Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Biological Engineering and Medical Science (ICBioMed 2022), Part II
Gary Royle, University College London
Steven M. Lipkin, Weill Cornell Medicine
Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in the human body. In recent years, Human society as a whole is increasingly aware of the nutritional role that zinc plays in human health.This paper mainly discusses the relationship between zinc and human health and how to supplement zinc scientifically and lists the various effects of zinc on human metabolism. In this paper, the trace element zinc was studied through literature analysis, case analysis, data analysis, and review methods. The research data mainly came from various types of zinc literature and newspapers and magazines. This paper finds that zinc is extremely important element for human growth and development, it can resist and eliminate pathogens in the body. Meanwhile, the relationship between zinc and the metabolism of our human body is very close. Only by obtaining enough zinc, can the cells in our various organs and tissues maintain a relatively high metabolic rate.
Cancer is undoubtedly the number one killer in today's society. Traditional surgical treatment methods have their own limitations, especially in the treatment of end-stage or hematological tumors. Emerging immunotherapy is an unprecedented breakthrough technology in cancer treatment. For example, PD-1/PD-L1 and CAR-T immunotherapy. CAR-T has been proposed for many years, it is only in the last few years that it has been improved and applied in the clinic. Its effectiveness in the treatment of cancer in hematology is encouraging. For example, it has a great curative impact in the acute leukemia, in the field of non-Hodgkin lymphoma ,it is also recognized as one of the most prospective and developed tumor treatments. Clinical application of CAR-T has attracted extensive attention. This therapy is characterized by the ability to detect tumor-associated antigens preferentially detected by T cells, which has a significant anti-tumor effect. This article will focus on HCC, list the existing HCC CAR-T treatment targets and briefly describe associated clinical research.
CRISPR/Cas9 technology is a third-generation artificial nuclease technology that has been successfully applied in several fields, given its simplicity and efficiency. Although it has been widely used, its application in marine organisms, especially in eukaryotic marine phytoplankton represented by marine diatoms, is just beginning. As one of the most important marine primary producers, marine diatoms have a variety of irreplaceable ecological significance and potential applications, and therefore need the support of genetic engineering technologies to advance their further development. This paper will first introduce the mechanism of action and the history of CRISPR/Cas9 technology. It will also present the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in the genetic engineering of marine diatoms and discuss its prospects.
Chlamydia trachomatis leads to the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide, resulting in short-term and long-term health issues. The treatments for chlamydia trachomatis infection are often a hot research direction. The efficiency of antibiotics, the conventional therapy for chlamydia trachomatis infection, is decreasing gradually because of resistance, especially azithromycin. Thus, it is necessary to find new therapies to treat chlamydia trachomatis infection with higher specificity and effectiveness. Among all the trials, gene and peptide therapy stand out. As for gene therapy, IRF5 and IL-10RA are related to macrophage-chlamydia interactions. Their roles are vital in order to cure chlamydia trachomatis infection. With regard to peptide therapy, pep-1, LL-37, and melittin showed outstanding abilities in inhibiting the growth of chlamydia trachomatis. However, multiple challenges for the development of these therapies remained. Deep researches are required to address these problems in order to put these treatments into clinical use. This review summarizes the conventional treatments, and introduces gene therapy and peptide therapy for chlamydia trachomatis infection.
With the development of Internet technology, human information data grows by a huge amount. Traditional data storage media are no longer suitable for large amounts of data storage due to their inherent shortcomings, such as high power consumption, large physical size, and short storage life. DNA information storage, on the other hand, can overcome these shortcomings to a certain extent. This paper introduces the process and mechanism of DNA storage, such as the DNA synthesis method, DNA coding, DNA preservation and sequencing, the history of DNA storage, its defects, and shortcomings. This article introduces the principles and mechanisms of DNA storage, including DNA synthesis method, data storage, and DNA preservation, as well as the history of DNA storage and its shortcomings and prospects for improvement, using the comparison of traditional storage methods and DNA storage methods as an import cut.
