Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Biological Engineering and Medical Science (ICBioMed 2022), Part II
Gary Royle, University College London
Steven M. Lipkin, Weill Cornell Medicine
Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in the human body. In recent years, Human society as a whole is increasingly aware of the nutritional role that zinc plays in human health.This paper mainly discusses the relationship between zinc and human health and how to supplement zinc scientifically and lists the various effects of zinc on human metabolism. In this paper, the trace element zinc was studied through literature analysis, case analysis, data analysis, and review methods. The research data mainly came from various types of zinc literature and newspapers and magazines. This paper finds that zinc is extremely important element for human growth and development, it can resist and eliminate pathogens in the body. Meanwhile, the relationship between zinc and the metabolism of our human body is very close. Only by obtaining enough zinc, can the cells in our various organs and tissues maintain a relatively high metabolic rate.
Cancer is undoubtedly the number one killer in today's society. Traditional surgical treatment methods have their own limitations, especially in the treatment of end-stage or hematological tumors. Emerging immunotherapy is an unprecedented breakthrough technology in cancer treatment. For example, PD-1/PD-L1 and CAR-T immunotherapy. CAR-T has been proposed for many years, it is only in the last few years that it has been improved and applied in the clinic. Its effectiveness in the treatment of cancer in hematology is encouraging. For example, it has a great curative impact in the acute leukemia, in the field of non-Hodgkin lymphoma ,it is also recognized as one of the most prospective and developed tumor treatments. Clinical application of CAR-T has attracted extensive attention. This therapy is characterized by the ability to detect tumor-associated antigens preferentially detected by T cells, which has a significant anti-tumor effect. This article will focus on HCC, list the existing HCC CAR-T treatment targets and briefly describe associated clinical research.
CRISPR/Cas9 technology is a third-generation artificial nuclease technology that has been successfully applied in several fields, given its simplicity and efficiency. Although it has been widely used, its application in marine organisms, especially in eukaryotic marine phytoplankton represented by marine diatoms, is just beginning. As one of the most important marine primary producers, marine diatoms have a variety of irreplaceable ecological significance and potential applications, and therefore need the support of genetic engineering technologies to advance their further development. This paper will first introduce the mechanism of action and the history of CRISPR/Cas9 technology. It will also present the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in the genetic engineering of marine diatoms and discuss its prospects.
Chlamydia trachomatis leads to the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide, resulting in short-term and long-term health issues. The treatments for chlamydia trachomatis infection are often a hot research direction. The efficiency of antibiotics, the conventional therapy for chlamydia trachomatis infection, is decreasing gradually because of resistance, especially azithromycin. Thus, it is necessary to find new therapies to treat chlamydia trachomatis infection with higher specificity and effectiveness. Among all the trials, gene and peptide therapy stand out. As for gene therapy, IRF5 and IL-10RA are related to macrophage-chlamydia interactions. Their roles are vital in order to cure chlamydia trachomatis infection. With regard to peptide therapy, pep-1, LL-37, and melittin showed outstanding abilities in inhibiting the growth of chlamydia trachomatis. However, multiple challenges for the development of these therapies remained. Deep researches are required to address these problems in order to put these treatments into clinical use. This review summarizes the conventional treatments, and introduces gene therapy and peptide therapy for chlamydia trachomatis infection.
With the development of Internet technology, human information data grows by a huge amount. Traditional data storage media are no longer suitable for large amounts of data storage due to their inherent shortcomings, such as high power consumption, large physical size, and short storage life. DNA information storage, on the other hand, can overcome these shortcomings to a certain extent. This paper introduces the process and mechanism of DNA storage, such as the DNA synthesis method, DNA coding, DNA preservation and sequencing, the history of DNA storage, its defects, and shortcomings. This article introduces the principles and mechanisms of DNA storage, including DNA synthesis method, data storage, and DNA preservation, as well as the history of DNA storage and its shortcomings and prospects for improvement, using the comparison of traditional storage methods and DNA storage methods as an import cut.
With the gradual expansion of the population of diabetes and obesity, type II diabetes is more common in obese patients, and the most worrying is the increasing number of type II diabetes among adolescents and young adults. People have had to look for ways to stop or delay the onset of diabetes, and artificial sweeteners, which cause good sweetness properties and high safety without the associated high-calorie content of sugar, are widely used in the food sector as the main way to address high sugar food intake. However, despite the very widespread use of artificial sweeteners, obesity and diabetes have not been reduced as expected, and even their numbers continue to increase rapidly. In recent years, with more in-depth research on artificial sweeteners, it is gradually found that artificial sweeteners have many adverse effects on diabetes and obesity. This article describes consumers in more detail from different perspectives on the effects of artificial sweeteners and concludes that artificial sweeteners do affect insulin resistance and gut microbes, which are detrimental to diabetics and obese people. However, whether all artificial sweeteners have a significant adverse effect on the human body needs to be further investigated.
Currently, obesity became a prevalence concern in terms of its scale and health-related impact among the global. Medical comprehensive intervention among dietary pattern and living manners are recommended by guidelines as foundation of obesity treatment. Identifying alternative dietary weight loss strategies become a common and safe choice for many obsess people’s medical consolers and clinical doctors. Many positive impacts of Intermittent Energy Restriction (IER) have been suggested by preliminary study, but it still lacks well-powered intervention studies. This passage objects at clarify the metabolic parameters, summarized evidence of preclinical studies of IER’s role in used as a weight loss strategy compared to other common strategies the guideline recommended, for instance, continuous energy restriction (CER), etc. Specifically, the randomized studies last 8-26 weeks performing in overweight and obsess adults. The result is compared in a paradigm of IER with CER, suggesting the outcome of weight loss and change in biomarkers of metabolic parameters. The evidence suggests that IER produce positive impact on weight loss and some positive but indirect effect on metabolic diseases.
Brain diseases, like majority illnesses, are influenced in some way by nutrition. Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by brain cell deaths and memory loss, is significantly influenced by sugar intake. The frequency, quantity, and type of carbohydrates can influence AD development and outcomes. Whether highly processed or not, carbohydrate-rich foods influence AD. This paper discusses how a high-carbohydrate diet increases the chances of AD development and aggravation. General introduction to carbohydrate diets and the etiology of AD are explained. Subsequently, details on nonmodified and modified AD risk factors are addressed. The present paper moreover examines the imperative relationship between AD and high-carbohydrates diets. Particularly, the paper elucidates how: carbohydrate-rich diets impair cognitive function; how the diet aggravates AD ramifications. Furthermore, the paper evaluates how high-carbohydrates diets: alter AD biomarkers; interact with age to influence AD; and how carbohydrate-rich diets prevent brain cell growth and repair. The report addresses the prevailing therapeutic methods that can be employed to prevent and manage Alzheimer’s disease. Such interventions include the use of caffeine to significantly less cognitive deterioration in AD patients is addressed. Other interventions addressed regard how ketogenic diets can effectively aid with AD prevention; minimal sugar consumption; and how physical activities can aid AD prevention and management. Besides, AD-derived diseases are also addressed. The paper finds that high-carbohydrate diets should be avoided, and healthier lifestyle practices are integral for AD prevention and management.
Constipation is common in modern society and affects people's quality of life. The symptoms of constipation vary from person to person. The frequency of bowel movements, the state of the bowel movement and the shape of the stool are some symptoms that determine whether a person is constipated. Constipation is classified as either primary or secondary constipation. Fibre is a compound of plant origin classified as soluble or insoluble fibre. Its function is to maintain a healthy digestive system, with insoluble fibre increasing bowel movements and faecal output to relieve constipation. Dietary fibre is the fibre that people obtain through eating. The prevalence varies from age group to age, as well as dietary fibre intake. In childhood, consuming "age + 5g" of dietary fibre is recommended. According to studies, adding a certain amount of dietary fibre can help children improve the symptoms of chronic constipation. In the adult population, the number of recommendations varies from country to country, and women are more likely than men to suffer from chronic constipation. According to studies, dietary fibre intake can improve the symptoms of constipation in adult patients. However, some patients with unique constipation need to reduce dietary fibre intake to relieve the symptoms of constipation. For the elderly, the prevalence is higher, and 20-25g is a more suitable nutritional fibre intake. And increasing dietary fibre intake can positively impact elderly patients with constipation.
Eating a well-rounded diet has therapeutic effects on many health issues facing humanity today, such as cardiovascular events and diabetes, because all critical chemicals in mood regulation can be sourced from whole-natural food. A consensus on the important role diet plays in producing healthy outcomes can be reached through discussions around the gut-brain axis, mood-regulating neurotransmitters, and their close connection with food. Existing studies on diet and mental health have accomplished certain levels of success. More data across geographical locations and cultures is needed for dietary practices to be established as a treatment option for psychiatric disorders. Current treatment in psychoactive drugs is effective in the short term, but evidence suggests that it sets individuals up for a higher chance of relapse in the long run. The role of nutrients in mood regulation should be emphasized in both the disease prevention and recovery process. This article provides an outlook for using dietary therapy as an alternative treatment method for mental illness.
The global epidemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been raging since its outbreak in 2019, placing enormous strain on healthcare systems all over the world. The best course of action is to prevent COVID-19 in the future, despite the fact that its virological characteristics and pathogenesis have been largely understood. And all current treatment options probably include two types: one is active immunization and the other is passive immunization. Among them, passive immunity includes supportive therapy as well as neutralizing antibodies, and small molecule drugs and other treatments are used as supportive therapy, which only slows down the symptoms and prevents complications, and then waits for the body's immune system to heal itself. On the other hand, stem cell therapy is one type of active immunity. Typically, doctors use mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to treat patients with severe or life-threatening disorders because of their potent immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and tissue healing abilities. The remarkable developments in COVID-19 stem cell therapy during the past three years are outlined in this article, along with the current state of affairs. And it was found that although stem cell therapy has been successful in stages, it still has many limitations.
L-Carnitine, as an essential coenzyme in fat metabolism, can promote the metabolism of human fat, accelerate the burning of fat, and may achieve the desired fat burning slimming effect; This papers studies the effect of L-carnitine on weight loss and the possible side effects it may bring to the human body, explains the weight loss principle and metabolic pathway of L-carnitine from the molecular level, and discusses the relationship between exercise and L-carnitine in combination with metabolism, give the author recommendations for using L-Carnitine. A brief explanation of the current state of development of L-carnitine diet pills (supplements) in the field of health was described. Combined with the comparison and summary of existing databases, it is concluded that L-carnitine alone is not an ideal choice, and L-carnitine alone is used without exercise: For people with normal weight, L-carnitine has no effect on weight loss. Obviously, only overweight, and obese people, taking L-carnitine combined with a lot of training have obvious weight loss effect.
