee joint is one of the most important joints to participate in human daily activities and various sports. However, at present, knee joint injuries are still common for both athletes and ordinary people. Wrong exercise style and bad living habits will cause knee joint injury. Weak rehabilitation concept after knee joint injury also leads to poor prognosis in most cases of knee joint injury. Based on the above background, this paper will analyze and sort out the causes of knee joint injury, and explore the rehabilitation methods after injury, so as to provide ideas for future research on knee joint protection and rehabilitation after injury.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with progressive memory and cognitive impairment. Due to the devastating social and financial impacts of AD, extensive research is put into gaining a clearer understanding of its pathogenesis and risk factors, as well as the development of treatments that can slow or reverse the disease progression. Despite this, early and accurate detection of AD and the development of curative treatments are yet to be achieved. Further, major challenges remain in the symptomatic treatments available today, as the delivery of Alzheimer’s medications is limited by low efficiency due to difficulties in blood-brain barrier permeation and poor absorption. The incorporation of nanotechnology in current and potential treatments present unique opportunities for the delivery of therapeutic agents with increased specificity, lower toxicity and controlled release. In this review, we outline the proposed pathogenesis, current diagnosis and treatment methods of AD, and discuss recent advancements in nanomaterial-based systems that target major hallmarks of AD through different mechanisms, including targeted drug delivery, inhibition of Aβ aggregation, delivery of neuroprotective agents and Aβ removal from the blood.
The transformation of the sun, the moon, and the stars, the visible but unreachable universe, has made generations of people fascinated by it. The rapid development of science and technology is the cornerstone of human exploration of space, and spacecraft is an indispensable and essential part of human space exploration. This paper introduces the development process of spacecraft from 1960 to the 21st century using literature collection, data integration, and other methods, focusing on the evolution of spacecraft power sources, supplemented by the evolution of spacecraft structure. According to the research results, it is concluded that the power source of the spacecraft shows a development trend from relatively low energy and efficiency to relatively high efficiency, and the structure of the spacecraft is in a development state from only supporting spacecraft exploration to realizing manned navigation.
The use of vaccines to combat disease by humans has been ongoing for centuries and has produced significant results. However, with the development of technology, different types of vaccines have emerged, and often people are confused as to which is the best. This paper have analyzes three main types of vaccines that have been developed and commercialized: DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines, and inactivated vaccines, to gain insight into the issues associated with vaccines. This paper explained the mechanisms of action and the process of their production, and identified some of their potential advantages and disadvantages. Finally, this study draw the conclusion that each type of vaccine has unique properties that cannot be replaced by others and that it was not easy to determine the best among them.
Encryption is an important factor during online communication. It is useful to protect users’ privacy and prevent eavesdroppers listening. RSA encryption and quantum encryption are two mainstream encryption methods applied nowadays. This paper focuses on the evaluation and comparison between these two encryptions. It adopts the basic theory of RSA encryption and quantum encryption and provides an analysis of the benefits and shortcomings of these encryptions. It can be concluded that RSA (a type of mathematical encryption) is more popular than quantum encryption (a kind of physical encryption), but is less secure.
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis relating to immunology, genetic inheritance, and environmental conditions. Various treatments are applied to relieve the symptoms of AD. One of the most common types of medication applied is topical treatments. The review examines the mechanisms of action and pathways for topical corticosteroids, non-steroid topical calcineurin inhibitors, and phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors based on a wide range of research and studies targeting AD. The three treatment strategies are compared under different disease conditions. The review suggests that to maximize the effectiveness and minimize side effects, the application of each type of medication should be carefully considered depending on the severity of AD conditions and the individual's physical condition.
This document explains and explores the basics of the jet engine, from basic physical knowledge to the inner workings of the engine, as well as the maintenance aspect. It touches on the mechanical properties that allow the jet engine to function, the design considerations, the mechanisms within the engine, and finally the maintenance of the engine.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a kind of neurodegeneration disease and often happens in older people. Age is an influencing factor in the prevalence of AD. Up to now, AD is still difficult to cure and only limited medications can relieve some of the symptoms. Therefore, research on the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases has become more and more popular in recent years. Multiple studies offer some proof that the tau protein mutation and AD are related. This review described the structure and the purpose of the tau protein. The linkage between abnormal tau mutation and AD is further clarified, and a summary of two medications for AD is also included.
The upper atmosphere has drawn increasing attention as remote sensing technology has advanced. People start looking into how radiation in the high atmosphere spreads and what materials exist. This paper mainly introduces the radiation of the upper atmosphere from three aspects: the properties of the upper atmosphere, the actual contents of radiation, and the factors affecting radiation. These three aspects explain several extraordinary natural phenomena, such as auroras and magnetic storms. In-depth explanations are provided for the three atmospheric qualities, the particle motion law, and the interference of natural and human forces with radiation. The gas transport theory introduces the interaction of particles in the atmosphere while providing a complete analysis of electronic communication's fundamental operating principle and propagation mechanism. This article finally analyzed the nature of the upper atmosphere and the various kinds of radiation in the upper atmosphere, including what the radiation particles are, as well as the interactions and applications of these particles. This article's main contribution is bringing together a large amount of data about irradiation in the upper atmosphere. Through the collation of this article, later, people can study the content of this piece more easily.
People are always amazed by the crunchiness of a great cookie or cupcake. What are the substances involved? The author discovered a chemical dubbed "trans-fat" in the nutrition table while browsing it. We discovered that trans-fat is formed by hydrogenated vegetable oil through data collection. Hydrogenated vegetable oil is extensively used in foods such as cream, biscuits, and ice cream. People taste and appreciate the food at the same time. People are wondering about whether these butter goods are beneficial to their bodies and how much they should eat on a daily basis when they taste the cuisine. This research using a literature review examines how hydrogenated vegetable oil is produced and used, as well as how it affects the human body. This study uses the strengths of previous authors' work to determine how to lower the trans fatty acid content of hydrogenated vegetable oil products and how much trans fatty acid-containing hydrogenated vegetable oil products should be consumed daily.
Probiotics are living microorganisms that when administered in appropriate quantities bring health benefits to the host. Probiotics products have been developed in the form of dairy products, dietary supplements, fermentation and enzyme preparations or other biological agents, and the global probiotics industry is growing at a rate of 15% to 20% per year. The clinical application of probiotics is becoming more and more extensive, especially in bacteriostasis, treatment of intestinal diseases, neonatal diseases and immune diseases, as well as in lowering blood pressure, lowering blood lipids, anti-aging, anti-tumor and central nervous system diseases. Metagenin refers to the bioactive compounds beneficial to health produced in the fermentation process of probiotics. Metagenin has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, immune regulation, antioxidant, anti-obesity, anti-hypertension, hypidemia, liver protection, promoting wound healing and other biological activities, which has broad prospects in the development of new health functional food. This topic will be used for the method of investigation and demonstration to study the research status and future development of probiotics and metagenics cosmetics, as well as the safety evaluation of cosmetics components and human body. The main research direction is on lactic acid bacteria and bacillus.
Chirality exists in most drugs and has a non-negligible impact on the pharmacological activity, metabolic process, and toxicity of drugs in the human body. Drug molecules can only bind to specific receptor molecules in the human body, and the difference in chirality will lead to different structures of drug molecules, which will lead to the inability of drug molecules to bind to receptor molecules, resulting in a decrease in the efficacy of the drug and even adverse effects on the human body. Therefore, the synthesis of correct chiral drugs has always been an area worth exploring. At present, there are two main approaches for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral drugs: chemical synthesis and biosynthesis. This paper explores the application of chemical synthesis to chiral drugs by combining asymmetric organocatalysis with chemical synthesis. In addition, this paper finds that asymmetric organocatalysis is a very worthwhile way to synthesize chiral drugs and has great potential in the development of new drugs.
Traditional robots are mainly rigid structures. They are complex in structure but limited in flexibility, and have poor security and adaptability. At that time, many bio-inspired robots were created to overcome the traditional robotic challenges. Creatures gave us the inspiration to use a soft body to complete task, and then soft robotics were invented. This paper evaluated the future difficulties faced by this area, and listed the deficiencies that still need to be improved for soft robots that should be overcome in future projects as well. First of all, the first difficulty is that most soft robots rely on software drivers to complete tasks, and because of this, the driving functions of soft robots cannot be perfectly performed, and the action tasks are not diverse. Secondly, if the action moving is over flexible, it will be hard to control. The precision for missions cannot be satisfied. Thirdly, the choice of drivers’ type becomes another problem. For example, the memory alloy drive has the advantages of large driving force, controllable stiffness, good elasticity, etc., but it also has disadvantages such as easy aging and slow response speed. Although the pneumatic drive has a fast response rate, there is a risk that the fluid may leak, and the environment cannot be guaranteed to be airtight. Obviously, there is no ideal solution to work out actuation difficulties.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the four biggest killers of the elderly, along with heart disease, lung cancer and cerebrovascular disease. However, the current understanding of the underlying causes and treatment of AD is based only on some hypotheses, which makes our research on AD urgent. Based on the common inducing hypotheses of Alzheimer's disease, such as β-amyloid deposition hypothesis, tau protein phosphorylation hypothesis, and viral infection hypothesis, this article will search and summarize a variety of specific drugs for different pathological hypotheses in the medical community, including those that have been marketed and those that have shown good therapeutic effects in clinical trials. Find, understand and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each specific drug, so as to better and faster help to study the latest specific drug for Alzheimer's disease, and change the quality of life and physical condition of people with Alzheimer's disease and their families.
There are different approaches to reduce the drag on a car in motion, and at the same time, the resistance of the car is affected by many factors. This paper focuses on reducing the resistance of the car from three aspects, namely the weight, the windward area, and the aerodynamics, so as to improve the acceleration and speed of the car. This paper also introduces specific optimization models and sketches through data comparison and calculation. It is reflected that the improved vehicle structure can better reduce the drag, thus achieving the purpose of increasing the speed.
ADSCs are stem cells found in adipose tissue that can self-renew in vitro and undergo multidirectional differentiation in containers. They may have anti-aging effects through their growth factors as well as their multidirectional differentiation function. In this paper, we searched PubMed, Web Of Science, CNKI, and other databases for related articles in recent years through relevant keywords, and the results showed that ADSCs have significant effects on facial anti-aging such as inhibiting skin wrinkle increase, whitening facial skin, and promoting hair regeneration. This paper presents a multifaceted analysis of the underlying mechanisms of action and related research on the application of adipose stem cells in facial skin anti-aging. It will enable medical aesthetic physicians to have a better understanding of the role and mechanism of ADSCs in facial anti-aging so that they can better provide healthy and standardized medical aesthetic services.