With the gradual expansion of the population of diabetes and obesity, type II diabetes is more common in obese patients, and the most worrying is the increasing number of type II diabetes among adolescents and young adults. People have had to look for ways to stop or delay the onset of diabetes, and artificial sweeteners, which cause good sweetness properties and high safety without the associated high-calorie content of sugar, are widely used in the food sector as the main way to address high sugar food intake. However, despite the very widespread use of artificial sweeteners, obesity and diabetes have not been reduced as expected, and even their numbers continue to increase rapidly. In recent years, with more in-depth research on artificial sweeteners, it is gradually found that artificial sweeteners have many adverse effects on diabetes and obesity. This article describes consumers in more detail from different perspectives on the effects of artificial sweeteners and concludes that artificial sweeteners do affect insulin resistance and gut microbes, which are detrimental to diabetics and obese people. However, whether all artificial sweeteners have a significant adverse effect on the human body needs to be further investigated.
Currently, obesity became a prevalence concern in terms of its scale and health-related impact among the global. Medical comprehensive intervention among dietary pattern and living manners are recommended by guidelines as foundation of obesity treatment. Identifying alternative dietary weight loss strategies become a common and safe choice for many obsess people’s medical consolers and clinical doctors. Many positive impacts of Intermittent Energy Restriction (IER) have been suggested by preliminary study, but it still lacks well-powered intervention studies. This passage objects at clarify the metabolic parameters, summarized evidence of preclinical studies of IER’s role in used as a weight loss strategy compared to other common strategies the guideline recommended, for instance, continuous energy restriction (CER), etc. Specifically, the randomized studies last 8-26 weeks performing in overweight and obsess adults. The result is compared in a paradigm of IER with CER, suggesting the outcome of weight loss and change in biomarkers of metabolic parameters. The evidence suggests that IER produce positive impact on weight loss and some positive but indirect effect on metabolic diseases.
Brain diseases, like majority illnesses, are influenced in some way by nutrition. Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by brain cell deaths and memory loss, is significantly influenced by sugar intake. The frequency, quantity, and type of carbohydrates can influence AD development and outcomes. Whether highly processed or not, carbohydrate-rich foods influence AD. This paper discusses how a high-carbohydrate diet increases the chances of AD development and aggravation. General introduction to carbohydrate diets and the etiology of AD are explained. Subsequently, details on nonmodified and modified AD risk factors are addressed. The present paper moreover examines the imperative relationship between AD and high-carbohydrates diets. Particularly, the paper elucidates how: carbohydrate-rich diets impair cognitive function; how the diet aggravates AD ramifications. Furthermore, the paper evaluates how high-carbohydrates diets: alter AD biomarkers; interact with age to influence AD; and how carbohydrate-rich diets prevent brain cell growth and repair. The report addresses the prevailing therapeutic methods that can be employed to prevent and manage Alzheimer’s disease. Such interventions include the use of caffeine to significantly less cognitive deterioration in AD patients is addressed. Other interventions addressed regard how ketogenic diets can effectively aid with AD prevention; minimal sugar consumption; and how physical activities can aid AD prevention and management. Besides, AD-derived diseases are also addressed. The paper finds that high-carbohydrate diets should be avoided, and healthier lifestyle practices are integral for AD prevention and management.