Currently, the prevention and control measures are routinely implemented, which is not exactly the same as the situation of SARS. This paper compares China's different epidemic prevention measures against SARS and COVID-19 by analyzing previous literature. Both SARS and COVID-19 employed similar strategies, such as centralized isolation and treatment and regular case screening of citizens, but the degree of implementation of strategies during SARS was less than ideal for COVID-19 due to the technical limitations of the time. Government regulation and the use of advanced technologies are critical to controlling infectious diseases. The protection strategies that have been implemented have effectively mitigated the damage to society caused by the epidemic.
Recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer is the primary reason for dying in the female population. Although advanced research in immunization may provide a potential treatment for cervical cancer, it is still one of the usual fetal female cancers globally. Previous studies on bevacizumab and chemotherapy provided efficient treatments with a survival benefit for women, but different strategies are needed to increase the overall survival rate of this cancer. Tisotumab vedotin is an investigative and pioneering immunoglobulin-medicine combination that targets tissue factor (TF), a protein in high concentrations in various solid tumours. Tisotumab vedotin bonds to tissue factor on aimed cells and then releases monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE). In addition, Tisotumab vedotin’s direct cytotoxicity may increase nearby tumour cells’ spectator toxicity and various immune-linked effects. This paper will discuss previous studies on Tisotumab vedotin, and their data will be analyzed further. The improvement toward this treatment will be proposed as well. This paper aimed to establish a thorough understanding and further analysis of the previous clinical trials and findings on Tisotumab vedotin.
Senescence, also known as biological aging, is the gradual deterioration of functional characteristics in living organisms. Human civilization has spent tremendous efforts dealing with senescences in the past centuries. In the process of senescence, cellular and genetic-based materials face several variations, and they can be varied beneficially by preventing cancer cell development, such as tumor cells. However, it surely will result in several problems due to cellular senescence. Moreover, factors contributing to human senescence will be elaborated in the following review paper. Telomere will be one factor that plays an essential role in growing old. Due to its unique characteristic of shortening, the ability to repair after the replication will be heavily reduced. Thus, this review intended to illustrate the overall process of human senescence, which involves fundamental causes of senescence, telomere shortening, and its consequences.
Nanomaterials have great application prospect in biological medicine due to their strong permeability, repair and regeneration. In particular, nano silver has excellent antibacterial ability and no toxic effect, which makes it widely used. The specific content of this paper introduces a method of using silver nanoparticles to generate silver ions, and then make it react with hydrogen peroxide, through the colorimetric device to react with different color changes corresponding to different concentrations, through this biosensor to determine the concentration of such as cholesterol lactic acid and other substances.And when detecting miRNA,AuNPs were further modified by complementing the DNA (cDNA) of target mirnas. AgNPs could not be attracted to negatively charged DNA due to electrostatic repulsion by immobilized modified gold nanoparticles on the electrode surface. After analyzing the peak of silver stripping, miRNA can be accurately detected.Furthermore, chitosan coated silver nanoparticles were designed, and polyethylene glycol was used as a stabilizer. Finally, its good blood compatibility and antibacterial ability, as well as its cytotoxicity to cervical cancer cells were demonstrated by characterization.Finally, the accumulation and changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen (RNS) induced by silver nano are introduced, and it is confirmed by measurement that they are important factors in apoptosis of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
The world is entering an era of strong infectious diseases, and it is urgent to develop a new type of rapid, efficient detection system. This graph specifically illustrates the detection function of the gold nanoparticles, and the gold nanoparticles-based sensor. Gold-based nanoclusters (NCs) which has a small particle size, has a high degree of stability and no impact on the biological activity. Gold-based NCs has a surface plasma resonance effect and produces visible color, which can be detected by observing the color change using the agglomeration reaction of the detected substance with Gold-based NCs. In order to specifically detect certain biomolecules, some functional groups or small DNA molecular chains of nanolodin are usually modified on it to have a selective detection capability. In the review, we introduce a total of four nano-gold applications, for bacteria, viruses, DNA and cancer, also, respectively elaborating some recent Gold-based NCs detection applications.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with progressive memory and cognitive impairment. Due to the devastating social and financial impacts of AD, extensive research is put into gaining a clearer understanding of its pathogenesis and risk factors, as well as the development of treatments that can slow or reverse the disease progression. Despite this, early and accurate detection of AD and the development of curative treatments are yet to be achieved. Further, major challenges remain in the symptomatic treatments available today, as the delivery of Alzheimer’s medications is limited by low efficiency due to difficulties in blood-brain barrier permeation and poor absorption. The incorporation of nanotechnology in current and potential treatments present unique opportunities for the delivery of therapeutic agents with increased specificity, lower toxicity and controlled release. In this review, we outline the proposed pathogenesis, current diagnosis and treatment methods of AD, and discuss recent advancements in nanomaterial-based systems that target major hallmarks of AD through different mechanisms, including targeted drug delivery, inhibition of Aβ aggregation, delivery of neuroprotective agents and Aβ removal from the blood.
Probiotics are living microorganisms that when administered in appropriate quantities bring health benefits to the host. Probiotics products have been developed in the form of dairy products, dietary supplements, fermentation and enzyme preparations or other biological agents, and the global probiotics industry is growing at a rate of 15% to 20% per year. The clinical application of probiotics is becoming more and more extensive, especially in bacteriostasis, treatment of intestinal diseases, neonatal diseases and immune diseases, as well as in lowering blood pressure, lowering blood lipids, anti-aging, anti-tumor and central nervous system diseases. Metagenin refers to the bioactive compounds beneficial to health produced in the fermentation process of probiotics. Metagenin has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, immune regulation, antioxidant, anti-obesity, anti-hypertension, hypidemia, liver protection, promoting wound healing and other biological activities, which has broad prospects in the development of new health functional food. This topic will be used for the method of investigation and demonstration to study the research status and future development of probiotics and metagenics cosmetics, as well as the safety evaluation of cosmetics components and human body. The main research direction is on lactic acid bacteria and bacillus.
Wearable biosensors have the potential to provide valuable information about our physiological states and transform traditional healthcare. Compared to traditional blood sampling, on-body analysis of non-invasive biofluids can offer continuous and painless monitoring of relevant biomarkers. Recent developments in epidermal sensors feature integrated systems capable of sensing multiple factors while providing easy readout and great skin conformity. Innovative solutions based on advanced material fabrication and novel designs have also emerged to address challenges such as power, sensor sensitivity and selectivity, and communication. As a result, more possibilities have emerged to develop sophisticated integrations with more functionalities, optimized skin conformity, and less disruption of daily routine. While sensing performance and functions continue to improve, attention should also be drawn to practical problems such as biofouling, contamination, and complex composition dynamics. Moreover, although past and current research have highlighted studies investigating the use of sweat in diagnostics, more evidence of correlations between sweat biomarker levels and physiological conditions is needed to promote the utility of these systems.
Stroke is a disease that will affect both physical health and mental health of people. Scientists are developing different methods to detect and cure this disease. Nanotechnology has achieved successful results in diagnosis as well as treatment of ischemic stroke. Stroke will cause blood-brain barrier dysfunction which provides chances for detection and treatment to process. Researchers have developed and evaluated a variety of nanoparticles in vivo or in vitro, including gold nanoparticles, perfluorocarbon nanoparticles, PLGA nanoparticles and iron oxide nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are being modified and achieve good results in diagnosis including magnetic resonance imaging, microwave imaging and fluorescence imaging, and treatment including thrombolysis and stem cell transplantation. Nanotechnology has several benefits such as tiny size and ease to modified which will fasten future development in stroke detection and treatment. This review paper will outline several different modification methods of various nanoparticles in laboratory.
Among the several neurodegenerative illnesses, one of these is the illness Alzheimer's (AD). it is hard to cure completely for now. To find fresh targets for the therapy of AD, neuroimmunology have been getting attention gradually. Neuroimmunology response, which happened in the central nervous system (CNS), is innate immune response of human. In the AD, microglia activated by damage signals lead to a series of cellular cascade responses. Then, a large number of chemokines and inflammatory cytokines are released by microglial cells. The cytokines have neurotoxic effects on the certain brain areas, causing neuronal degeneration. Since microglia can be activated by tau aggregation in addition to alarm signals, with tau protein aggregation releasing from the degenerative neurons, it provokes a positive feedback mechanism of neuroimmunology in hippocampal area. Microglia mainly play a role of neuroprotective by clearing β-amyloid (Aβ) on early stage of AD and have a neurotoxic effects induced by an Aβ-induced phenotypic change on late stage of AD. TREM2 mainly expressed on microglia, it may downregulate the inflammatory response in AD. The review has explained clearly and demonstrated that tau assembly and clearance of Aβ are effective therapeutic targets on AD. In addition, it explained AD nosogenesis from the new view of TREM2 mutations.
This article focuses on the resolution strategy of deep brain stimulation to improve Parkinson's disease symptoms by correcting pathological concussions of the basal ganglia network. Years of clinical practice have shown that Subthalamic nucleus (STN) and Internal globus pallidus (GPI) are two effective sites for DBS intervention in Parkinson's disease. Through the observation of animal experiments and drug intervention, the characteristics of pathological oscillations of basal ganglia network and spontaneous oscillations among various nuclei were sorted out. Based on the functional system hypothesis of cortical-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops, the pathological oscillation pattern of the β-band is analyzed, and how electrical impulse stimulation changes the generation pattern of action potentials at the cellular level, thereby effectively changing pathological oscillations at the network level; This paper analyzes the improvement of symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, and frozen gait with DBS, and looks forward to a composite treatment strategy.
Alzheimer’s disease is affecting many people, especially people older than 65, living in the world. However, the cause and cure of these disease continue to confuse the scientists. Omics analysis, which includes four levels: genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes analysis, can dig out the information lying behind large amount of data and it’s really useful for complex disease like AD (Alzheimer’s Disease). In this article, I talked about the four levels of omics analysis investigating AD in details. In each level, the general workflow, the information we can get and the examples in AD have been involved. This paper will give the readers a general view of the function of omics analysis in AD.
Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) are characterized by gradual loss of selectively susceptible neuron populations, usually presented by cognitive disorder and movement ability impairment, and cause great distress to patients and those close to them. The diagnosis and rehabilitation of NDs have been an unsolved challenge for many years, but brain-computer interface (BCI), a vigorously growing research area, may provide a promising tool to solve the problems. Here, we first briefly introduced the working principle of BCI, then take a few of the most common neurodegenerative diseases as an example to introduce the nowadays BCI application on NDs diagnosis and rehabilitation. This article will help researchers to gain a general understanding and appreciation of this field, and provide assistance for related studies.