HER2, human epidermal receptor 2(c-erbB-2 gene), is a hot targeted point in various cancer’s targeted therapy. Breast cancer including HER2 positive or negative. HER2 is an oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase. HER2 gene amplification occurs in some of breast cancers (BCS), resulting in overexpression of the HER2 protein. Compared to the trastuzumab or pertuzumab, the performance of trastuzumab deruxtecan is excellent. Drug resistance is known to be the main cause of failure of tumor chemotherapy. Tumor drug resistance involves various mechanisms, such as those involving decreased intracellular drug concentration, changes of drug target molecules, metabolic detoxification, and imbalance of DNA damage repair function. HER2-positive breast cancer becomes resistant to trastuzumab, thereby blocking effective binding and developing resistance. The significance of this review is to understand the mechanism of drug resistance from molecular and chemotherapy perspectives by studying the structure and overexpression of HER2 protein as predictors, so as to grasp the progress of current targeted drug therapy. Our review starting from HER2 and its targeted therapy gets to the deep insight into the antibody drug conjugates and explores the possible proteins which may become the potential targeted points in future research.
To satisfy the urgent requirements of security for fifth generation (5G) fronthaul network, quantum key distribution (QKD) technique is taken into consideration as a promising way. In this paper, we first propose an architecture for quantum security beyond fifth generation (B5G) fronthaul optical network, which merges facilities of QKD into the architecture of existing 5G fronthaul network, enabling quantum signals to be transmitted with classical signals within the same fiber. Secondly, theoretical model analysis of interference with quantum signals caused by four wave mixing noise is performed. Moreover, the theory of secure key rate calculation under noise interference is introduced. Lastly, the QKD performance in the proposed architecture is evaluated, which leads to the conclusion that even when the quantity of B5G fronthaul optical channels for classical signals reaches up to 12, the secure transmission distance of QKD is still beyond 20km, which satisfies the demand of B5G fronthaul optical network.
Nowadays, China is experiencing extreme heat wave weather this year. Currently, domestic citizens are suffering from the excessive hot weather and have no idea how to protect themselves efficiently from getting illness or having heat stroke. Therefore, we have a research on temperature change rules in some major cities (Shanghai, Guangzhou and Beijing) in China from 2015 to 2020. We collect and obverse several temperature data of Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou to see if there are upward or downward trends in temperature. We attempt to understand how temperatures have changed over time in these cities in China and how these trends can help forecast future temperatures. This research can help people know the probable temperature changing trends in the three cities in the next few years and take some precautions in advance.
Wearable biosensors have the potential to provide valuable information about our physiological states and transform traditional healthcare. Compared to traditional blood sampling, on-body analysis of non-invasive biofluids can offer continuous and painless monitoring of relevant biomarkers. Recent developments in epidermal sensors feature integrated systems capable of sensing multiple factors while providing easy readout and great skin conformity. Innovative solutions based on advanced material fabrication and novel designs have also emerged to address challenges such as power, sensor sensitivity and selectivity, and communication. As a result, more possibilities have emerged to develop sophisticated integrations with more functionalities, optimized skin conformity, and less disruption of daily routine. While sensing performance and functions continue to improve, attention should also be drawn to practical problems such as biofouling, contamination, and complex composition dynamics. Moreover, although past and current research have highlighted studies investigating the use of sweat in diagnostics, more evidence of correlations between sweat biomarker levels and physiological conditions is needed to promote the utility of these systems.
Metastatic breast cancer continues to have high mortality rates despite the numerous advances in drug therapy. Breast cancer patients have acquired resistance to current treatments, and severe adverse effects, such as cardiotoxicity caused by Trastuzumab, further contribute to the high mortality rate. Therefore, novel drugs with greater specificity and less severe adverse effects must be developed to combat the rise in treatment resistance. Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is an attractive drug of choice since lapatinib is not associated with cardiotoxicity, given its greater specificity to HER2 receptors compared to trastuzumab. This review provides a brief overview of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their overall mechanism of action in treating HER2+ cancers. The study further summarizes the mechanism of action of Lapatinib, its pharmacokinetic properties, its clinical applications, the tools of the act of lapatinib resistance, and recent advances in developing derivatives of Lapatinib to combat lapatinib-acquired resistance.
In order to better solve the huge power consumption of street lamps, it is not conducive to environmental protection and saving resources, and it is also to save manpower and financial resources. In this article, an infrared remote control LED light is designed, using the infrared control module and the single-chip control module, and also mainly used the characteristics of PWM combined with LED to save electricity. The designed LED light can be combined with the app on the mobile phone to realize the combination of software and hardware, and the control of the street light can be realized on the mobile phone. This article also propose to convert solar energy into electricity for street lighting, which is the direction of subsequent research and development.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most prevalent genetic kidney disease, affected millions of individuals worldwide. And it is also one of the most prevalent causes of kidney failures and transplants. Previously, in many years, mitigating its symptoms had been the only treatment for this disease. After more than a decade after the early clinical studies of medicines for ADPKD began, the first medication that may successfully delay the course of the condition is now on the market. Due to the severe side effects and high cost of tolvaptan, it cannot be considered a full success, but rather the beginning of therapeutic research. More recently, enlightened by the discovery of the defective metabolism of PKD related cells, researchers have been designing dietary plans and new lifestyles for ADPKD patients to slow down or even halt the disease progression. Current outcomes have been promising. This article will address the best practices for treating ADPKD patients, with a focus on medications that have been proved to be beneficial in preserving kidney’s function and structure.
The development of biotechnology will inevitably increase its application in medical and health care. Since the experiment of Huang Jun and his team in 2015, there have been a number of biomedical laboratories trying to apply gene editing technology to human therapy. This has aroused great controversy in international academic circles. Many people believe that the misuse of gene editing will not only destroy the existing ethical construction of society, but also affect the ability of human beings to adapt to the future environment. However, this paper believes that gene editing technology can be gradually applied to human body after the government first makes relevant policy preparations and technological breakthroughs are achieved in epigenetic editing. It is hoped that this paper can dispel the excessive concerns of those who oppose human gene editing and provide constructive suggestions on the development of this technology’s humanbody application.
The search engine (SE) is a senseless artificial program. SE matches the user's information demands with the input information and then provides an ordered list of answers. However, the outputs are frequently subjected to bias, which can affect the depiction of issues like gender inequality. Studies have shown that search engines may unconsciously inherit biases from their creators and users throughout their life cycle. In this paper, focused on Google as our research case, we evaluate and summarize different factors that can lead to the bias issue. The factors are depicted in computer science social domains. And in response to these causes, we propose a workshop idea to raise awareness of the problem of search engine discrimination, especially regarding gender issues. Based on our current workshop solution, we also list some potential improvements.
Stroke is a disease that will affect both physical health and mental health of people. Scientists are developing different methods to detect and cure this disease. Nanotechnology has achieved successful results in diagnosis as well as treatment of ischemic stroke. Stroke will cause blood-brain barrier dysfunction which provides chances for detection and treatment to process. Researchers have developed and evaluated a variety of nanoparticles in vivo or in vitro, including gold nanoparticles, perfluorocarbon nanoparticles, PLGA nanoparticles and iron oxide nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are being modified and achieve good results in diagnosis including magnetic resonance imaging, microwave imaging and fluorescence imaging, and treatment including thrombolysis and stem cell transplantation. Nanotechnology has several benefits such as tiny size and ease to modified which will fasten future development in stroke detection and treatment. This review paper will outline several different modification methods of various nanoparticles in laboratory.
As a financial product, gold is one of the more important spot and futures trading products in the commodity market. Based on the time series model, the gold price can be fitted and predicted, in order to explore the law of gold price changes. It has positive implications for investors and government managers. This article selects the Prime Day price in 2018 as the research object. Combined with domestic and foreign research content on financial time series. First, through the time series diagram test and the unit root test, it is obtained that the gold daily price series is a cycle-free and non-stationary series. Therefore, the time series needs to be differentiated. Second, a new stationary sequence is obtained by making second-order differences. Third, after the time sequence diagram test, ADF test, and white noise test, the sequence is a non-white noise sequence. Comparing the AIC values of multiple time series models, the most ideal model for the series should be the ARIMA (2,2,2) model. The significance test of the model shows that the fitted model is significantly effective. And the significance test of the model parameters is also passed. Then make predictions with this model. Comparing the predicted value with the future real gold price, it is found that the predicted value is close to the real value. This is a good reference for the country to formulate relevant economic policies.
Since the spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 from China to different parts of the world, every country’s government has tried their best in conducting policies to protect their people and their economy. Their approaches can be generally classified into three types, moderatism represented by Singapore, conservatism represented by China and liberalism represented by the United States. To investigate the effectiveness of these measures, the data about the economy (in particular the Gross Domestic Product) as well as about the coronavirus (in particular the fatality rate and the number of confirmed cases) is studied and analysed. The relationship between GDP and the number of confirmed cases can be deducted. The development of the virus against time can be simulated and discussed. The results and further discussions can be helpful in clearing the pandemic from the Earth especially from less developed countries and in better preparing us when facing future possible pandemics.
In this paper, we discussed the basic mechanism of retrosynthetic analysis. We start with the idea of disconnection, which is a hypothesis to break the target molecule into some relatively simpler and more common molecules. Then we break bonds to verify our hypothesis made during disconnect. Based on the number and location of the functional groups, we can apply different methods for retrosynthetic analysis. We also apply our research of retrosynthetic analysis on the synthesis of hydroxychloroquine. In the second part of our paper, we discussed which method is more efficient to synthesize hydroxychloroquine, which should simplify the steps as much as possible, reduce the need for special conditions such as temperature, pressure, etc., and reduce waste liquid pollution, to ensure the ultimate industrial production effect.