Cancer has been one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Accurate diagnosis of these cancers often takes time and traditional treatments may cause harmful side effects on the patients. Nanotechnology has provided revolutionary breakthroughs in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers due to the biocompatibility, accessibility, control, and targeting characteristics of the nanoparticles. This research study focuses on the use of nanoparticles and nanorobots for targeted drug delivery specific to the tumor cells to minimize the adverse side effects of cancer treatment. There are various studies of nanoparticles that have been found to contribute to the drug delivery process. These include “Cornell Dots” (C Dots), bioadhesive nanoparticles, logic-gated nanorobots, and self-propelled autonomous nanorobots. Some of these nanoparticles, like C Dots, focus on the detection of the tumor and signifying the tumor location. Others, such as bioadhesive nanoparticles, are designed for the release of drug candidates once the tumor is detected. This research study aims to identify recommendations for improving upon drug delivery to target tumor cells using combined approaches from these studied uses of nanoparticles. One focus is the use of multi-gated aptamers to release drugs based on certain conditions being met, thus opening the nanostructure to release the drugs. Another option would be the controlled release of a drug using gated aptamers with bioadhesive properties. If these recommendations can be successfully evaluated in laboratory research then it will significantly reduce the need for high doses of chemotherapy, increase the treatment efficiency, and also minimize the side effects of these anti-cancer drugs on the patient.
Today, cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality. On average, someone dies of cardiovascular disease every 36.1 seconds in the United States. According to 2019 statistics, 2,396 people die from cardiovascular disease per day. Analysis of the influencing variables of heart disease mortality can effectively advise people's living habits, prevent the occurrence of heart disease, and lower the risk of disease. This paper analysis the risk factors for heart attack at the county level in the United States. Influencing factors included adult obesity rate, adult smoking rate, diabetes rate, low birthweight rate, excessive drinking rate and physical inactivity rate. Through data pre-processing, descriptive statistical analysis, data visualization and linear regression analysis, a simple linear regression equation between physical inactivity rate and heart disease mortality was finally obtained. It has a slope of 0.7266, an intercept of 0.0767, and the R-squared of linear regression model is 0.539. It is confirmed that physical inactivity rate and heart disease mortality have a strong positive linear relationship.
A supramolecular structure is an ordered aggregate formed by intermolecular forces, also known as Van der Waals forces, and does not have to be covalent bonds. By combining with molecule with different structure, the supramolecule will show as a molecular collection with complex shape. It allows a supramolecule to have multiple characteristics and assume multiple functions. Without the need to synthesize by artificial initiative, supramolecules are widely apply in the biological field naturally. Many biological macromolecules are considered as one kind of supramolecules. These macromolecules can combine to form aggregations and, further, cell organelles, as well as collaborate to produce a series of biological reactions. Since supramolecules are a broad and cross majors research with rapid progress, it is necessary to regularly review, integrate and discuss this topic. Therefore, this review will discuss the present of supramolecules and analyze of application of supramolecules in cells. Recent research about how specific supramolecules apply and work for the particular function will be introduced.
Ruxolitinib is known as a selective kinase inhibitor that acts by inhibiting the activator of the transcription pathway. JAK-STAT signaling pathway plays an important role in the signal transduction of many growth factors and cytokines related to cell proliferation, growth and hematopoiesis. Myelofibrosis is a JAK1/JAK2 signaling-specific gene expression upregulation, resulting in an overall sustained disruption of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Ruxolitinib effectively and selectively inhibits JAK2V617F mediated signal transduction and proliferation, significantly increases apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, and leads to the doubling of depolarized mitochondria at 64 nm in Ba/F3 cells. Ruxolitinib has been confirmed to be more effective than other treatments for the same period in the treatment of some diseases such as polycythemia vera, so a safe, efficient, and cost-effective synthesis of ruxolitinib is warranted. The advantages of route 1 are high economy, safety, and atomic utilization, while the disadvantage is a large number of reaction steps and low overall yield. The advantage of route 2 is the small number of reaction steps and high convenience, while the disadvantage is the expensive raw materials, complex experimental conditions, and low atomic utilization efficiency. The advantage of route 3 is the high overall yield and also more convenient, while the disadvantage is the expensive raw materials and complex experimental conditions. This is the result of the route comparison, and this paper can find that each route has its advantages and disadvantages. On balance, we recommend synthetic route one. It is economical and safe, although the yield is low, it is still acceptable.
Tofacitinib is one of the Janus activated kinase inhibitors, and the compound is characteristic of its high-throughput screening and lead optimization of its role as a JAK3 inhibitor in the cure of autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. It can be used to the recovery of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In this article, we will introduce tofacitinib’s background and meaning, and then it’s function as a molecule kinase inhibitor. It has advantage on the remedy of inflammatory diseases. The initial synthesis procedure of tofacitinib is comparatively complicated and the cost is unaffordable. Thus, three synthesis routes are discussed, and the upsides and downsides of methods from aspects of atomic economy, reaction yield, purity and safety are analyzed. Tofacitinib’s mechanism and application are further introduced. Although the three synthesis routes of tofacitinib introduced in this paper still have many shortcomings, we put forward some improvement ideas for the future synthesis routes and put forward the possibility of its future application.
In recent years, marine pollution has become a major issue for many scientists and affects the entire world. Global marine ecosystems are facing major challenges as litter or chemical emissions increase. This paper discovers about cause, effect on animals and plants, solutions of sea pollution. Results find that plastic pollution cause large amount of plastic float on sea surface and sink in the sea; oil spills is hazardous to birds, marine animals and plants, and the marine environment, and factory pollution cause decrease in water quality. Three types of animals most harmed by ocean pollution, which are sea turtle, marine mammals and sea birds, they always mistaken and harmed by the waste. On plants, algae blooms are killing other marine species life, and oxybenzone cause coral reef bleaching. This paper finds the solutions that people, government, and organizations can do in future in order to solve marine pollutions. Government should made policy to ban people use harmful chemical products, factory stop pollute pollutants, fishing should be reduced. For people, they can protect ocean by stop using plastic products, saving electricity. This paper popularizes the seriousness of plastic pollution and suggests future solutions.
In recent decades, climatic change has grown to one of the most concerned problems in the society. Species across the globe have been responding to climate change. In this article, butterflies’ responses across the globe towards climate change are mainly focused on. But-terflies are sensitive to climate change due to their species interaction, high mobility and links with specific habitat conditions. They also have a wide distribution, covering all con-tinents but Antarctica. Climate change impacts biodiversity and affect butterflies’ various behaviors. This article has discussed butterflies’ organismal responses, range shifts, altera-tions of phenology behaviors and species interaction. After analyzing studied data, it is shown that climate change has led the genetic revolution of certain mountain butterfly spe-cies to extinction. Warming climate has increased voltinism in European butterflies and has created mismatches in trophic interaction via driving mountain butterflies towards the summits. It is also studied in the article that warming night temperatures effect oviposition and life span of Finnish Glanville fritillary butterflies. The effect of disturbed El Nino/La Nina frequency due to climate change on tropic butterfly abundance has also been men-tioned. Climate change has also affected monarch migration and population via shifting host plant distributions. By diving deep into the specific response butterflies have towards climate change, a more developed view on the effects of climate change could be gained. This is aimed for finding solutions to better preserve biodiversity.
In recent years, coral reefs have been seriously affected by human and natural factors, some of influences are even irreversible. Among them, the impacts of climate change have gradually deepened and attracted people's attention. Other papers which tell about the familiar topic failed to focus on discussing specific questions in certain area of coral reefs. The paper mainly analyzes the interspecific relationship change when facing the climate change of coral reef ecology in the South China Sea. Content of this paper first discusses the severe condition of climate change, like the instability of global climate system. Also, the situation about South China Sea and the effects of climate change are discussed and analyzed. Then, the interspecific relationships of predation, competition, parasitism, and mutualism were discussed. Further, discussed the increase of benthic algae and symbiotic organism reactions. The response from higher trophic level to low level and some researches are determined, too. On this basis, consider the interspecific relationships in the same trophic level. In the future, higher trophic level changes should be determined. Also, people should focus on the change after coral reefs recovering from albinism, about whether their population would change even extinct with the effect of climate change on coral reefs and reefs make a response to it through trophic level relationship change. This paper can provide some corresponding research ideas for more future researches.
COVID-19 is a prevalent pandemic that has caused of millions of mortalities. While medical and statistical research have proven the effectiveness of COVID vaccines to reduce mortality rate in specific areas. This study aims to explore the quantitative effect of vaccine in preventing in the global level. Mortality and vaccine data was acquired from Kaggle, which summarized related data from various sources. Multiple linear regression, quasi-Poisson regression, LASSO regression, and random forest are applied to the model to analyze and predict the effect of vaccine on mortality. The adjusted R square value of these four models is 0.6670, 0.6863, 0.4901, and 0.7152 respectively. The residual boxplots of all four models show that LASSO model sometimes make extremely inaccurate predictions, and the random forest model is the most accurate model, which matches the comparison result of the adjusted R square values. Therefore, the random forest model can be potentially used to predict future COVID-related deaths based on vaccine-related data.
The field of adoptive immune cell therapy, known as CAR-T cells (chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cells), has advanced significantly in recent years. However, the drug resistance of CAR-T therapy limits the further development of this technology, and a large proportion of tumor patients have drug resistance or cancer recurrence. Immune evasion due to drug resistance may be caused by CAR-T cell dysfunction, the effects of the tumor microenvironment, or drug-resistant tumor cells. The clinical status of CAR-T is reviewed here, along with the intrinsic mechanisms by which tumor cells resist CAR-T therapy and potential development options to address CAR-T resistance..
The application of micro-robot in precision medicine is increasing in recent years. Since the particularity of the location of thrombus diseases, it is difficult to remove thrombus by operation, and it may cause some harm to the implementers of the operation. As the size of micro-robots in the body continues to shrink and the accuracy of operation continues to improve, they are expected to reduce the harm of thrombotic diseases to patients and reduce the possible impact by removing thrombus. In this review, we will mainly compare the principle, manufacturing and driving data of two kinds of in vivo micro-robots that remove thrombus chemically or mechanically, and analyze their time and effect of removing thrombus. Several typical in vivo micro-robots used to remove thrombus are discussed and analyzed. Some of their advantages and disadvantages are demonstrated, and the future development direction of in vivo micro-robots for removing thrombus is prospected and some suggestions are put forward.
Powered exoskeletons are movable machines that are worn on users and detect and respond to their movements. They improve users' abilities, such as strength or speed, by using electric motors, hydraulic systems, etc. Increasingly powerful exoskeletons are being developed, with applications in military, medical, manufacturing, and a variety of other fields. Powered exoskeletons predict human action intentions using a variety of control methods. This paper focuses primarily on the control method of sEMG (surface electromyography) signals, with the goal of reviewing these control strategies used by various powered exoskeletons. The paper concludes from the research that the powered exoskeleton's perception accuracy for the user's motion intention determines its work efficiency and the user's experience. Powered exoskeletons controlled by surface electromyography signals now hold great promise because they can be used for not only general power-assisted exoskeletons, but also for medical rehabilitation.
As a well-known common neurodegenerative disease in aging, Alzheimer’s disease will cause the loss of the ability to talk, cognization and memorize. Amyloid beta is considered to be a major cause of Alzheimer’s disease. It will form many different types and accumulate in human brain and cause Alzheimer’s disease. However, a recent report about the plagiarism of the fundamental paper of this theory makes many people think that our research direction on Alzheimer’s disease is wrong. The author agrees that the plagiarism of the paper is terrible and should be punished, but the author does not think that this will waste everything we have done about amyloid beta. Amyloid beta is still a major reason that causes Alzheimer’s disease and find a way to stop the accumulation of amyloid beta in brain is a feasible way to cure Alzheimer’s disease. Research on the role of amyloid beta in Alzheimer’s disease, whether it is a major cause is the major purpose of the essay. What’s more a new method that aim to reduce amyloid beta in brain to cure and relief Alzheimer’s disease will be introduced in this article. This method aims to stop the signal transduction of amyloid beta to neuron cells, thus, stop amyloid beta from damaging our brain and cause Alzheimer’s disease. The reason this article is written is to confirm the importance of amyloid beta for Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, introduce a new cure method. Since this method is new, conclude the advantages and disadvantages of this method could inspire other researchers, and improve the performance of the drugs developed based on this method to reach the final goal, which is cure the Alzheimer’s disease.
The purpose of these experiments is to understand the function and importance of an electrocardiogram (ECG). In general, an electrocardiogram experiment entails tests conducted to evaluate the heart’s rhythm and electrical activity. The laboratory activities involved building the circuit required for recording the electrocardiogram, and the respective ECG signals were effectively converted for clearer observation. The experiment objective was achieved through the following procedures in the lab manual. MATLAB software was effectively used to obtain the plot for the ECG signal by exploiting the data obtained from the acquisition software. The report also successfully provides a compelling discussion on electrocardiograms and their general importance. After acquiring effective ECG plots, the laptop was effectively connected to the acquisition system and the obtained plot was employed for effective analysis.
Autism refers to a developmental disorder that affects social contact; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is manifested as the disability of attention with hyperactivity, which interferes with function or brain development. Currently, the prevalence of both diseases showed an upward trend. Therefore, the importance of finding the correct diagnosis and improving effective treatment is becoming more and more urgent. For children suspected of autism and ADHD, choosing the correct diagnosis method can not only help clarify the symptoms and formulate effective treatment plans, but also reduce the pain and family economic burden caused by the children's own symptoms, and avoid the risk of misdiagnosis. At the same time, autism and ADHD should receive the timely and effective intervention. The paper here aims at introducing and comparing the diagnostic methods and treatment methods for the two diseases according to their commonalities and differences.
In modern society, narcolepsy had been a threat to the world for a long time. Due to the high societal pressure, narcolepsy is more and more common to be detected. Patients with narcolepsy report excessive daytime sleepiness, which can lead to serious consequences in the future if left untreated. Narcolepsy typically manifests in adolescence. According to incomplete statistics, in 2017 there is a total of more than 140 million people that were confirmed that they were suffering from Narcolepsy cautiously. Narcolepsy has five main symptoms, which are clear to be diagnosed: excessive daytime sleep attack sometimes cataplexy and hypnagogic hallucinations, but the most common symptoms are sleep paralysis and nocturnal sleep. Some main causes, treatments, and solutions are also important to be understood. The paper aims at providing information about this serious brain condition and the potential solutions if individuals are under attack.
Serotonin is a common neurotransmitter linked closely with the feeling-good effects, while the dysregulation of serotonin could lead to the major depressive disorder which affect 350 million people’s lifetime all over the world. The synthesis of serotonin is stimulated by its precursor tryptophan. It is an important type of amino acid found in dietary protein. Fur-thermore, low level of serotonin could lead to lack of melatonin. This indicates the various symptoms caused by depression.
About five to six percent of Americans in 1999 had dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, 4 million Americans are estimated to have Alzheimer's. The load on care and the expense to society will rise as the population ages. By 2050, it is predicted that 14 million Americans will have Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is the fourth leading cause of death in humans. Alzheimer's disease affects 5-10% of persons over the age of 65 and around 50% of those over the age of 85. Like this dangerous disease, Alzheimer's has no obvious cause and is still being studied. After 2022, after much debate in academia, the topic became murkier. This article provides background information and the latest descriptions of Alzheimer's disease.
It has been a long time since China started to strictly control drug transaction and usage. There are increasing compulsory detoxification institution, institutions to do voluntary de-toxification, and community drug treatment rehabilitation. These detoxification institutions implement medication detoxification, psychological detoxification, and doing moral & physical education, aiming at helping the rehabilitation personnel and reduce the relapse rate after getting treatment in the compulsory detoxification institution. To avoid reoccur-rence and suffering from a long-term imprisonment for drug control, biomedical research to improve drug abuse treatment and addiction prevention are in need. This paper is going to summarize the previous and ongoing research on the mechanisms of addiction, together with the approaches of the drug abuse treatment to state some analysis and suggestion about the scientific ways to help drug rehabilitation to find more effective and efficient ways for the treatment of drug abuse to decrease the relapse rate and rehabilitated time.
Gut microbes are important players in human metabolism and their genomes are abundant in genes that regulate the metabolism of SFCAs, methane, amino acids, and carbohydrates. Pectin is a water-soluble dietary fiber, an abundant heteropolysaccharide in the main and intermediate cellular lamellae of plant cell walls. Pectin is degraded by a varied group of microorganisms residing in the human gut, which depolymerize pectin by secreting both cell-bound and extracellular enzymes to produce monosaccharides. The pectin fermentation degradation pathway is the main mechanism for the degradation of carbohydrates that cannot be digested in human GIT, and the end products include SCFAs, ethanol, CO2 and H2. The makeup of intestinal microbiota is impacted by these products. Additionally, the effect of pectin on intestinal microbial fractions is related to the structure of pectin, the intestinal environment and the degree of pectin esterification. Moreover, pectin itself and pectin degradation products contribute to human health by influencing intestinal microorganisms. Pectin is effective in modifying allergies to sensitization, reducing body composition and has a preventive effect on type I diabetes.
Unsaturated fatty acids act a necessary part in the intestinal health of the host microbiota environment and immune ability by being transformed by intestinal microorganisms. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are very important to the host body, also they influence many physiological activities of the body. The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesized by the human body cannot meet the daily needs of the human body, and it is necessary to obtain some essential fatty acids (EFA) from food. At the same time, some intestinal microorganisms can also synthesize and convert polyunsaturated fatty acids, which contribute to the regulation and control of host immunity. In addition, PUFAs are also beneficial to humans. They are critical in sustaining a healthy and stable gut microbiota environment and regulating and controlling host immunity. This paper summarized the conversion mechanism and effect of intestinal microbiota on polyunsaturated fatty acids, discussed whether polyunsaturated fatty acids can regulate human diseases and microbiota as health products, and determined the regulatory mechanism of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Parkinson's disease has a high prevalence of depression, which is frequently undiagnosed and untreated and has a tight relationship to health-related quality of life. In order to study the latest findings in this field, This article summarizes the research related to PD depression from 2010 to 2022, respectively, from the pathogenesis research, including the influence of genes, nutritional factors, and proteins, and it also summarizes the current treatment methods for PD depression, including drug therapy, behavioral therapy, and psychotherapy. It also summarizes recent clinical trials, including new drugs and cognitive therapies. Finally, the future development direction of Parkinson's depression has been prospected. This paper finds that new genes and nutritional factors have been found in the pathological study of Parkinson's depression, and new combinations of drug therapy have been added to the treatment of Parkinson's depression, as well as new methods of using behavioral therapy and psychological intervention to assist the treatment.
Cancer is a disease that develops when the body's cells expand unchecked. Lung cancer is a general term for cancer that first appears in the lungs. The most common cancer that is lethal is lung cancer. Lung cancer is the commonly diagnosed cancer diagnosed between both female and male in the US, only behind certain forms of skin cancer. Lung cancer is most often caused by smoking. Additionally, smoking other tobacco products (including pipes or cigars), breathing secondhand smoke, being linked to radon or radon at work or home, and lung cancer risk may be increased by having a history of the disease in your family. Furthermore, new developments in genome editing technology have dramatically increased the possibility of curing cancer at its origin. This article discusses potential gene editing methods for treating lung cancer and systematically identifies the locations of common gene changes in the condition.
Tourette Syndrome (TS), a neurological disorder classified as the most complex form of tic disorder in the DSM-5, has remained a prominent concern for the adolescent population. Owing to its complexity and the unknowability of its physiology, it currently has no cure. Through the review of two family studies, two twin studies, one Genome-Wide Association Study, and two other reviews, firm evidence for additive genetic influences and non-shared environmental influences was found, suggesting TS’s high heritability. Specific genetic factor (SNP-rs2504235), environmental (pre-and peri-natal) factors, and the interaction between these factors were evident from the studies as well. Through the analysis of these findings, one coping strategy was emphasized over the two existing classes, pharmacological and non-pharmacological, of typical treatments: preventative approaches under the assistance of advanced technology like genetic testing. The inability of the now available treatments to cure TS and their respective side effects cause them to be less desirable than prevention as early actions were shown to be effective in hindering the disorder’s deterioration and persistence.
Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer and the second greatest cause of death from cancer among female population. Traditional medication of breast cancer usually indicates anti-estrogen drugs and aromatase inhibitors. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a type of advancing immunotherapy that has become commonly used to treat cancers since it uses antibodies to target and destroy malignant cells specifically. Among them, trastuzumab is a humanized mAb derived from recombinant DNA. It can specifically react to the extracellular part of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). Research proved inhibitory effect of trastuzumab on the proliferation of certain tumor cell, and is also a potential material for antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxic reaction. While there are a variety of forms in the disease, and each form has a unique assortment of surface antigens, making it difficult to treat with a single type of mAb. Therefore, further work is needed to develop monoclonal-based antibodies that can target multiple forms of breast-related cancer. Furthermore, researches trying to create mAbs that can be combined with conventional cancer therapies like radiotherapy and chemotherapy are still being done. Here we summarized recent researches on mAb therapy for breast cancer and discusses the challenges as well as the progresses in this area.