Automated blind guidance has been a hot research topic, which aims to develop efficient and inexpensive technologies to help blind people meet their daily needs. Benefiting from the rapid development of deep learning and machine vision, artificial intelligence-based blind guidance technology, especially blind guidance technology based on simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), has become a promising alternative. In this paper, we introduce the relevant research results of YOLO-SLAM technology in the guidance of blindness. We began by highlighting the power of YOLO, SLAM technology, and the promising prospects for current research in this field. In order to ensure that the information has a higher reference value, we focus on the practical application and improvement optimization of related papers in the past four years. We analyzed existing surveys and looked at current work, using several dimensions such as the data obtained, the sensors used, the models learned, and the human-machine interface. We compared the different methods, evaluated their testing sessions, summarized their similarities and differences, and drew conclusions by analyzing future trends in the field.
Among the several neurodegenerative illnesses, one of these is the illness Alzheimer's (AD). it is hard to cure completely for now. To find fresh targets for the therapy of AD, neuroimmunology have been getting attention gradually. Neuroimmunology response, which happened in the central nervous system (CNS), is innate immune response of human. In the AD, microglia activated by damage signals lead to a series of cellular cascade responses. Then, a large number of chemokines and inflammatory cytokines are released by microglial cells. The cytokines have neurotoxic effects on the certain brain areas, causing neuronal degeneration. Since microglia can be activated by tau aggregation in addition to alarm signals, with tau protein aggregation releasing from the degenerative neurons, it provokes a positive feedback mechanism of neuroimmunology in hippocampal area. Microglia mainly play a role of neuroprotective by clearing β-amyloid (Aβ) on early stage of AD and have a neurotoxic effects induced by an Aβ-induced phenotypic change on late stage of AD. TREM2 mainly expressed on microglia, it may downregulate the inflammatory response in AD. The review has explained clearly and demonstrated that tau assembly and clearance of Aβ are effective therapeutic targets on AD. In addition, it explained AD nosogenesis from the new view of TREM2 mutations.
Contemporarily, quantum hall effect (QHE), as the quantum version of classic Hall effect, represented a turning point in the understanding of material physics, metrology, high energy physics, astrophysics. In the category of QHE, there are plenty of sub-types including fractional QHE (FQHE), anomalous QHE (QAHE), spin QHE (SPHE) etc. This paper will mainly focus on the latest progress and the state-of-art applications regarding to QHE. To be specific, a brief introduction of the principle of Hall effect and the differences among different types will be introduced. Afterwards, the applications will be discussed and demonstrated. Overall, these results would provide the audience a general view on QHE, and some recent applications regards it, which shed light on guiding further exploration for QHE.
Due to the rising prevalence of obesity, it has become a major public health problem. This paper explores the effects of the Mediterranean diet on obesity and the possible mechanisms through literature research. According to the findings, a strong adherence to the Mediterranean diet was linked to greater weight loss and a lower risk of obesity. Prevention of obesity is key, and strategies to change the eating habits of people are needed to slow the progression of obesity prevalence.
As a neurodegenerative disease, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is not completely clear Alzheimer's disease not only afflicts the patients themselves, but also causes harm to countless families. Therefore, the treatment of Alzheimer's disease urgently needs to be studied. This paper summarizes some existing methods for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease,which are described from the molecular mechanism of Alzheimer's disease, the symptoms and the future development of Alzheimer's patients. Based on the current studies on the therapeutic method of Alzheimer's disease, more targeted interventions will be developed in the future.
This article focuses on the resolution strategy of deep brain stimulation to improve Parkinson's disease symptoms by correcting pathological concussions of the basal ganglia network. Years of clinical practice have shown that Subthalamic nucleus (STN) and Internal globus pallidus (GPI) are two effective sites for DBS intervention in Parkinson's disease. Through the observation of animal experiments and drug intervention, the characteristics of pathological oscillations of basal ganglia network and spontaneous oscillations among various nuclei were sorted out. Based on the functional system hypothesis of cortical-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops, the pathological oscillation pattern of the β-band is analyzed, and how electrical impulse stimulation changes the generation pattern of action potentials at the cellular level, thereby effectively changing pathological oscillations at the network level; This paper analyzes the improvement of symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, and frozen gait with DBS, and looks forward to a composite treatment strategy.
Blood flow in vessels is affected by several factors like vessel shape, blood thickness, and heart function. Swirling patterns of flow, called vortices, are often seen in blood vessels and can affect how blood flows. This study aims to understand how vortices affect blood flow and the reasons behind these changes. Different instruments, like particle image velocimetry (PIV), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were used to measure and analyze blood flow. CFD simulations were done using realistic blood vessel models to study how vortices form and how they affect blood velocity and pressure. The results show that vortices can cause significant changes in blood velocity and pressure, which can lead to changes in blood flow. The increased wall shear stress may contribute to the development of heart disease. This research highlights the importance of considering the impact of vortices on blood flow dynamics when designing and assessing cardiovascular devices and treatments.
Intubation is an emergency medical procedure used to rescue people who are unconscious or unable to breathe on their own. In the process of tracheal intubation, traditional intubation is difficult due to narrow viewing angle, trachea bending, and occlusion of internal structures. Thanks to the rapid development of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and virtual reality (AR) technologies, intubation aids are also developing towards intelligence and automation. Based on the collection and analysis of a large number of literatures, this paper conducts an in-depth study of the existing SLAM-based intubation-assisted technology. Specifically, on the basis of analyzing the current research on the application of equipment, visualization schemes, and algorithm schemes in tracheal intubation and intubation training, this paper studies the application progress in terms of efficiency, versatility, accuracy, and user feedback. Further, we summarize the existing key issues and discuss future developments.
Searching for influencers among a social network is important because marketers can then use this information to conduct word-of-mouth (WOM) advertisement, which is an important marketing technique. Literature Review provides detailed information about WOM advertisement. There are many ways to search influencers and often they are network centrality measurements. This paper aims to investigate whether each centrality measurement could produce similar results across different social media platforms (eg. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram). The social network data used in this research is from Huawei Company. This research uses four centrality measurements and three set similarity methods to analysis the data. As a result, this paper draws a conclusion about the binary question "Does it provide similar results or not?". Since various companies and applications may have different standards and definitions about being similar, please also check similarity data provided in this paper.
With the changes of the times, people have given different definitions of sleep. After recent years of research, modern medicine generally believes that sleep makes energy storage, which is conducive to the recovery of human's mental and physical strength. Good sleep is not only the basis for the maintenance of health and physical strength, but also the guarantee of a high degree of production capacity. However, in today's society, the problem of insomnia bothers many people. There are many factors affecting insomnia. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of environmental index on human sleep quality, and to develop devices to improve sleep environment.
Alzheimer’s disease is affecting many people, especially people older than 65, living in the world. However, the cause and cure of these disease continue to confuse the scientists. Omics analysis, which includes four levels: genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes analysis, can dig out the information lying behind large amount of data and it’s really useful for complex disease like AD (Alzheimer’s Disease). In this article, I talked about the four levels of omics analysis investigating AD in details. In each level, the general workflow, the information we can get and the examples in AD have been involved. This paper will give the readers a general view of the function of omics analysis in AD.
According to current astronomical developments, Doppler and lensing methods are the two most important methods used by astronomers to detect extrasolar planetary systems. Unlike the lensing method, which requires the use of high-precision astronomical telescopes to measure stellar luminosity variations, the Doppler method can rely on simple stellar redshift phenomena and calculations to accurately predict the existence of extraterrestrial planets, their masses, orbital radii, and other basic characteristics. Therefore, Doppler's method will be the most widely used method to measure planetary systems. Based on the derivation of Kepler's third law, the formulas for calculating the masses and orbital distances of planets are discussed and a python program for easy calculation is presented. Also, the limitations of Doppler's method and possible calculation errors are collected, organized, and explained.
Dementia continues to be a serious problem worldwide. A negative relationship between the prevalence of dementia and the level of socioeconomic status (SES), such as income can be observed in most countries. The aim of the study in this paper is to explore the possible pathways that contribute to this negative relationship. This article analyses and presents three possible causes of health inequalities between SES gradients in dementia and possible solutions to them, through a large collection of articles. Differences in health literacy, housing levels and social support caused by SES such as different incomes lead to social inequalities in health through behavioral/cultural pathway， material pathway and psychosocial pathway respectively.
Deep learning is a key technological tool in the field of image identification with wide application prospects because of its significant benefits in feature extraction and model fitting. Deep learning entails numerous stages of non-linear transformations. The primary implementation of the current deep learning technique is the deep neural network, the connection pattern of which takes its reference from the way that the visual cortex of animals is organized. Among all the deep learning methods, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is one of the most renowned means to process image. It has excellent performance in terms of large-scale image processing. A convolutional neural network consists of convolutional layers, a fully connected layer, a pooling layer, and associated weights. Convolutional neural networks have fewer parameters to consider than other deep, feed forward neural networks, making them an attractive deep learning architecture. There are several traits in CNN, including pooling, shared weights, and local connections. With the help of these features, the network's complexity and the quantity of training parameters can be decreased, and the model's level of invariance to scale, shift, and distortion can be increased, along with its robustness and fault tolerance. This paper firstly summarized the history of convolutional neural network, then briefly discussed the components like the neuron and multilayer perception. The main structure of the CNN is showed afterwards. The paper also mentioned the features and the applications of CNN, mainly in the field of Computer Vision (CV).
Despite the usage of prizes, gift cards, and cash to incentivize COVID-19 vaccinations across US states during the COVID-19 pandemic, research on the impact of monetary incentives on vaccine behavioral decisions is conflicting and limited. There is little to no existing literature on whether public health driven financial incentives increase COVID-19 vaccine intake even though this approach has been adapted by state public health departments in varying degrees. This research investigates if there is significant association between state monetary incentives and COVID-19 vaccination status. Upon establishing strong correlation between monetary incentives and COVID-19 vaccination status using statistical methods and analysis, a linear regression model was developed to evaluate which types of monetary incentives were most effective in increasing statewide vaccination status. With the plethora of pandemic health data instigated from scientific and governmental learnings, big data and computational tools hold the key to crafting evidence-based public health infrastructure that will fully prepare future generations for tackling the next unforeseen health crisis.
Quantum mechanics has become the rising trend in modern physics and has completely changed people’s views of physics. This essay delves into the once-existing problems underlying quantum mechanics such as the conflict between substantiality and completeness in quantum mechanics and the relationship between causality and observation and analyzes the solutions to the controversies. The Copenhagen Interpretation is widely considered the most orthodox explanation of quantum mechanics; therefore, this paper focuses on the Copenhagen Interpretation and examines how it delicately manages to explain quantum mechanics. It also examines its alternative theories, such as Einstein’s local hidden variable theory, and disproves them with Bell’s inequality and other reasonings. The essay aims to clarify and systematize the historical development of quantum mechanics, showing the current progress of quantum mechanics.
Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) are characterized by gradual loss of selectively susceptible neuron populations, usually presented by cognitive disorder and movement ability impairment, and cause great distress to patients and those close to them. The diagnosis and rehabilitation of NDs have been an unsolved challenge for many years, but brain-computer interface (BCI), a vigorously growing research area, may provide a promising tool to solve the problems. Here, we first briefly introduced the working principle of BCI, then take a few of the most common neurodegenerative diseases as an example to introduce the nowadays BCI application on NDs diagnosis and rehabilitation. This article will help researchers to gain a general understanding and appreciation of this field, and provide assistance for related studies.
Many studies have revealed that the recurrence of heart failure (HF) in patients with diabetes is significantly higher than that in patients without diabetes, and insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism are common in patients with HF. Therefore, heart failure is an important clinical problem in diabetic patients. Diabetes and heart failure are "killers" that go hand in hand. They share common risk factors. Patients with heart failure frequently have hyperglycemia, and heart failure is a typical complication for diabetic patients. Based on the possible association between the two diseases, this paper will further analyze the therapies of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and explore whether it can have an effect on how to address heart failure. The study's findings demonstrated that treating type 2 diabetes did have some influence on the management of heart failure and that treating type 2 diabetes did reduce the progression of heart failure symptoms.
The introduction of the HPV vaccine in 2006 significantly decreased the prevalence of cervi-cal cancer in the populace. Preventive HPV vaccinations have produced impressive outcomes based on the HPV mechanism. However, there is still great room for development in thera-peutic vaccinations. In addition, there are still many issues and skepticisms surrounding the safety, efficacy, and sexuality of the HPV vaccine. In a nutshell, the human papillomavirus is a widespread human infection that poses a major risk to human health by increasing the risk of malignant tumors like cervical cancer. The WHO is developing a global strategy to eradi-cate cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine is successful in reducing HPV infection and the ill-nesses it causes. Future commercial manufacture of the 14-valent HPV vaccination will greatly contribute to the implementation of this strategy.
The primary focus of number theory, one of the fields of fundamental mathematics, is on the characteristics of integers. The development of cryptography also benefited greatly from the contributions of number theory. The paper primarily examines the evolution of number theory and its use in cryptography using a method of literature review. The study discovers that number theory development in the East reached a prosperous phase in the 1930s. From the 15th and 16th centuries through the 19th century, number theory flourished in the first. Number theory is still being developed, as demonstrated by the discovery of the biggest known prime number by American mathematician Curtis Cooper. Numerology is also extensively employed in cryptography, including the RSA technique and digital signatures. Numerous algorithms used in cryptography mostly depend on a working understanding of number theory.
COVID-19 has been the most serious public health problem of the past decade. To date, the pandemic has taken a huge toll on the globe in terms of human lives lost, economic impact and increased poverty. However, due to its viral characteristics, determining whether a patient carries COVID-19 is not easy. RT-PCR methods are the gold standard for detecting COVID-19, but their time cost, as well as the need for specific equipment and instrumentation, limit their ubiquity in some medically underdeveloped areas. Chest X-rays, a test with high ubiquity and rapid results, require a certain number of professionals to read and determine whether a patient is likely to have COVID-19. Therefore, it is important to have a system to assist in the determination in areas where professionals are lacking. In this experiment, a convolutional neural network-based machine learning technique was used to create a model for recognizing COVID-19. Although there is no clinical evidence to prove its effectiveness, the model can assist professionals in judgment to a certain extent.
Cancer has been one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Accurate diagnosis of these cancers often takes time and traditional treatments may cause harmful side effects on the patients. Nanotechnology has provided revolutionary breakthroughs in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers due to the biocompatibility, accessibility, control, and targeting characteristics of the nanoparticles. This research study focuses on the use of nanoparticles and nanorobots for targeted drug delivery specific to the tumor cells to minimize the adverse side effects of cancer treatment. There are various studies of nanoparticles that have been found to contribute to the drug delivery process. These include “Cornell Dots” (C Dots), bioadhesive nanoparticles, logic-gated nanorobots, and self-propelled autonomous nanorobots. Some of these nanoparticles, like C Dots, focus on the detection of the tumor and signifying the tumor location. Others, such as bioadhesive nanoparticles, are designed for the release of drug candidates once the tumor is detected. This research study aims to identify recommendations for improving upon drug delivery to target tumor cells using combined approaches from these studied uses of nanoparticles. One focus is the use of multi-gated aptamers to release drugs based on certain conditions being met, thus opening the nanostructure to release the drugs. Another option would be the controlled release of a drug using gated aptamers with bioadhesive properties. If these recommendations can be successfully evaluated in laboratory research then it will significantly reduce the need for high doses of chemotherapy, increase the treatment efficiency, and also minimize the side effects of these anti-cancer drugs on the patient.
The most common cause of mortality is Cystic Fibrosis, a fatal genetic disease. However, in recent years, there have been a growing number of papers concentrating on CRISPR-Cas9, a gene-editing tool that is being used to permanently cure this genetic disease, named by a biopharmaceutical company EditasMedicine, invested in by Bill Gates. However, before the breadth of search and study of this technology continuously expands, challenges and remaining issues should be addressed. This paper reviews the mechanisms of cystic fibrosis and discusses its technical challenges, such as efficiency, safety and delivery of gene editing, potential side effects, and ethical issues, this paper also talks about the future applications of CRISPR-Cas9 in other diseases, so as to provide an alternative treatment method for the diseases with gene editing better results can be obtained.
Today, probability theory is becoming more and more useful in our daily life, and it is used more often in sports, especially in table tennis. As a well-known table tennis player from China, Ma Long is an experienced player in table tennis. The data from this study is mainly from @tingwalker who was famous for statistical table tennis data. This paper uses the probability theory to find the effects of the win rate of Ma Long as well as calculate the actual rate, including the effects we have to consider. It is more accurate than just considering the win rate of each competition or looking at the total winning rate of Ma Long. With the help of probability theory, the paper considers factors that affect Malone's winning rate, such as competition system, different players, independent events, and miss rate. Finally, it can be concluded that Ma Long's winning rate against Zhang Jike is as high as 78%~82%.
Translation is a challenge for humans since it needs a good command of two or more languages. When it comes to computer programs, it is even more complex as it is difficult for computers to imitate human translators. With the emergence of deep learning algorithms, especially neural network architectures, neural machine translation (NMT) models gradually outperformed previous machine translation models and became the new mainstream in practical machine translation (MT) systems. Nowadays, NMT has been developing for several years and has been applied in many fields. This paper is focused on studies on four different application categories of NMT models: 1) Text NMT; 2) Automatic program repair (based on NMT); 3) Simultaneous translation. Our work provides a summary of the latest research on different applications of NMT and makes comments on their development in the future. This paper also mentioned the shortcomings of existing studies in this essay and pointed out some possible research directions.
Renal cell carcinoma as the top10 diagnosed cases of cancer. The treatment strategies such as surgical or ablative therapies works on early diagnosed patients but rarely works on metastat-ic RCC patients. However, nearly 30% of patients developed into metastases. As the common strategies that target the VEGF pathway, resistance is common in tumours, thus, more prom-ising method development is imperative. To overcome the evasion strategies, immune check-point inhibitors is promising treatment strategies. For renal cell carcinoma treatment, the an-ti-PD-1 medicine, Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab, and anti-PD-L1 medicine, Avelumab shows better outcome under the clinical trials. Despite the resistance situation occurs in some cases, immunotherapy anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 showed better outcomes in both ORR and OS compare with targeted molecular monotherapy. Recently, the combination of anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 with targeted drug (for example, TKI) or other type of immune checkpoint inhibi-tor (for example, CTLA-4) provides new perspectives.
In this project, we decided to collect and analyze the data about this cluster from several perspectives. Due to the consideration of distance, we used python to simulate their motion trajectory and position and choose Gaia data release as our data source. Hence, we listed four diagrams out of those data. By analyzing these graphs, we can get some information, such as the distance between M13 and earth and the age of those stars.
Today, cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality. On average, someone dies of cardiovascular disease every 36.1 seconds in the United States. According to 2019 statistics, 2,396 people die from cardiovascular disease per day. Analysis of the influencing variables of heart disease mortality can effectively advise people's living habits, prevent the occurrence of heart disease, and lower the risk of disease. This paper analysis the risk factors for heart attack at the county level in the United States. Influencing factors included adult obesity rate, adult smoking rate, diabetes rate, low birthweight rate, excessive drinking rate and physical inactivity rate. Through data pre-processing, descriptive statistical analysis, data visualization and linear regression analysis, a simple linear regression equation between physical inactivity rate and heart disease mortality was finally obtained. It has a slope of 0.7266, an intercept of 0.0767, and the R-squared of linear regression model is 0.539. It is confirmed that physical inactivity rate and heart disease mortality have a strong positive linear relationship.
Sepsis is a severe syndrome that is associated with both inflammatory responses and immune system dysfunctions. The most frequent location of injuries caused by sepsis is the respiratory system, followed by the digestive system, and the circulatory system. Researchers have revealed the relationship between T cells and sepsis. To be specific, during the pathology of sepsis, T cells could be damaged, deactivated, and inhibited, while they could also act as an agent that amplifies the sepsis syndrome. This paper focuses on analyzing 3 types of T cells: CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and regulatory T cells. The populations of the first two types would be reduced, while the functions of regulatory T cells could lead to further immunosuppression during sepsis. Although to date there is no effective treatment to cure this disease, treatment plans targeting immune stimulation and Treg suppression are also examined and analyzed in depth in this paper.
The treatment of a variety of recurrent or resistant hematologic malignancies with chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR- T) cell therapy has seen significant success in recent years. The current CAR- T cell therapy approach is not without flaws, nevertheless, and there are still several issues with clinical treatment, including antigen escape, significant toxicity, and sus-ceptibility to drug-resistant recurrence. This paper introduces the structural development and characteristics of CAR-T cells, reviews the limitations of CAR- T cell therapy, including an-tigen escape, toxicity, CAR-T cell depletion and drug-resistant relapse after treatment, and summarizes the related improvement and optimization strategies. The paper concludes that CAR-T cell immunotherapy has brought new hope to patients with hematologic malignancies, making a cure for refractory and recurrent hematologic malignancies possible. Although CAR-T cell therapy still has many challenges at present, such as immunogenicity, drug re-sistance, and toxicity.