In this paper, LC-MS / MS is the main technology used to detect the toxins that cause diarrhea shellfish poisoning in shellfish toxins, including okadaic acid (OA) or its analogues, the dynophysistoxins (DTXds), spectenotoxin (PTX), yessotoxin and its derivatives (YTX) and azaspiracid (AZA). It is mainly found that when analyzing drugs in biological samples based on LC-MS / MS, Some extracts in the sample may affect the ionization efficiency of the target compound and thus affect the detection results, especially phospholipids. Based on the efforts made and innovative methods provided by other experimental methods that use this method to analyze other substances to solve or mitigate matrix effects, this paper proposes a potential solution to provide a reference way to solve matrix effects caused by phospholipids in DSP toxin detection, that is, three-step microelement can be used in the process.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a natural toxin found in pufferfish and other organisms causes poisoning in many people who consume inadequately prepared fugu, a Japanese delicacy containing pufferfish. TTX functions as a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker and is highly toxic, with current treatment being only supportive. This review summarizes the current state of treatment of TTX poisoning, including current treatments and supportive care along with potential treatments from anti-TTX antibodies and vaccines tested in mice, but not yet in humans. Current treatment of TTX poisoning contains offering the patient respiratory support and treating the poisoning symptomatically. Multiple antibodies and antiserums against TTX have been developed and tested both in vitro and in vivo, and showed anti-TTX effect in mice, but not yet advanced to the stage of human testing.
In today's society, there are still a big number of sexually transmitted infection carriers. A range of sexually transmitted illnesses, such as gonorrhea, syphilis, and others, are continually harming people's life as a result of all kinds of bad living practices and styles. This research employs case study and comparative methodologies to investigate the origins of these STDs in the context of HIV, how they develop, the many routes of infection, and the diverse repercussions on society and people. Following the sorting of the gathered data, multiple models employed in the relevant literature were compared and selected to choose the best model for further study. Furthermore, many preventive actions and solutions are recommended based on the model's conclusions, including how to protect neonates from congenital STDs. Our findings indicate that frequent screening is critical for eradicating local epidemics and that condom marketing initiatives are only effective when accompanied with screening. The results of our research were then extended using Monte Carlo simulations to better understand the function of partner networks and partner notifications as markers of STI control.
Endemic species refers to the species that are distributes only in a certain region of the world. Galapagos penguins, well-known as one of the smallest penguins in size, can be used as a typical example of endemic species. Since the extinction of endemic species in one place may lead to the extinction of the whole population of the species, endemic species may need some special attentions from the public. Unfortunately, Galapagos penguins, as a kind of endemic species, after being severely affected by ENSO event and human activities such as bycatch, is at the brink of extinction at the moment. Given that climate change is making ENSO even more frequently in the future, it is highly possible that without further intervention, the species of Galapagos penguins will be lost forever.
Firefly is an adorable insect which is often seen in our daily life as virtual characters or mascots due to its beautiful appearance. It is famous for its glowing abdomen. It can be colorful but mostly yellow and green. The biological light is rare which attracts lots of scholars and artists to study. However, after taking research on this specie, people start to ignore it. With the technology developing and land extension, they are suffering from land losing and different kind of pollution. There are countable studies on firefly protecting that lead the population of this cute creature decline steeply. The topic of this paper is about the factors which influence a lot on the population of firefly. There concentrates information from some papers related to firefly, environment pollution and bioindicator. Wishfully, this paper will be helpful to those who want to protect fireflies and those who can explore the application of fireflies. After researching, the results are about the impact of environment situation on fireflies and the contribution of fireflies on environment situation. Firefly is threatened by three aspects which are land loss, light pollution and water pollution. Land loss is due to the commercial district and residential district building of urbanization. Light pollution will disturb fireflies to find their companion and mate. Water pollution and land pollution such as insecticide will kill firefly larvae and adults directly in chemical ways. Those above are about how people gradually pushing fireflies to distinct. It’s not fair of the way people treat wild fireflies. They have a lot of contribution down for people. They have controlled the number of ampullaria gigas which is a horribly threatening invasive species that confuses people for long. It is also a bioindicator which can test the level of light pollution with a relatively low cost. The biological fluorescence is pretty in the night. It has enlightened quite a few literature and art composers to create many excellent works. It is used to educate children and to witness love when wedding. Thus, the value of fireflies can be seen from this paper and how significant it is to protect wild fireflies.
COVID-19 is an infectious respiratory disease spread around the world. In past three years, more than 600 million people had been impacted and many countries healthcare system is taking a huge hit. The economy is affected by many epidemic policies such as quarantine policy, social distance, etc. Many scientists use different mathematical models to forecast trend of the confirmed cases quantity of epidemics. This article topic is mainly about the comparisons of different models for COVID-19 predictions. This paper focuses the different method based on COVID-19 infection prediction. We show the different methods’ experiment results by many metrics but not under same datasets. Many methods are proposed, but few people discuss the time properties and interpretability of model. To be specific, this paper selects ARIMA, SVM and LSTM as target to offer the comparison between the model. By studying and analyzing the accuracy of different models for predicting COVID-19, we can find better models for predicting COVID-19 development. Eventually, we can find more suitable methods to control the development of COVID-19. These results shed light on guiding further exploration of models selection for COVID-19 infection prediction
Alpine skiing is the most common type of skiing performed on groomed and marked ski slopes. This review aims to help recreational skier improve their skiing ability by identifying conducive conditions for alpine skiing. Physically, strengthening balance, agility, and static leg strength via conditional training (ie. inline skating, roller blading, biking, running, sports stimulator) better prepares skiers for alpine skiing and reduces the chances of injury. Injury in knee and lower leg is the most common alpine skiing injury and the most severe are head injuries, highlighting the importance of wearing helmet, well-adjusted skis and suitable lane choice. Mentally, for beginners, increasing self-efficacy and decreasing fear and worry improves skiing performance. Whereas, for intermediate skiers, increasing worry or caution of the environment, increases performance. Technically, recreational skiers should attempt to perform symmetrical turns with greater range and speed of body movement. Lastly, the review presents recent technical and equipment advances in professional alpine skiing, reinforcing that the learning journey of alpine skiing is never ending. Hence, recreational skiers have a long and bright way to go, and researchers should try to expand their sample beyond adolescents and individuals in their early twenties, especially when investigating topics besides skiing injuries, to better generalize their impactful findings.
Provenge, as an autologous cell immunotherapy agent, was originally used to stimulate the immune cells and immunologic factors to destroy prostate cancinoma cells. For patients with hormone resistant metastatic ovarian cancer, when there are no clinical symptoms, compared to the placebo arm, the drug arm can effectively extend the median survival period of four point one months. During the three years of treatment, more than 50% of patients in the immunotherapy arm survived, and more than 50% of patients in the control group survived (31.7% vs 21.7%). Provenge, targeted to release prostate acid phosphatase, utilizes the patient's immune cells to detect and eliminate tumor cells. At the moment, there are not useful therapeutic strategies for asymptomatic patients without docetaxel and other chemical drugs treatment. The direct strategy to increase the effectiveness of Provenge is to promote more effective clinical benefits. Although the preclinical analysis and clinical efficacy of Provenge have been summarized, the clinical efficacy of enhancing efficacy needs to be reconsidered
Stomach Adenocarcinoma, with complex mechanisms about progression, has the biggest proportion in Stomach Cancer, which is one of the most common causes of death in the world. It is widely acknowledged that gene mutations have relationship with Stomach Adenocarcinoma. Copy number variation (CNV), producing identical sequence in a large amount, is associated with Stomach Adenocarcinoma. There are some hotspots of gene mutations in chromosome, CNV is no exception. Their positions may potentially have association with prognosis of patients, which is poorly understood. In this research, windows with fixed length were set; the number of start and end points of CNV in the windows were calculated. The rates of Poisson Distribution in different windows were calculated and the hotspots were found. Then by using proportional hazards model, The author learned the significance of the impact of CNV in certain areas on prognosis with data from TCGA. After analyzing 180 windows, the author found 14 significant windows. These discoveries may reveal new methods of targeted therapy, promoting the precise treatment of Stomach Adenocarcinoma patients
Air pollution is one of the leading causes of respiratory viral infection. Particulate matter (PM2.5) is an example of air pollution that incorporates virus and bacteria small enough to float in the atmosphere. Which with its involvement within the respiratory system causes multiple cases that originated from simplicity to more complicated situation. In this review, different micro-material / gaseous were discussed. The function of microbiome located in the respiratory tract and how immune system would react in the presence of air pollution to respiratory viral infection
The study of urban birds is not an uncommon occurrence. The total amount of food in cities is higher than in rural wild environments, but bird biodiversity is reduced. As a common bird in many cities in China, the spotted dove's feeding choice may determine its dominant position in the urban ecosystem. In this literature review, from the perspective of the food selection of the spotted dove, through its nesting behaviors, diet, and adaptation to the urban ecosystem, the living situation of the spotted dove in China is described, and the reasons for its adaptation to the urban ecosystem are analyzed. At the same time, some suggestions for improving the biodiversity of urban ecosystem based on the living habits of the spotted doves were also discussed
Mammalian social behavior has long been a popular topic in the field of social interaction and cognition, providing insights into the structure formation of human society and the evolution of mammalian behaviors. The importance of the amygdala, oxytocin, and vasopressin in the mediation of sociality has been proved by many previous studies. However, the neurobiological interactions and integrated effects on behavioral regulation are relatively ignored. This review discusses these three determining factors, emphasizing the dissociable interaction at both the biological and behavioral levels. Two main ideas are presented in this review: neuropathways that directly connect oxytocin and vasopressin with the amygdala are unspecified; the mutual relationship between alienate behaviors and prosocial behaviors could be more complicated than expected. Although the influence of oxytocin and vasopressin on the amygdala has been proved by many previous studies, the specific areas and neuropathways that respond to the expression and activation of these two neuropeptides are not distinguished clearly. With more in-depth studies, the previously believed aggression behaviors that drive groups apart could also contribute to the harmony between individuals to some extent.
Like humans getting tanned after sunbath, mammals around the world may also change their coloration according to the dynamic environment. Such changes primarily aim for better camouflage, but it also comes with some linked physiological changes for mammals to potentially have better fitness. The article predicts the overall evolutionary trend of mammal coloration using case studies across different species in distinct geographical locations. The article focuses on the explanation of animal coloration mechanism and the comparison between the potential fitness of the same species of mammals with different colorations. As demonstrated by most case studies, the evolutionary trend of mammal coloration is to become darker. Such an evolutionary trend is promoted in which darker coloration brings better fitness for the mammal for the purpose of better camouflage and more adapted physiology to the environment under the influence of climate change.
Research has been done to find ways to inhibit and put to an end the degradation facing wildlife due to human activities. Studies indicates that the billions of individuals on this planet are consuming resources more quickly than before. Methods to support the existence of wildlife in the territory should be put in place. Results in the article show that though these aspects are being taken into consideration, wildlife are still being affected by the anthropogenic activities that happen in the world. The goals of this research are to identify and assess the effects of various infrastructural projects on wildlife and other environmental factors and recommend suitable strategies to planning and design, wildlife management, and environmental protection to counteract any negative effects.
In the past 20 years, global climate change has attracted great attention from scholars around the world. The mangrove ecosystem is mainly situated in the inter-tidal zone of the tropical and subtropical coasts. It is a fragile and sensitive ecosystem, as well as one of the typical marine ecosystems which could be first affected by global climate change. Mangrove birds are an indispensable part of the mangrove food chain, and they are also greatly affected by climate change in mangroves. This article will briefly outline the important role of mangroves in ecosystems and reveal the effect of global climate change on mangrove ecosystems from four main aspects: global warming, seawater chemical composition, increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration, and extreme weather, and finally describe responses of mangrove bird to serious climate changes. Global climate change will bring opportunities and challenges to the research and protection of mangrove birds.
Urbanization has been bringing severe impacts on birds as industrial civilization develops. As urban areas rapidly expand, in addition to traditional problems such as industrial pollution and habitat loss, some seemly minor effects attract researchers’ attention. Common problems among these are noise pollution, light pollution, and bird-building collision. Past studies focus on the effects exerted on birds, but there is a lack of assessments of the real-life application of these findings. Therefore, Shenzhen, a first-tier city in China, is taken as a case to discuss how some of these indirect problems arise, how they affect endemic birds, and solutions that are either potential or have already brought good effects. By making a rough assessment of the city’s situation, it is concluded that Shenzhen’s government and the public have taken many actions to make the city more environmental-friendly, i.e., installing acoustic barriers along highways and planting trees to limit the impact of noise pollution. However, for some newly emerged issues like mitigating bird-building collisions, academic studies have just begun and many improvements can be made. By analyzing these problems and solutions in a specific city, a rough reference for the level of environmental protection in one of the advanced cities in China is made. But more future studies about these problems should be made both regionally and domestically, and ecological effects should be further considered by the local government while making decisions.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a problem that has plagued humans for a long time. About 24.3 million people have Alzheimer's disease in the world, and the number is growing at a rate of 4.6 million new patients each year. The prevalence of AD increases with age. As a result, the issue of AD has become increasingly negative in recent years. The purpose of the paper is to examine whether the marketed aducanumab is useful in the treatment of AD and to compare it with several other drugs commonly used to treat AD. This paper will discuss the effectiveness and adverse effects of common medications for AD treatment and why aducanumab has not been effective in treating AD and how to improve the effectiveness of aducanumab for AD patients in the future. In addition, this paper will analyze whether aducanumab is marketed because of commercial considerations or because the drug itself was fully compliant with FDA requirements
In recent years, breast cancer has become one of the biggest threats to women's health, accounting for the majority of cancer deaths among women. Because early treatment of breast cancer has a great effect on the recovery of breast cancer, the diagnosis of breast cancer is particularly important. Machine learning, as the most popular method, is also used for model construction in this field. This study is based on data from breast tumors, which contain 10 morphological features of breast tumor nucleus. In this study, homogenization, standardization and feature selection were used to process the data and KNN algorithm was used to construct the classification prediction model, with principal component analysis (PCA) used to optimize the model. Finally, the original 30 variables were reduced to 3 variables and the model parameters were adjusted in order to achieve the best model with the accuracy of 98.54%. The final model achieves the highest operating efficiency and accuracy. In this study, through the visualization of PCA and the comparison of different models, the classification effect of the final model can be the best. This model can be applied to the clinical diagnosis of breast cancer patients, which is helpful to the early treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the mortality of breast cancer patients
Dyslexia is one of the most common learning disabilities, yet its brain basis and core causes are not yet fully understood. MRI studies commonly demonstrate hypoactivation in left-hemispheric temporo-parietal, occipito-temporal, and inferior frontal networks, along with hyperactivation in corresponding right-hemispheric regions. Based on the recent 15 years of brain imaging researches, this paper proposes three hypotheses about the causes of the activation difference in Dyslexia, analyzes how recent researches support these hypotheses, and draws a conclusion that the three hypotheses have a fusion trend to a certain extent, which can provide possible directions for future studies.
One of the most prevalent causes of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by gradual mental decline and memory loss over time. Several drugs are currently available for the treatment of AD, but they only address the disease's symptoms rather than its underlying pathogenesis. Researchers looked into epigenetic therapy and found that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) could be an effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease. This paper uses a literature review approach to investigate the roles of HDAC6 inhibition in AD models and HDAC6 inhibitors, as well as the hypotheses surrounding the pathogenesis of AD. The amyloid cascade hypothesis, the tau hypothesis, and the role of oxygen species are identified as the most prominent pathogenesis hypotheses in this paper. A decrease in Hdac6 levels improves associative and spatial memory in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model and reverses the mitochondrial trafficking impairment in hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, inhibiting HDAC6 may represent a novel approach to treating AD-related cognitive decline. As a result of these issues, the FDA has yet to approve any HDAC6 inhibitor for use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (FDA)
With the continuous progress of science and technology, people's survival needs are growing, and the pressure is also growing. These pressures are also a huge threat to the mothers who have just given birth. Postpartum depression is a common non obstetric complication, which not only affects the physical and mental health of pregnant women, but also affects the relationship between mother and baby and the healthy growth of infants, and may even affect the whole family, such as marital disharmony. The occurrence of postpartum depression is the result of multiple factors. The neuroendocrine disorder caused by hormone changes is the pathological basis of the occurrence of postpartum depression. The postpartum depression is also mainly related to the psychological changes caused by pregnancy and childbirth. At the same time, social factors or social support are also risk factors of the disease. Early identification of high-risk factors, targeted management and intervention are carried out in each stage before, during and after childbirth, in order to better prevent and cure the disease.
Organophosphate pesticide (OP), being one of those easy to access, has resulted in many cases of exposure specifically to those working field with it being commonly applied on a frequent basis. It is critical that those working with it have knowledge of its effects and the possible symptoms because of its exposure. And to those who may arrive without any relative detail about themselves, a possible method of diagnosis to confirm that the said person is at risk of exposure. Through investigation across multiple methods aiming to suggest possible pathways of obtaining detailed descriptions or further information of symptoms caused by OP exposure. Additionally, diagnosis methods and comparison to chemicals with similarity in property or classification of OP. In the aim to propose a viable method, comparison and suggestions for current applications
As a branch of gymnastics, competitive aerobic gymnastics has not received the same attention as artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, trampoline and acrobatic gymnastics. So, although aerobic gymnasts also face a variety of sports injuries, relatively little research has been done on them. This study searched relevant literature from two electronic databases (SPORTDiscus and PubMed) to integrate and analyze information related to sports injuries and treatment options for aerobic gymnasts. The study found that aerobic gymnasts suffered injuries mainly in the back, wrists and shoulders. There have been relatively comprehensive conservative and surgical treatment plans for the wrist and shoulder, among which the conservative plan for the wrist is mainly splinting or plaster fixation, and the conservative treatment of the shoulder injuries is rehabilitation training. There is no consensus on the most effective treatment for back injuries caused by isthmus. This study hopes to draw the public's attention to aerobic competitive gymnastics.
The internal environment in which cancer cells develop and persist is referred to as the tumor microenvironment (TME). Cancer cells interact with the microenvironment, leading to further cell proliferation and migration. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have been shown in trials that can target and improve the tumor microenvironment. Up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can exploit the properties of the tumor microenvironment for precise targeting while preventing the premature release of their loaded medications. In this overview, we review any existing research results on the targeting of tumor microenvironment by Traditional Chinese medicines and Up-conversion nanoparticles in recent years. We discuss the possibilities and advantages of combining Traditional Chinese medicines with Up-conversion nanoparticles and summarize their current unresolved issues.
Lactic acid bacteria, as a kind of food-grade microorganism, is widely used in food industry, medical care and other fields. The special function of lactic acid bacteria has been increasingly valued and needed, and the traditional strain screening method is complex, long cycle and low cost, which hinders the development and progress of lactic acid industry. At this time, the rapid development of modern genetic engineering has brought new opportunities for the medical application of LAB. By developing new functional strains of LAB, genes with specific functions can be introduced into the genome of LAB, so that LAB can meet the requirements of designers and users. First of all, this article summarizes the characteristics of lactic acid bacteria and discusses the dominant types of lactic acid bacteria in transgenic bacteria. Then, six medical applications of LAB in vaccine delivery vector, virus prevention and control, allergy treatment, cervical cancer, inflammation, lactose intolerance after genetic engineering were reviewed. Finally, the genetically motified LAB is used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, such as immune tolerance, vector development, immune mechanism and other issues were reviewed, and the future application of LAB in the field of genetic engineering and cancer treatment was discussed.
Gene editing technology, as an important technology in the field of science, can accurately and stably modify the genome sequence, bringing revolutionary changes to various fields of life sciences, so it has attracted wide attention from researchers in various countries. This article makes a brief introduction to ZFN and TALEN technology, and at the same time makes a detailed introduction to CRISPR/Cas9 technology, focusing on the limitations, application, and development of CRISPR/Cas9 system. This research found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system and its related technologies are going deep into various fields of life sciences and have achieved remarkable results, providing more ideas and possibilities for human disease treatment, crop gene control and other fields.