The scramjet is the representative of the future jet engine, and it has irreplaceable advantages in terms of working performance and service life. Although it has been developed more than fifty years, there are many problems in the driven system of the scramjet engine. This paper mainly focuses on the problems of the effective thrust and the combustion stability. The research shows that how the pressure ratio affects the positive thrust and the combustion stability. Furthermore, this paper also shows that the elements which can affect the pressure ratio. The lower inlet air temperature is beneficial to enhance the thrust. According to the relevant research which apply the CJ detonation theorem to find the possible reason for the combustion instability. For the possible improvements, the research found that the engine thrust at different speed and the allowable maximum speed. The type of fuel and the reactivity of the fuel can influence the thrust.
This paper is going to introduce the most basic theory of analytic functions of one complex variable. It begins at the discussion of meaning of complex number and the historical development from the formula of cubic equation to the square root of negative number. In the middle section, which is divided in to four small parts. First part states the expression of complex number z, algebraic properties, and the relationship of each single complex number with whole complex plane. Second part concerns about several elementary functions of complex number. Next part relates to the derivative of complex number, such as the partial derivative and Cauchy-Riemann Equation to verdict that whether a function is analytic in the domain. Last part is the integral of complex functions, which concludes some important theorems with the proof, and examples. After the section of introduction of complex number, it comes to the final section which is talking about an identity involving complex number and the prove of it.
Research Question: Can oridonin inhibit small cell lung cancer growth by blocking the Notch signalling? Purpose: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive illness with a low 5-year survival rate. Oridonin is a Chinese medicine extracted from the leaves of the Rabdosia rubescens, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, which has been proven to have many medical effects in opposition to the tumour. Notch signalling is an essential pathway in multicellular organisms and transfers information into living organisms. Methods: This study will use a human small-cell lung cancer cell line (H1688). Migration assay will test the influence of oridonin on cell migration. A Xenograft mouse tumour model is created to determine the effect of oridonin on tumour growth. Annexin V will test cell apoptosis, and a western blot is used to test whether Notch signalling is activated. All the assays are repeated three times, and the statistics are analyzed by calculating the means and doing the student's t-test. Possible results: There are three main possible results:(1) Oridonin can inhibit SCLC growth by blocking the notch signalling. (2) Oridonin can inhibit the tumour growth of SCLC cells but not by blocking notch signalling. (3) Oridonin cannot inhibit tumour growth but can block the notch signalling. Conclusion: The study will show whether oridonin can inhibit the growth of SCLC by blocking the notch signalling. It will provide a new method of treatment for those with SCLCs.
With a high incidence of the condition worldwide, type 2 diabetes has emerged as one of the most worrisome chronic diseases. Type 2 diabetes has been identified in certain public health research to have an early beginning tendency, and the rapid rise in teen and child prevalence may be an epidemiological warning sign. This study uses systematic retrieval and induction techniques to examine the prevalence and trajectory of type 2 diabetes in children and adoles-cents. In this paper, the useful data and literature collected are discussed and sorted out in an attempt to establish a complete field of analysis of current type 2 diabetes, which is to criti-cally discuss the practice of current epidemiological surveillance and screening systems for adolescents and children, and to propose possible constructive suggestions. This study finds that the development trend in adolescents and children may not be optimistic, and there are differences in risk based on geographic demography, gender, race, etc. Epidemiological screening and surveillance of type 2 diabetes in adolescents and children, as well as targeted public and individual prevention and intervention, could have significant implications.
A supramolecular structure is an ordered aggregate formed by intermolecular forces, also known as Van der Waals forces, and does not have to be covalent bonds. By combining with molecule with different structure, the supramolecule will show as a molecular collection with complex shape. It allows a supramolecule to have multiple characteristics and assume multiple functions. Without the need to synthesize by artificial initiative, supramolecules are widely apply in the biological field naturally. Many biological macromolecules are considered as one kind of supramolecules. These macromolecules can combine to form aggregations and, further, cell organelles, as well as collaborate to produce a series of biological reactions. Since supramolecules are a broad and cross majors research with rapid progress, it is necessary to regularly review, integrate and discuss this topic. Therefore, this review will discuss the present of supramolecules and analyze of application of supramolecules in cells. Recent research about how specific supramolecules apply and work for the particular function will be introduced.
In this world of information explosion, people require more effective ways to filter useful information from millions of data. Email as one of the most frequently used form of communication, carries important messages, yet along with messages of fake news, misinformation and scams known as spam emails. Manually categorizing them from non-spam emails requires a lot of time and money and other human along with material resources. In order to deal with this, deep learning, or natural language processing models in particular, is introduced to categorize emails faster and cheaper. The Natural Language Processing model used here is called Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT). Since BERT is already a pre-trained model, the main task is to do the Fine-Tune part on it, with a dataset that contains around 5000 emails (85% spam emails and 15% non-spam ones). After that the model is tested on a group of 5 emails including 3 commercials/spams and 2 non-spam emails. The result shows that this model could separate them by giving commercials scores closer to 1 (spread from 0.5 to 0.7) and non-spam emails scores close to 1(spread from 0 to 0.1). Therefore, it can be concluded that this model works on small sets of data.
Type 2 diabetes is a very common type in diabetes, which is also called noninsulin-dependent diabetes. This paper focuses on the correlation between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and aging from the perspective of oxidative stress (OS), including the pathway that T2D produces oxidative stress and the effect that oxidative stress imposes on T2D. This paper also mentioned some specific mechanisms, like a glycolytic pathway, enhanced formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), activation of protein kinase C (PKC), and deactivation of the insulin signaling pathway. In addition, this paper also talks about the important influence of OS in the process of aging. And, the attention was focused on the excessive ROS produced by mitochondria. On this basis, this paper sorts out the correlation between aging and T2D in OS and finds some experimental evidence, through which this paper also offers some enlightenment from the way of anti-aging to anti-diabetes.
Ruxolitinib is known as a selective kinase inhibitor that acts by inhibiting the activator of the transcription pathway. JAK-STAT signaling pathway plays an important role in the signal transduction of many growth factors and cytokines related to cell proliferation, growth and hematopoiesis. Myelofibrosis is a JAK1/JAK2 signaling-specific gene expression upregulation, resulting in an overall sustained disruption of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Ruxolitinib effectively and selectively inhibits JAK2V617F mediated signal transduction and proliferation, significantly increases apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, and leads to the doubling of depolarized mitochondria at 64 nm in Ba/F3 cells. Ruxolitinib has been confirmed to be more effective than other treatments for the same period in the treatment of some diseases such as polycythemia vera, so a safe, efficient, and cost-effective synthesis of ruxolitinib is warranted. The advantages of route 1 are high economy, safety, and atomic utilization, while the disadvantage is a large number of reaction steps and low overall yield. The advantage of route 2 is the small number of reaction steps and high convenience, while the disadvantage is the expensive raw materials, complex experimental conditions, and low atomic utilization efficiency. The advantage of route 3 is the high overall yield and also more convenient, while the disadvantage is the expensive raw materials and complex experimental conditions. This is the result of the route comparison, and this paper can find that each route has its advantages and disadvantages. On balance, we recommend synthetic route one. It is economical and safe, although the yield is low, it is still acceptable.
According to the 1990–2020 Internet for literature on materials commonly used in prosthetics and their compatibility with skin tribology and biology, it found that with the large number of amputees affected by the disease, traffic accidents, work-related injuries, and natural disasters, the relatively high manufacturing costs of prostheses could place a financial burden on patients. In addition, the choice of prosthetic material itself affects the comfort and ease of use for the patient. Whether it is an osseointegrated prosthesis or a cavity-receiving prosthesis, the use of appropriate materials is an important issue in prosthetic engineering. This paper analyses the research conducted over the last 20 years on materials for implantable prostheses and receptive cavity materials and presents some of the findings on the preferred material selection for each type of material, as well as the associated biomechanical effects and skin tribology. Through the analysis, the paper concludes that for implantable materials, biocompatible materials such as metallic materials, bioceramics, and composites are preferred. For receptive cavity materials, polymeric materials such as thermoplastic sheets, resin-based composites, and low-temperature thermoplastics are preferred.
Petroleum is mainly used in the transportation industry and it is now becoming rarer in the world. Petroleum Geologists and analysts have predicted an imminent global peak of petroleum consumption, at which the maximum rate of petroleum extraction will be reached, and then followed by an irreversible decline. To date, 50 countries have passed the point of no return. Therefore, there is no time to delay the saving of petroleum. Since petroleum is mostly used by various means of transport, vehicles that are more efficient with less use of petroleum are needed. Under this context, this paper introduces three types of vehicles making full use of energy. Through case studies, the development tendency of future vehicles is illustrated, and a conclusion can be drawn that clean energy hybrids and hydrogen-powered fuels have become a future development trend for vehicles.
Throughout the learning, the topic of complex variables has always been a very special area in mathematics. As progressed through the complex variable courses, our group started to raise our interest in this area and wish to learn further. Hence, this essay will focus on several perspectives on the topic of complex variables. This will include the historical development, application, general theorem and solving real problems.
Lung cancer has become one of the most widely infected cancers around the world and is getting more attention from scientists and the public. Thus, based on the dataset Lung Cancer uploaded on Kaggle in 2022, this paper reviews previous research on risk factors about their effects and mechanisms on lung cancer. Besides, by transforming categorical variables into numerical ones and using chi-square tests of independence, this paper examines whether independent variables in the dataset are associated with lung cancer development. This paper finds that variables ‘gender’, ‘smoking’, ‘chronic disease’ and ‘shortness of breath’ are not tested associated with lung cancer development; variable ‘yellow finger’ and the other nine independent variables are tested as factors contributing to lung cancer. Identifying these risk factors and analyzing their mechanisms can effectively help people prevent lung cancer and support the development of lung cancer treatment.
Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, attention has been paid to the function of buildings to isolate the virus and the impact of buildings on the mental health of patients. This article discusses the architectural design of the COVID-19 isolation through a literature review. Current research related to the COVID-19 isolation condition focuses on the design of ventilation, fluid dynamics, clinical environmental medicine, and the application of architectural psychology.