CAR-T therapy is a High-profile technology in cancer immunotherapy, which has developed rapidly and has made great achievements in the treatment of hematologic tumors. Its therapeutic principle makes CAR-T cell therapy a great advantage in the treatment of relapsed refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, CAR-T cell therapy still faces many problems, such as side effects, off-target effects, and the lack of specific antigen deficiency on the surface of solid tumors and so on. At present, it is an important research direction to reduce the impact of side effects on patients and its application in solid tumors. This paper focused on the principles and application of involved in CAR-T cell therapy, and the side effects brought by CAR-T therapy were sorted out. Finally, the further development of CAR-T therapy has prospected
Gene silencing is an important means of regulating gene expression in an organism, and this technique can reduce or block the expression level of a target gene. There are many types of gene silencing techniques, among which the more widely used are CRISPR/Cas9, TALEN, RNAi and so on. In recent years, with the gradual improvement and popularization of biotechnology, gene silencing techniques are slowly becoming known and applied in many fields such as gene research, disease treatment and breeding of new plant varieties. However, not all gene silencing can achieve the desired effect, and there are many reasons affecting the outcome of gene silencing. The target gene is not the only gene that determines the phenotype and there is no significant effect after knocking out the target gene. The technique also has a certain off-target rate, which can also lead to operational failure. This paper describes the principles and applications of three gene silencing techniques and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the three gene silencing techniques in order to select the most suitable gene silencing method from multiple perspectives. The current problems of CRISPR/Cas9 technology are summarized to provide certain ideas for the future development and research of CRISPR/Cas9 technology
After the imagine of gene therapy been propose in 1967. and the successful case for the exogenous gene introduced into the mice. That’s when scientists starting the experiment of gene therapy. This review focus on the history of gene therapy, and two important technology about the gene therapy: CRISPR/Cas9 and RNA inference. Talking the theory of them, also compared with the traditional treatment and gene therapy to the same disease. And have a discussion of the status and the application prospect of the gene therapy
The COVID-19 pandemic spreading from Wuhan in 2019 had a severe continuous impact globally. Even now when several vaccinations were approved by WHO and accepted widely, there are still millions of new confirmed cases daily. To provide insights for governments to make prompt and effective response with the smallest social and economic cost, numerous studies have proposed to predict COVID-19 development trend, in which mathematical modeling, such as SEIR, and neuron networks, such as LSTM, were utilized and modified widely. Among the reviewed papers, population migrations and quarantine policies were popularly considered as influential factors, while nature factors were rarely mentioned. The construction focuses of SEIR, and LSTM were parameter selection and dynamics, and solving overfitting from the data shortage and over-complicated structure respectively. The expansion of applicable environments and increase of prediction accuracy still seems to be necessary. Though this review is limited to the studies based on Chinese datasets, research from other countries may benefit from the analysis strategy
Two distinct types of skin cancer are Cutaneous Melanoma and Melanoma of Uncertain Primary. Their causes may be distinct. Several variables, including genetic mutation, UV exposure, sex, age, and others, will affect the survival months. In this study, the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox model will be used to compare the two types of skin cancer. For the KM technique, one unique variable will be employed to assess its association with the survival months. Cox model will employ multiple variables to describe the overall association between several variables and the survival months. In conclusion, the difference on sex will have a distinct impact on two different kinds of skin cancer. Genetic expression does not clearly differentiate between them. UV exposure and therapy have a substantial impact on the number of months of survival for Cutaneous Melanoma. The results of the study indicate that additional research and prevention are required. Prevention is almost always more effective than treatment for cancer. For specific patient populations, clinicians should prioritize skin cancer prevention and therapy.
Migrants that fly across the Himalayas, one of the highest geographical blocks in the world, must overcome severe challenges of the extreme high-altitude environment. Supported by evolved specifically adapted physiological performance, migrants such as geese, ducks, shorebirds, cranes, raptors, passerines, take diverse strategies, which is a balance of complex factors, as a result of evolution. This review draws an overall picture of high-altitude avian migration specifying findings in: fly strategies including routes, heights, stopovers, wind use patterns; physiological adaptions including special hypoxia tolerance of birds and unique adaptions of high-altitude migrators; evolution explanations; threats including impact caused by climate change on wetland and phenological mismatch; conservation. Enhanced unclarified questions on: avoid-barrier strategies; wind use patterns; predation pressure; phenomenon of lowland species flying at high altitudes; and most importantly, climate change and conservation. This study on avian high-altitude migration provides a relatively comprehensive summary of relevant findings, helps to understand the complex behaviors of migrants, and arranged various prospects for future studies
With the increasing problem of global warming, the Earth's environment has been seriously damaged in recent decades, especially the Marine environment. Covering 71 percent of the Earth, the oceans are an important part of the planet, but such a beautiful and rich resource is now in decline. This paper mainly expounds the embodiment of environmental problems in coral reefs (take the Great Barrier Reef as an example). Large numbers of coral reefs are bleaching and dying because of climate change. Nowadays, the problem of severe Marine environment is getting worse and worse, which has aroused people's great attention in the world. The main causes of coral bleaching are rising temperatures, eating crown-of-thorns starfish and acidification. Finally, this paper expounds the damage to the ecological environment and the disasters faced by human beings if coral reefs are lost. In the future, we should do our best to protect coral reefs and prohibit vandalism, pollution and overfishing. And can artificially cultivate, transplant coral reefs, remove coral pests and so on. This article aims to point out the causes of coral bleaching, so that more people can realize the crisis we are facing, and call on people to take small steps to protect our only planet.
AIDS is a chronic infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the current treatment for the disease is a combination of highly effective antiretroviral therapy, consisting of a combination of at least three of these drugs to combat HIV infection. However, this therapy only inhibits HIV replication, but does not completely eliminate the virus. Once antiretroviral treatment is interrupted, the patient's disease is prone to relapse. Therefore we need gene editing, which is the process of modifying, adding, deleting and replacing information in the body's DNA in order to modify diseases caused by genetic mutations, which can only be controlled by drugs. It is hoped that in the near future, gene editing technology will revolutionise the treatment of cancer and genetic diseases, thanks to the work of scientists.
Colorectal cancer is formed and developed through a multi-factor and multi-stage complex pathological process. The review provides an overview of the available colorectal cancer treatments and makes the case for the need to develop specific colon cancer therapeutic products that are safe and stable, with significant therapeutic efficacy and minimal patient sacrifice. The author reviews the progress made in the field of miRNA, nanomedicine system, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), doxorubicin (DOX), dexmedetomidine (DEX) and peptides in the treatment of cancer and point out that more and more researchers are focusing on the treatment of cancer at the genetic level and on the combination of multiple approaches to treat cancer. This review provides an important theoretical reference for the development of multifunctional drugs for the multi-treatment targeting of colorectal cancer.
At present, the effect of yogurt products on human beings is still in the exploration stage, and the current research on this topic is mainly focused on the improvement of intestinal flora and inflammation. With the further expansion of the yogurt market, it is becoming more and more necessary to explore the impact of yogurt on various parts of the human body. The main objective of this paper is to study the influence of yoghurt on human life. Starting from the influence of yoghurt on human immune function and digestive system, this paper analyzes the influence on life after the change of immune function and digestive system, so as to obtain the influence of regular consumption of yoghurt on life.
Intramolecular interactions between molecules have been reported as the most efficient way of synthesizing morphine molecules. A total of nine-step synthesis using intramolecular cycloaddition, also known as Diels-Alder reaction, has been so far the most successful way of synthesizing morphine. Tandem radical cyclization has also been proved to be efficient. Although both reactions are simple, they might be affected by stereochemistry. Thid paper proposes some possible ways of improving such intramolecular interactions.
The fifth most prevalent cancer in the world is gastric cancer, which is aggressive illness with a low 5-year survival rate. Even though stomach cancer is becoming less frequent, patients still have a poor prognosis. Thus, early discovery using relevant screening methods, selection of an acceptable treatment strategy, and good monitoring are critical to reducing gastric cancer mortality. Biomarker identification based on clinical data and extensive genomic analysis might enhance diagnosis, prognosis, recurrence prediction, and therapy response. These biomarkers can also enable more specialized treatment strategies. This study provided an overview of the present state and methods in gastric cancer biomarkers, which may be applied for accurate treatment approach prediction, early diagnosis, and future perspectives.
Tetrodotoxin poisoning cases are widely, frequently occurred by consuming noncompliant seafood such as puffer fish. Through extensively compare the existing detection method, 3 representative ways of detection method are elected. Mouse bioassay and ELISA belong to biological detection method, mass spectrometer and nuclear magnetic resonance, which belongs to Physical and chemical assay. We discuss the shortage of those method, compare the pros and cons with other method, and carry out some possible solutions to the current problems intended to provide reference for studies of the relevant area.
To present a fresh idea for the COVID-19 treatment, the vitamin C influence on the immunity of the novel coronavirus was studied, by browsing through the pertinent literature. Using keywords such as "vitamin C", "COVID-19", "nutrition" and "immunity", Chinese and English searches were conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, CNKI, Wanfang Medical, and other databases to analyze and summarize the vitamin C immune effect on the epidemic situation of COVID-19. In the treatment of COVID-19 patients, it could be concluded that vitamin C could have a certain positive influence, but the specific mechanism, the best use time, and the correct dose still need to be studied
The "Spanish flu" pandemic caused by H1N1 virus in 1918 caused 50 million deaths. The best-known drugs for treating influenza viruses are antiviral drugs, including amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir, and oseltamivir. Amantadine and rimantadine are excellent prophylactic drugs against influenza A. Whereas, Zanamivir and oseltamivir have comparable efficacy against influenza A and B viruses. This paper reviews antiviral drugs, approved for clinical use. This review evaluates neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), focusing on their mechanism of action and the emergence of resistance to them. The results showed that the viruses mutated and developed resistance during the treatment with NAIs for seasonal, pandemic, and avian influenza
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a protective stress response of cells that takes place when the ER has a significant amount of unfolded and misfolded proteins. Endoplasmic reticulum stress that is prolonged and severe and the unfolded protein response it produces start the apoptotic cascade. Apoptosis brought on by endoplasmic reticulum stress has been demonstrated to be a crucial entry point for the detection and treatment of illnesses. Both Alzheimer's disease and pulmonary fibrosis are difficult to treat, and both are linked to aberrant apoptosis. As a result, one of the crucial research areas is the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis and Alzheimer's disease. At present, COVID-19 pneumonia is prevalent in the world and has become one of the main causes of pulmonary fibrosis. At the same time, recent studies have shown that people who are positive for COVID-19 are more likely to suffer from Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of these two diseases are particularly important today. The purpose of this paper is to explore the triggering mechanism and physiological characterization of ER stress, and the prospects for the treatment and diagnosis of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and Alzheimer's syndrome, which are still difficult to overcome.
Expansion microscopy is a type of powerful and simple super-resolution microscopy that provides sub-diffraction images of biological samples by physically expanding them anchored in hydrogels. It has been combined with other existing methods to better visualize the microscopic structures of the samples. We will review some very important papers in this area about the early developments and explorations of general procedures and fundamental mechanisms of expansion microscopy. We will also review the recent developments and applications as well as their advantages and insufficiencies. Through our review, it is clear that the current expansion microscopy applications can help researchers to identify many sub-diffraction structures of the samples with many different fluorescence staining strategies, but there is a tradeoff between those strategies. Based on these points, we anticipate expansion microscopy will achieve a higher expansion factor and more powerful staining techniques.