After a period of scientific research practice, the author has acquired some relevant knowledge, and it is hoped to have the Milky Way rotation curve of the gradual improvement process presented. The author uses the literature method to summarize the history of the study of the galactic curve, and show the process in the relative descriptive discourse.
Tofacitinib is one of the Janus activated kinase inhibitors, and the compound is characteristic of its high-throughput screening and lead optimization of its role as a JAK3 inhibitor in the cure of autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. It can be used to the recovery of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In this article, we will introduce tofacitinib’s background and meaning, and then it’s function as a molecule kinase inhibitor. It has advantage on the remedy of inflammatory diseases. The initial synthesis procedure of tofacitinib is comparatively complicated and the cost is unaffordable. Thus, three synthesis routes are discussed, and the upsides and downsides of methods from aspects of atomic economy, reaction yield, purity and safety are analyzed. Tofacitinib’s mechanism and application are further introduced. Although the three synthesis routes of tofacitinib introduced in this paper still have many shortcomings, we put forward some improvement ideas for the future synthesis routes and put forward the possibility of its future application.
The recent rapid advance in biotechnology has enabled the therapeutic use of messenger RNA (mRNA) to fight against a wide range of viral diseases and cancers. The development of mRNA vaccine and mRNA therapeutic agent showed extraordinary potential in safety, effica-cy, and industrial production. One of the most effective preventive measures against unex-pected, widespread outbreaks of infectious illnesses, like the pandemic coronavirus sickness that is presently raging, is the use of mRNA vaccines (COVID-19). It took decades for scien-tists to make the mRNA vaccine an applicable approach for medical use due to the stability and delivery of mRNA. Although the previous challenges were overcome, scientists still in-tended to further improve the stability, immunogenicity, delivery systems, and translation ef-ficiency of mRNA into the body to make mRNA technology even more powerful in both pre-ventative and therapeutic use. Encouraging results showed that the mRNA vaccine is a tre-mendous platform against infectious diseases and cancers, which is a new era in vaccinology and oncology. This study concentrated on a thorough overview of mRNA vaccine develop-ment, including a basic explanation of the mechanism of action of mRNA vaccines, various delivery techniques, present obstacles, and future prospects of mRNA vaccines for both pre-ventive and therapeutic purposes.
A complex number is an element in a number system containing both real numbers and the imaginary unit 𝑖, satisfying 𝑖^2 = −1. Since their discovery, complex numbers have been a powerful means of mathematical calculation. Complex analysis is a part of mathematical analysis that investigates complex numbers and their analyticity, holomorphicity, etc. Many renowned mathematical giants once had their own research in complex analysis, such as Cauchy, Gauss, Euler, etc. On the grounds that it deals with functions of complex numbers, complex analysis is a helpful area in the whole mathematics field. There are plenty of applications of complex analysis in both the mathematical field and the physics field. In this paper, the history of complex numbers and complex analysis is presented. Also, some contents of complex variables are shown, including the basic properties of complex numbers, the derivative and integral of functions of complex numbers, and several critical theorems in the area of complex analysis.
This project studies and analyzes depression through statistical principles, reveals the influence and behavior of depression, so as to improve people's attention to depression. This study was completed from: looking for basic information data sets of depression, reading data sets, making charts, analyzing data and data prediction. The results showed that the affected population was concentrated between young people and middle-aged people, and the influencing factors of the disease included marriage, gender, employment and so on. For this disease, research is still in the development stage and there are still many questions to be addressed, so it is very important to study this disease.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive weakness and atrophy of the muscles including the bulb (the part of the muscles innervated by the medulla oblongata), limbs, trunk, chest, and abdomen following injury to upper and lower motor neurons. However, the reasons for developing ALS are still not very clear. Both genetic defects and environmental factors may damage motor neurons. At present, ALS is a difficult disease to cure. For environmental factors, people can change their lifestyles to reduce or avoid the effects of the environment. However, inherited genetic defects are hard to avoid. Therefore, in this paper, the author explores the treatment of ALS by analyzing and summarizing a large number of papers and experimental studies learning the relationship between genes and ALS. In conclusion, the gene TARDBP and the gene C9ORF72 were found in a large number of disease-causing genes. Mutations in these genes can lead to changes in the encoded proteins that cause the development of ALS disease.
In recent years, marine pollution has become a major issue for many scientists and affects the entire world. Global marine ecosystems are facing major challenges as litter or chemical emissions increase. This paper discovers about cause, effect on animals and plants, solutions of sea pollution. Results find that plastic pollution cause large amount of plastic float on sea surface and sink in the sea; oil spills is hazardous to birds, marine animals and plants, and the marine environment, and factory pollution cause decrease in water quality. Three types of animals most harmed by ocean pollution, which are sea turtle, marine mammals and sea birds, they always mistaken and harmed by the waste. On plants, algae blooms are killing other marine species life, and oxybenzone cause coral reef bleaching. This paper finds the solutions that people, government, and organizations can do in future in order to solve marine pollutions. Government should made policy to ban people use harmful chemical products, factory stop pollute pollutants, fishing should be reduced. For people, they can protect ocean by stop using plastic products, saving electricity. This paper popularizes the seriousness of plastic pollution and suggests future solutions.
Complex analysis is important for science because it extends analytical methods from real variables to complex variables and complex numbers. Also, complex number has two independent components, one variable will not change when the other is changing, that are particularly useful when two variables must be dealt with simultaneously. In this essay, we are going to talk about the history chronologically such as who first introduced the idea of complex number, who first discovered the rule of complex number, and why complex analysis is important. Also, the essay includes some basics about the complex variable and complex analysis. For example, the definition of complex number, Cauchy-Riemann Equations, and Cauchy Goursat theorem can help us to get further known of the complex analysis and solve some basic analytic problems.
Alzheimer’s disease, a typical neurodegenerative disease, has been one of the most chal-lenging problems for researchers and doctors. Having known many of its negative impacts such as cognitive decline and disturbed sleep, researchers are yet unable to figure out what specifically causes it and how to effectively cure it. In other words, the underlying mecha-nisms of the disease seem to be very complex, contributing to an incomplete understanding of the disease and an increasing number of patients who cannot be fully recovered. There-fore, the purpose of this article is to summarize current findings about the disease and to provide suggestions for future research. It seeks to answer the question of what can be done to find a cure for the disease. To conduct this research, information and data from academic journals will be analyzed. Some relevant theories such as the amyloid cascade hypothesis will also be covered. As a result of this research, it is suggested that researchers should fo-cus on causes of the abnormalities of different proteins, treatments for tau pathology as well as the specific relationship between healthy lifestyle and cognitive health.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) is becoming more and more popular, artists use them to find their own inspirations, computer scientists use it for data synthesis, workers use it for machine fault diagnosis and so on. However, GANs are flawed despite its popularity: they are unstable. GANs are based on game theory. In a typical GAN model, the generator and the discriminator are both improved by competing with each other. Therefore, in this highly competitive training process, GANs can easily run into trouble while they move towards the optimal solution. In most cases, the case of such instability arises from the loss function, or in other words, the gradient of the loss function. This research proposed a new set of GAN that replaces its objective function with supcon, or the supervised contrastive loss to solve gradient-related problems. We have also proved that under our model, the GANs are less likely to suffer from these two factors of instability. Finally, we have compared our model and the traditional generative adversarial nets.
Small molecule Proteolysis Targeting Chimera (PROTAC) is an effective therapy for patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia (AML). By activating the ubiquitination system, PROTAC can generate protein and kinase degradation upon FLT3 to perform outcomes of antiproliferative activities. The focus of this study revolves around the investigation of the efficacy of VHL and CRBN-based PROTAC on FLT3 degradation compared to conventional immunotherapy agents such as quizartinib. By assessing the performances of PROTAC on MOLM-14 and MV4-11 cells with other therapies, comparing both adverse effects and benefits could demonstrate crucial approaches to applying PROTAC for AML treatments. The VHL-recruiting PROTAC based on the modification of quizartinib has shown promising effects where FLT3 within MV4-11 injected athymic mice had experienced around a 60% of decrease. The CRBN-based degrader TL12-186, on the other hand, had also demonstrated antiproliferative outcomes where 14 out of 7559 proteins of the MOLM-14 cell have been successfully degraded, showing a more than 25% decrease. Even though there seem to be some improvements in the VHL-recruiting PROTAC compared to traditional immunotherapy agents like quizartinib, CRBN-mediated PROTAC has shown a relatively less significant result. Critiquing in a variety of aspects, quizartinib has demonstrated better performance in cell permeability, low nanomolecular concentration, and degradation. The significance of this study provides an overview of existing PROTAC technology that shows effects on the treatment of FLT3-mutated AML. Further studies may be conducted on the foundation of this study to demonstrate the enhancements of each modified PROTAC compared to existing therapies.
In recent decades, climatic change has grown to one of the most concerned problems in the society. Species across the globe have been responding to climate change. In this article, butterflies’ responses across the globe towards climate change are mainly focused on. But-terflies are sensitive to climate change due to their species interaction, high mobility and links with specific habitat conditions. They also have a wide distribution, covering all con-tinents but Antarctica. Climate change impacts biodiversity and affect butterflies’ various behaviors. This article has discussed butterflies’ organismal responses, range shifts, altera-tions of phenology behaviors and species interaction. After analyzing studied data, it is shown that climate change has led the genetic revolution of certain mountain butterfly spe-cies to extinction. Warming climate has increased voltinism in European butterflies and has created mismatches in trophic interaction via driving mountain butterflies towards the summits. It is also studied in the article that warming night temperatures effect oviposition and life span of Finnish Glanville fritillary butterflies. The effect of disturbed El Nino/La Nina frequency due to climate change on tropic butterfly abundance has also been men-tioned. Climate change has also affected monarch migration and population via shifting host plant distributions. By diving deep into the specific response butterflies have towards climate change, a more developed view on the effects of climate change could be gained. This is aimed for finding solutions to better preserve biodiversity.
The invention of complex numbers was essential in the rapid development of mathematics. Although most people consider complex numbers to be nonsensical notations, they are critical in technical disciplines. Human beings entered a wonderful realm when mathematicians began to investigate complex numbers. Our universe is amazing, full of beautiful discoveries, and even miraculous, according to complex analysis. We begin by giving a brief review of complex analysis' history, including when and how it originated. The root of a quadratic equation was used to find complex numbers. We look at some of the ways complex numbers are used in engineering domains like acoustic wave propagation. A thorough examination of certain key theorems of complex analysis is also included.
To mitigate or avoid losses caused by earthquakes, it is necessary to understand them deeply. In our project, two idealized second-story structures with different properties with multi-degree of freedom-free vibration will be analyzed. The displacement response of the first structure is analyzed under the conditions with and without an available load by the modal superposition method. As a result, the properties, including the natural frequencies, mode shapes, and the second-floor story shears, have also been obtained. Moreover, the same properties of the second structure are obtained, too, except for the story shear. Moreover, the displacement response of each phase of the impulsive loading of the second structure is also computed by using Duhamel Integral.
At present, with the frequent occurrence of cancer, especially malignant cancer, more and more scholars begin to pay attention to the treatment method, treatment effect, prognosis, and side effects of cancer. Anti-CTLA-4 immunosuppressive agents have become another pillar of the treatment of related cancers with high efficacy, low toxicity, and good prognosis. Research on Anti-CTLA-4 has never stopped. This article focuses on Anti-CTLA-4, summarizes the related mechanism, clinical treatment, and toxic side effects of CTLA-4, and hopes to provide a new research direction for researchers.
Protein is an essential part of food and makes a large contribution to the nutritional value of food. This paper evaluates protein by finding out the impact of different cooking methods on protein, and the influence of protein properties on the choice of cooking method. The results of this paper indicate that deep-frying maximizes the nutritional value of sturgeon. Cooking time and temperature have an impact on protein denaturation and nutritional value. Controlling heating time and temperature precisely can maximize retention of the color, flavor, and aroma of food. Using low-temperature vacuum cooking can reduce the loss of nutrients and moisture and also prevent secondary contamination. Different processes before cooking, such as basting, can not only increase the nutritional value but also enhance the flavor. The analysis can provide detailed information about the protein value and know what is the best way to cook sturgeon. It also provides a better understanding of the choice of cooking method and how to handle the food before cooking.
It has been recognized that the brain is one of the most important and complicated organs in the human body, and it is what sets humans apart from animals, but insight into how the brain controls behaviors, and through what processes people have become the way they are today lacks. Studying the distinct functions of organisms inside of the human brain, it is acknowledged that the hippocampus plays an important role in determining our personalities, learning abilities, and orienting skills. This review introduces the role of the hippocampus in different stages of a person’s life (toddler, adolescence, and during and after adulthood), dominant functions of small parts of the hippocampus, and brain diseases that are caused by damage to the hippocampus such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD). Many common behaviors that are performed every day could be explained by brain mechanisms, and the brain diseases that we hear of constantly but feel distant about actually have many characteristics shared in common. The information is provided with the purpose of arousing readers’ awareness of brain health by introducing hippocampal functions, brain chemicals, and pathologies of brain diseases. The most practical ways of preventing and detecting brain diseases along with the mechanisms behind those methods are summarized. Since AD and PD are two high-risk brain diseases, tips for interacting with patients who have AD and PD are also provided so that people will have an idea of how to treat their loved ones if they are affected by those diseases.
In this paper, we first introduced the significance of complex variables as a field in the first section. Then, for the main body section, we explored the history and development of complex numbers. In addition, we demonstrated the key concepts and theorems that are crucial in the fundamentals of this field. We dive in depth to the such fundamental knowledge, which is the preliminaries of complex numbers. We analyzed the preliminaries via three smaller sections: complex numbers and the complex plane, functions on the complex plane, and integration along curves. Finally, we applied these knowledges into deriving a proof for the product of different sine expressions, which results in a generalized formula. Ultimately, the last section will be the conclusion of the paper.
In recent years, coral reefs have been seriously affected by human and natural factors, some of influences are even irreversible. Among them, the impacts of climate change have gradually deepened and attracted people's attention. Other papers which tell about the familiar topic failed to focus on discussing specific questions in certain area of coral reefs. The paper mainly analyzes the interspecific relationship change when facing the climate change of coral reef ecology in the South China Sea. Content of this paper first discusses the severe condition of climate change, like the instability of global climate system. Also, the situation about South China Sea and the effects of climate change are discussed and analyzed. Then, the interspecific relationships of predation, competition, parasitism, and mutualism were discussed. Further, discussed the increase of benthic algae and symbiotic organism reactions. The response from higher trophic level to low level and some researches are determined, too. On this basis, consider the interspecific relationships in the same trophic level. In the future, higher trophic level changes should be determined. Also, people should focus on the change after coral reefs recovering from albinism, about whether their population would change even extinct with the effect of climate change on coral reefs and reefs make a response to it through trophic level relationship change. This paper can provide some corresponding research ideas for more future researches.
In recent decades, with the help of computer brain imaging technology and other advanced science and technology, a wealth of research achievements has been made in brain science related to games. These achievements explain the deep mechanism of games and provide scientific theoretical basis for the application of games. This paper analyses the effects of games on the brain. On the one hand, it focuses on the analysis and discussion of the positive effects on the brain in four aspects, including games make the brain excited, become more intelligent, improve agility skills, and improve observation. On the other hand, it summarizes the negative effects of excessive games on the brain, including the structural changes of the brain, mental malaise and brain stunting. In the end, the paper summarizes and summarizes the full text.
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is crucial in the metabolism pathway that converts isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. When isocitrate dehydrogenase is mutated, IDH produces 2-hydroxyglutarate instead of alpha-ketoglutarate. The newly formed IDH, with the ability to dysregulate the metabolic pathways of cells, can potentially lead to the development of cancer. The mutation leads to malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia and glioma. Current treatment for IDH-related malignancies includes IDH inhibitors, epigenetic modulators, immunotherapies, and cancer vaccination. The development of a cancer vaccine requires the discovery of a suitable epitope being found. Newly developed deep learning algorithms have the ability to predict protein structures and thus have the potential to help discover suitable epitopes for cancer vaccines. This study discusses the structure of IDH and gives an overview of how mutated IDH can potentially cause malignancies. In addition, this study proposed potential approaches with deep learning to aid the investigation of preventing IDH using cancer vaccines.
This study focuses on chemoresistance in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Dataset GSE118389 and paper Unravelling subclonal heterogeneity and aggressive disease states in TNBC through single-cell RNA-seq from Simona Cristea from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute was used to discover genetic markers that are related to chemoresistance in TNBC. Differentially expressed genes between a chemoresistant cluster and non-chemoresistant clusters in various subpopulations of the TNBC samples were identified, compared, and analyzed. 1987 markers that are differentially expressed in the chemoresistant cluster and non- chemoresistant clusters were found.
The passage mainly discusses the solution to overfitting. Overfitting usually happens when people are training their machine learning models. When a model is overfitted, it only fits one particular dataset and misses most of the data points from another dataset. This problem affects the model's performance and makes it unable to use for its purpose. So how to solve this problem with significance and practical meaning? At the beginning of the passage, I will introduce some theoretical foundations for overfitting. Then I will define the concept of overfitting and show an example of overfitting in the machine learning model. After that, I will tell you how to pick the correct model with the testing set. Then, the passage focuses on the discussion of regularization, which is a helpful technique for solving overfitting. And I will compare the L1 and l2 regularization to help you find the suitable one.
COVID-19 is a prevalent pandemic that has caused of millions of mortalities. While medical and statistical research have proven the effectiveness of COVID vaccines to reduce mortality rate in specific areas. This study aims to explore the quantitative effect of vaccine in preventing in the global level. Mortality and vaccine data was acquired from Kaggle, which summarized related data from various sources. Multiple linear regression, quasi-Poisson regression, LASSO regression, and random forest are applied to the model to analyze and predict the effect of vaccine on mortality. The adjusted R square value of these four models is 0.6670, 0.6863, 0.4901, and 0.7152 respectively. The residual boxplots of all four models show that LASSO model sometimes make extremely inaccurate predictions, and the random forest model is the most accurate model, which matches the comparison result of the adjusted R square values. Therefore, the random forest model can be potentially used to predict future COVID-related deaths based on vaccine-related data.
Immunotherapy is a form of treatment for cancer that works by provoking the immune system of the body into tracking down and destroying cancer cells. CAR-T-CT is a treatment that makes use of CAR-T cells (CARs), which are T cells (T-Cs) that have been modified in some way by the incorporation of engineered synthetic receptors. This therapy is designed to destroy cells that express a specific target antigen, and its primary objective is to do so by locating and killing those cells. Due to the fact that Immune CPI inhibits the production of specific proteins (checkpoint protein) on immune cells as well as on cancer cells thereby preventing the immune system from combating cancer, Immune CPI are used to treat cancer. By inhibiting the activity of these proteins, CPI is able to contribute to the process of stimulating the immune system to specifically target and destroy cancer cells. However, there are still some limitations that exist, and these have the potential to reduce the effectiveness of the treatment or produce some side effects that are life-threatening. This article makes a few suggestions for innovative steps that could be taken in order to both improve the current state of affairs and find answers to any problems that may arise in the near or distant future. The article makes these suggestions in order to improve the current state of affairs and find answers to any problems that may arise in the future.
As the global climate starts to change due the exploitation of natural resources by human, internal combustion engines are no longer the favorite son of mankind. Instead, alternatives such as hybrid power systems and electric motors have drawn the attention of various car manufacturers and numerous scholars from worldwide. At the same time, the automobile industry has not given up internal combustion engines yet, and kept producing innovative engine designs aiming to minimize the negative impact of fossil-fuels on the environment. By researching, analyzing, and comparing data and information from various sources, this article will discuss the fundamentals and working basics of internal combustion engines, hybrid power systems and electric motors, the iconic innovations on internal combustion engines by several car manufacturers, and will compare traditional engines and its alternatives through various aspects. This essay will mainly focus on internal combustion engines and some of the more environmentally friendly alternatives available today, as well as a comparison between them and their advantages and disadvantages.
The field of adoptive immune cell therapy, known as CAR-T cells (chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cells), has advanced significantly in recent years. However, the drug resistance of CAR-T therapy limits the further development of this technology, and a large proportion of tumor patients have drug resistance or cancer recurrence. Immune evasion due to drug resistance may be caused by CAR-T cell dysfunction, the effects of the tumor microenvironment, or drug-resistant tumor cells. The clinical status of CAR-T is reviewed here, along with the intrinsic mechanisms by which tumor cells resist CAR-T therapy and potential development options to address CAR-T resistance..