Nowadays, diabetes is still a disease that is very difficult to cure, especially for type 2 diabetes, which does not have way to cure it yet. But it is still necessary to find ways to prevent and improve the conditions of patients. The author intends to discuss the treatment and improvement of diabetes from the aspects of diet and medicine. This paper is based on current papers and research from some scientists, and the paper’s purpose is going to utilize the information that corresponds to the essay’s topic. The result shows that diet and medicine can have different effects on the treatment of diabetes separately. Currently, the main treatment of type 2 diabetes is intervention. In the process of the treatment, food and diets are utilized to control the patient’s blood sugar level. Medicine is used to prevent complications by adjusting the chemicals inside the human body and also controlling the blood sugar level
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia worldwide. Although the pathology of AD is not yet completely understood, it has been widely acknowledged that the biomarkers including beta-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and the neuroinflammation induced by these hallmarks contributed to the AD’s pathology. Different from the conventional diagnosis of AD which is based on clinical criteria, the modern methods relay on biomarkers imaging and fluid test. Currently, although the treatment of AD is targeted to symptomatic therapy, advanced therapies that target the hallmarks of AD such as anti-beta-amyloid and APOE related therapies are under developing. Here, we will first review the major hypothesis of AD’s pathological mechanism and then discuss the methods of diagnosis and treatment of AD which is developed in progress
In 2019, the spread of a global pandemic was disturbing. Its name was COVID-19, the novel coronavirus. So far, more than 18 million patients have died. Although countries have established relatively mature response plans, the disaster is not completely over, and the era we are living in is called the post-pandemic era. Therefore, the study of COVID-19 is no longer limited to medical and biological research. It has penetrated our life. The problem we need to solve is not only how to cure it and protect it, but also more aspects of research. The same behavior that causes damage to the lungs is smoking, and the number of smokers worldwide is no longer small, for whom the act of smoking has become a normal part of life. So, the relationship between COVID-19 and smoking raises more important questions: does smoking affect the spread of COVID-19? Does smoking increase the risk of COVID-19? Does smoking affect treatment for COVID-19? The paper adopts the research method of literature review, summarizes the scientific literature of others, and involves knowledge of biology, statistics, and medicine. Finally, it is concluded that smoking exacerbates the spread of COVID-19, harms patients, and hinders treatment.
Tetrodotoxin is a very important toxin to study because there are many cases of intoxication of tetrodotoxin. In this review, we will illustrate the therapeutic value of tetrodotoxin by explaining the mechanism of tetrodotoxin, the importance of tetrodotoxin as a pain treatment, and some clinical evidence. Tetrodotoxin can prevent the neurons from traveling through the voltage-gated sodium ion channel and stop the transmission of the neurons and stimuli, which makes tetrodotoxin able to treat several types of pain such as visceral pain and cancer pain. By blocking the neurons and stimuli in the body, the feeling of pain will not occur in the body. The two clinical examples show that Tetrodotoxin is effective in treating pain but not as effective as morphine. Therefore, the use of tetrodotoxin to treat pain may reduce the use of morphine.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common chronic neurological disease. In an aging society, the incidence rate is increasing year by year and remains high. Due to the decline of intelligence and cognition in patients, it is a heavy burden to the family and society. However, its pathological mechanism is not fully explained, and there is a great deal of controversy recently. Previous studies have shown that AD is characterized by the accumulation of neural plaques and neurofibrillary tangles caused by abnormal accumulation of Aβ protein. There are also studies showing that the dysfunction of cholinergic neurons may lead to its occurrence and development. Namely, degeneration of cholinergic neurons occurs in AD and leads to alternating cognitive function and memory loss. Current treatments for AD are very limited. This situation has led to the research focus on the risk factors for the occurrence of the disease. Age, genetics and environmental factors play different roles in the development of AD. Genetic inheritance may be the basis of individual susceptibility. This article briefly introduces genetic factors and specific genes associated with AD in order to further our understanding of how this disease occurs
Acute coronary syndrome(ACS) refers to a group of clinical symptoms caused by acute myocardial ischemia, including unstable angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden ischemic death. In recent years, studies have shown that the main mechanism of its occurrence is the rupture of plaque and the consequent intravascular thrombosis. Multiple factors may lead to the occurrence of the disease. However, the mechanism of the histomorphological change from pre-fragmentation to post-fragmentation is still unclear. Vasospasm may also play an important role. Prevention of plaque formation and rupture or prevention of thrombosis by antithrombotic therapy is effective in reducing the incidence of acute coronary syndrome, and coronary intervention also reduces the mortality of acute coronary syndrome. Some new therapies, such as gene therapy, are still in the experimental stage. At the same time, people should improve the awareness of disease prevention, and the most active prevention is the best means of disease treatment.
Bionic limb achievements in the last 10 years have primarily focused on breakthroughs to improve accuracy with new materials and concepts that are unlikely to be used when producing an entire upper bionic limb. For example, studies on bionic limbs with new materials, such as pneumatic bionic flexible arms, which cannot meet the needs of amputees in terms of using comfortably and accurately interpreting users' intentions. Though the future development of bionic limbs has many possibilities, this paper summarizes and analyzes the functions and drawbacks of three most important structures in bionic hands and compares them to the most widely used sensory feedback realization methods. The paper then designed a future model based on the perspectives discussed above in order to meet the requirements of high accuracy, flexibility, a comfortable feeling, and real-time sensory feedback. Finally, the paper contrasts the BCI technique with the newly developed model.
Aβis a type of amyloid that is the main component of the senile plaques found in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease. It is generally thought to be associated with various neurodegenerative behaviors. At the same time, cellular autophagy disorders have also been observed in large numbers in Alzheimer's patients. However, due to technical obstacles, humans have not been very clear about the specific mechanism of Alzheimer's. Previously, the mainstream view has been that Aβ causes autophagy disorder, which leads to Alzheimer's disease. However, emerging evidence points to the fact that Aβ is actually a downstream event of autophagy disorder. In the experiment, they observed the specific process of autophagy in the brain by using a dual fluorescent labeling method and a variety of high-end imaging techniques at the same time. In addition, through this method, they also found that Aβ accumulates in the cell in the early stage of the disease, rather than outside the cell as we generally think. So our goal should also shift from Aβ removal to how to prevent autophagy disorder. While describing this situation, this paper also proposes some possible methods that have been discovered so far to prevent autophagy disorders.
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare chronic disease, it is characterized by immune dysregulation, vascular lesions, and skin and multi-organ fibrosis. The disease is difficult to cure and it is important to find safe and effective complementary therapies.TCM is one of the important complementary therapies of SSc, however, the specific mechanism of action is unclear. In recent years, studies on intestinal flora have provided new ideas for the pathogenesis and treatment of diseases. Intestinal flora has been shown to influence the function of the immune system and play an important role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Modifying intestinal flora disorders and regulating inflammation-associated cytokines may be the basic mechanism of action of TCM for disease treatment. This review combines SSc, intestinal flora, and TCM to explore the mechanism of TCM's therapeutic effect on SSc by regulating intestinal flora, to provide a reference for subsequent studies, and offer new ideas for clinical treatment.
Neurotechnology is rapidly evolving and there have been great advances in medical treatment, including some neurology and psychiatry disorders. Many people have been given new lifesaving treatments which help relieve their suffering. As the capabilities and applications of neurological devices have evolved, attention has been drawn to potential ethical challenges related to agency, identity, privacy, equality, regulation, and justice. This paper reviews and summarizes the current exploration of the ethical issues in neurotechnology, especially from the aspects of privacy and identity. It assesses the key methodological and ethical challenges associated with neurotechnology for today. In particular, it suggests what safeguards should be implemented in the field to reduce the concern about ethical issues.
Biodiversity is the most emphasized term in ecology that keeps the ecosystem wonderful and stable. However, invasion and endangerment are two phenomena of disturbance of biodiversity. The features of these kinds of species should be determined for further animal protection. Through four main case studies, the article describes how such species proliferate or nearly distinct. Python Bivattatus, Rhinella Marina, Sphenodon punctatus, and Ambystoma mexicanum would be focused, and typical features of reproduction, niche, and feeding behavior indicate the phenomena. It is concluded that invasion is related to climate differentiation, energy cost, and adaptation. The specialty of poikilothermal animals in the ecosystem is important to discover the mystery of their invasion and endangerment. Furthermore, the relationship between invasion and endangerment is revealed, and several government solutions are mentioned.
The knowledge of evolution and natural selection has brought people's understanding of nature a big step forward. This has also greatly improved human autonomy and control over nature. This is not a bad thing in itself, but it also changes the evolutionary laws of nature itself. When natural evolution occurs, the animal and its surrounding environment always gradually adapt to each other. Consequently, when humans speed up this process, it can also lead to surprises. In the analysis and study of these cases, a certain number of cases have had negative consequences, both for humans and the creature itself. In this article, the evolution and adaptation of the brown rat in New York City are introduced and studied in detail, and the data is actively used to provide evidence for the evolution of the brown rat in only a hundred and twenty years. The impact of brown rats on humans will also be manifested in various aspects of New York City's hygiene, disease, diet, and so on. In addition, this article makes a detailed analysis and investigation of the evolution of African elephant ivory. Comparisons are also made in detail in terms of the changes in the habits of African elephants.
With the increasing use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on clinical treatment of Parkinson’s diseases, stimulation-induced dyskinesia (SID) becomes more and more common. SID was often detected shortly after DBS treatment on patients. However, the pathogenesis of SID and exact region of SID remains unclear. The aim of this paper is to review the studies of stimulation-induced dyskinesia and try to propose a new method to study and quantify SID, which is phase-amplitude coupling. phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) has been widely used in many other studies of brain-related illness and therapies. It is believed to have a profound relationship with our brain activities. Because of the features of PAC itself, the anatomical regions related to SID after pallidal DBS in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients can be possibly found, and the value of PAC can be served as a biomarker for us to assess the stimulation-induced dyskinesia. However, further researches on patients should be done to verify this method. It is very important to understand how SID is formed and its pathogenesis because it may help us find the appropriate parameters of deep brain stimulation and reduce the damage caused by the implant of electrode
Parkinson's disease (PD) is now the second most prevalent chronic neurological illness worldwide. For motor symptoms of PD, PD is linked to a number of dyskinesia, including rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, and tremor at rest. PD dyskinesia is the most common cause of Parkinsonism. Meanwhile, PD dyskinesia may be closely linked to the neural oscillations between neural circuits. PD dyskinesia is associated, in particular, with beta oscillation, which is directly related to the incidence and development of the motor. For the purpose of analysing neural oscillations between neural circuits, phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) can be utilised as a biomarker. As a potential biomarker of beta oscillation, PAC has been widely used in the research of PD. Therefore, this article reviews the latest concepts of dyskinesia, methods of calculating PAC and applications of PAC in Parkinson's disease, aiming to provide a good theoretical basis for finding neural circuits involved in PD dyskinesia to establish better deep brain stimulation therapy.
Proteolytic targeting chimera is a class of heterobifunctional molecules that selectively degrades target proteins through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Protein degradation targeting chimeras can remove some mutated and overexpressed pathogenic proteins. Compared with traditional antitumor drugs, it has good targeting, drug resistance and high degradability, which provides a new idea for the treatment of malignant tumors and has a wide range of application prospects and development space. In recent years, Proteolytic targeting chimera technology has gradually matured in the research and development of anti-tumor drugs, and two Proteolytic targeting chimera small molecule drugs have passed the phase I clinical trial. Based on the existing literature, this paper briefly describes the progress of Proteolytic targeting chimera in anti-tumor research and development, as well as the opportunities and challenges facing it.