Glycoproteins in the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) class have a role in controlling lipid metabolism. In astrocytes, microglia, vascular wall cells, and choroid plexus cells of the central nervous system, it is abundantly expressed. According to the rapid advancement of contemporary medicine, numerous investigations have demonstrated the existence of ApoE in chylomicron (CM), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and certain high-density lipoprotein (HDL). ApoE has also been demonstrated to have a substantial impact on Alzheimer's disease (AD). To enhance the investigation of innovative medications and give researchers a theoretical foundation, research on ApoE is required in this area. Because damage to the hippocampus is a significant concern for the population in Alzheimer's research, we need to study the effects of ApoE on the hippocampus. This paper will discuss the relationship between age and sex of hippocampal atrophy after the ApoE gene has caused AD. The paper through a method of literature review and the analysis of some clinical cases explores the impact of the ApoE gene on health, followed by a comparison of the disease state before and after, as well as the clinical pattern of hippocampal atrophy, including a description of clinical symptoms. The paper finds that ApoE significantly impacts AD and that the hippocampus is significantly atrophied after the onset of Alzheimer's disease.
Dark matter has been proposed to fulfill the missing mass from Astro-observation. Many theories have been raised to explain dark matter, and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are one of them. In recent decades, dark matter detection sensitivity has improved significantly. However, solid evidence for their existence has not come yet. This paper outlines some methods for detecting dark matter, including direct detections, collider searches with the ATLAS detector at LHC, and collider searches with CEPC.
The application of micro-robot in precision medicine is increasing in recent years. Since the particularity of the location of thrombus diseases, it is difficult to remove thrombus by operation, and it may cause some harm to the implementers of the operation. As the size of micro-robots in the body continues to shrink and the accuracy of operation continues to improve, they are expected to reduce the harm of thrombotic diseases to patients and reduce the possible impact by removing thrombus. In this review, we will mainly compare the principle, manufacturing and driving data of two kinds of in vivo micro-robots that remove thrombus chemically or mechanically, and analyze their time and effect of removing thrombus. Several typical in vivo micro-robots used to remove thrombus are discussed and analyzed. Some of their advantages and disadvantages are demonstrated, and the future development direction of in vivo micro-robots for removing thrombus is prospected and some suggestions are put forward.
Heart Failure (HF) is one of the major causes of death from various heart diseases and is a common complex clinical syndrome. HF has a high incidence and its 5-year survival rate is similar to that of patients with malignant tumors, which has a serious impact on the quality of life of patients and has become a major public health problem of worldwide concern. At this stage, the clinical treatment of HF is still mainly based on drug therapy. As clinical research progresses, more and more new HF therapeutic drugs are being introduced one after another, new uses of drugs are being discovered and clinical options for drug use are becoming more and more diverse. The drug therapy for HF is also changing from monotherapy to multi-target and multi-mechanism combined mode of action. Innovative mechanical therapy products are also bringing new strategies to the treatment of HF. This article reviews the medication treatment and device implantation strategies for the clinical treatment of HF.
Owing to the effect of frequent human activities, the climate nowadays on plaxnet earth has become more and more stressed. Pollutions such as greenhouse gases are products from factories and other human activities and have become extremely severe, for the damage they could cause to both human health and surrounding environments. For decades, scientists have been seeking ways to mitigate the situation (while minimizing the cost), and seaweeds, a cheap and widespread species can be a key solution to several problems. In this paper, we demonstrate 3 uses--seaweed as forage to reduce methane production by cattle, seaweed as a heavy metal filter, and seaweed-based biofuel--and the mechanism of each. By doing research on the existing literature, we find that seaweeds have considerable potential in alleviating environmental pressure.
Powered exoskeletons are movable machines that are worn on users and detect and respond to their movements. They improve users' abilities, such as strength or speed, by using electric motors, hydraulic systems, etc. Increasingly powerful exoskeletons are being developed, with applications in military, medical, manufacturing, and a variety of other fields. Powered exoskeletons predict human action intentions using a variety of control methods. This paper focuses primarily on the control method of sEMG (surface electromyography) signals, with the goal of reviewing these control strategies used by various powered exoskeletons. The paper concludes from the research that the powered exoskeleton's perception accuracy for the user's motion intention determines its work efficiency and the user's experience. Powered exoskeletons controlled by surface electromyography signals now hold great promise because they can be used for not only general power-assisted exoskeletons, but also for medical rehabilitation.
This paper expounds the basic concept of group theory and its application in Rubik’s Cube transformation and restoration formula. The different states of the magic cube are regarded as the elements of the magic cube group, and the set generated by six basic operations is equivalent to the homomorphism of the magic cube group for analysis, from the mathematical characteristics of the permutation group to some practical examples. The collection of possible states of Rubik's Cube is a group, called Rubik's Cube Group, which can be analyzed with the knowledge of group theory. The essence of the magic cube group is the subgroup of the substitution group. There are six basic operations of the magic cube. The combination of basic operations can only produce even pairs of blocks to exchange positions or flip directions at the same time. Therefore, there are some restrictions on the transformation of the magic cube. Some practical examples give some ideas for creating the magic cube formula.
Chronic diseases, such as sleep apnea and Parkinson's disease, are characterized by insidious onset, complex etiology, slow course, and easy-to-cause other complications, which seriously affect life quality of the patients. Real-time monitoring of biological information can effectively reveal the occurrence and development of chronic diseases. It also helps in aspects of early diagnosis and treating options. In current study, the dynamic change rules of biological signals caused by chronic diseases have been explored, from which one can realize the auxiliary diagnosis and evaluation of these diseases. Attention has been focused on physiological fluctuation and coordination of biological information similarity, including pulse fluctuation detection in patients with sleep apnea and plantar pressure coordination assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease. In the biological similarity study, the heart rate from sleep apnea patients has been recorded two minutes before and after breath pulse. Information of the average plantar pressure from both foot of Parkinson patients has also been recorded and analyzed. Results show that: for sleep apnea patients, their heart rate fluctuation level has significantly reduced. That is because the human body enhances its sympathetic nerve activity to open the airway. The heart rate starts to change periodically, resulting in its fluctuations tending to be consistent. Compared with ordinary people, PD patients have weaker biological information similarities of plantar pressure on one foot. Also, information similarity between left and right feet of PD patients was more diversified. It revealed that the left and right foot plantar pressure fluctuated more and tended to be more consistent together with gait disorder and weakened balance. Such results show that the similarity of biological information can effectively excavate the fluctuation and coordination of physiological signals, and effectively contribute to the recognition and auxiliary diagnosis of chronic diseases. Data mining methods applied here helps to explore the physiological and pathological mechanism of the studied chronic diseases and sheds light on early diagnosis and severity assessment. It becomes more promising to develop algorithms, software, and hardware systems that is helpful for patients and facilitate promotion of human life quality and health cause.
The simple pendulum is a typical model of the compound pendulum. In this model, resistance and buoyancy are negligible. This paper researches how air resistance affects the vibration period in the simple pendulum model but with exact conditions. There are two simplified air resistance models that can apply in the models, one is the first power air resistance model, and the second is the second power air resistance model. But the first power air resistance model is quite complex, there is no equipment to measure its coefficient of it, so it only applies the second power air resistance. This paper studies the formula that revealed air resistance and related suitable cases. The results show that the time from the formula is longer than the experiment a little bit.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a chronic metabolic disease, has been studied for decades. There is already well-recognized pathogenesis from pathology, epidemiology, physiology, gene expression, etc. While the understanding of the disease itself is increasing, therapies for this issue seem to have some obstacles: there has been no officially accepted direct pharmaceutical treatment(targeted drugs) until now. Nevertheless, lifestyle regulation has been investigated a lot to fill in this gap. Many researches have already given recommendations in fields of diets or physical activities. However, there is a lack of a comprehensive review to combine both perspectives and give an overview of the disease. This article will review the researches on the lifestyle recommendations for NAFLD patients from both diet and exercise aspects. All the references throughout this research, including journals and literature reviews, are conducted from online databases. The content will mainly discuss the effectiveness of different types of diet and how exercise taking place with respect to reducing the NAFLD risk factors. In brief, most current experimental/observational results suggest that a Mediterranean diet combining with moderate intense exercise could be remarkably beneficial in the management of NAFLD.
As a well-known common neurodegenerative disease in aging, Alzheimer’s disease will cause the loss of the ability to talk, cognization and memorize. Amyloid beta is considered to be a major cause of Alzheimer’s disease. It will form many different types and accumulate in human brain and cause Alzheimer’s disease. However, a recent report about the plagiarism of the fundamental paper of this theory makes many people think that our research direction on Alzheimer’s disease is wrong. The author agrees that the plagiarism of the paper is terrible and should be punished, but the author does not think that this will waste everything we have done about amyloid beta. Amyloid beta is still a major reason that causes Alzheimer’s disease and find a way to stop the accumulation of amyloid beta in brain is a feasible way to cure Alzheimer’s disease. Research on the role of amyloid beta in Alzheimer’s disease, whether it is a major cause is the major purpose of the essay. What’s more a new method that aim to reduce amyloid beta in brain to cure and relief Alzheimer’s disease will be introduced in this article. This method aims to stop the signal transduction of amyloid beta to neuron cells, thus, stop amyloid beta from damaging our brain and cause Alzheimer’s disease. The reason this article is written is to confirm the importance of amyloid beta for Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, introduce a new cure method. Since this method is new, conclude the advantages and disadvantages of this method could inspire other researchers, and improve the performance of the drugs developed based on this method to reach the final goal, which is cure the Alzheimer’s disease.
The purpose of these experiments is to understand the function and importance of an electrocardiogram (ECG). In general, an electrocardiogram experiment entails tests conducted to evaluate the heart’s rhythm and electrical activity. The laboratory activities involved building the circuit required for recording the electrocardiogram, and the respective ECG signals were effectively converted for clearer observation. The experiment objective was achieved through the following procedures in the lab manual. MATLAB software was effectively used to obtain the plot for the ECG signal by exploiting the data obtained from the acquisition software. The report also successfully provides a compelling discussion on electrocardiograms and their general importance. After acquiring effective ECG plots, the laptop was effectively connected to the acquisition system and the obtained plot was employed for effective analysis.