Constipation is common in modern society and affects people's quality of life. The symptoms of constipation vary from person to person. The frequency of bowel movements, the state of the bowel movement and the shape of the stool are some symptoms that determine whether a person is constipated. Constipation is classified as either primary or secondary constipation. Fibre is a compound of plant origin classified as soluble or insoluble fibre. Its function is to maintain a healthy digestive system, with insoluble fibre increasing bowel movements and faecal output to relieve constipation. Dietary fibre is the fibre that people obtain through eating. The prevalence varies from age group to age, as well as dietary fibre intake. In childhood, consuming "age + 5g" of dietary fibre is recommended. According to studies, adding a certain amount of dietary fibre can help children improve the symptoms of chronic constipation. In the adult population, the number of recommendations varies from country to country, and women are more likely than men to suffer from chronic constipation. According to studies, dietary fibre intake can improve the symptoms of constipation in adult patients. However, some patients with unique constipation need to reduce dietary fibre intake to relieve the symptoms of constipation. For the elderly, the prevalence is higher, and 20-25g is a more suitable nutritional fibre intake. And increasing dietary fibre intake can positively impact elderly patients with constipation.
Eating a well-rounded diet has therapeutic effects on many health issues facing humanity today, such as cardiovascular events and diabetes, because all critical chemicals in mood regulation can be sourced from whole-natural food. A consensus on the important role diet plays in producing healthy outcomes can be reached through discussions around the gut-brain axis, mood-regulating neurotransmitters, and their close connection with food. Existing studies on diet and mental health have accomplished certain levels of success. More data across geographical locations and cultures is needed for dietary practices to be established as a treatment option for psychiatric disorders. Current treatment in psychoactive drugs is effective in the short term, but evidence suggests that it sets individuals up for a higher chance of relapse in the long run. The role of nutrients in mood regulation should be emphasized in both the disease prevention and recovery process. This article provides an outlook for using dietary therapy as an alternative treatment method for mental illness.
The global epidemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been raging since its outbreak in 2019, placing enormous strain on healthcare systems all over the world. The best course of action is to prevent COVID-19 in the future, despite the fact that its virological characteristics and pathogenesis have been largely understood. And all current treatment options probably include two types: one is active immunization and the other is passive immunization. Among them, passive immunity includes supportive therapy as well as neutralizing antibodies, and small molecule drugs and other treatments are used as supportive therapy, which only slows down the symptoms and prevents complications, and then waits for the body's immune system to heal itself. On the other hand, stem cell therapy is one type of active immunity. Typically, doctors use mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to treat patients with severe or life-threatening disorders because of their potent immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and tissue healing abilities. The remarkable developments in COVID-19 stem cell therapy during the past three years are outlined in this article, along with the current state of affairs. And it was found that although stem cell therapy has been successful in stages, it still has many limitations.
L-Carnitine, as an essential coenzyme in fat metabolism, can promote the metabolism of human fat, accelerate the burning of fat, and may achieve the desired fat burning slimming effect; This papers studies the effect of L-carnitine on weight loss and the possible side effects it may bring to the human body, explains the weight loss principle and metabolic pathway of L-carnitine from the molecular level, and discusses the relationship between exercise and L-carnitine in combination with metabolism, give the author recommendations for using L-Carnitine. A brief explanation of the current state of development of L-carnitine diet pills (supplements) in the field of health was described. Combined with the comparison and summary of existing databases, it is concluded that L-carnitine alone is not an ideal choice, and L-carnitine alone is used without exercise: For people with normal weight, L-carnitine has no effect on weight loss. Obviously, only overweight, and obese people, taking L-carnitine combined with a lot of training have obvious weight loss effect.
Currently, the prevention and control measures are routinely implemented, which is not exactly the same as the situation of SARS. This paper compares China's different epidemic prevention measures against SARS and COVID-19 by analyzing previous literature. Both SARS and COVID-19 employed similar strategies, such as centralized isolation and treatment and regular case screening of citizens, but the degree of implementation of strategies during SARS was less than ideal for COVID-19 due to the technical limitations of the time. Government regulation and the use of advanced technologies are critical to controlling infectious diseases. The protection strategies that have been implemented have effectively mitigated the damage to society caused by the epidemic.
Recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer is the primary reason for dying in the female population. Although advanced research in immunization may provide a potential treatment for cervical cancer, it is still one of the usual fetal female cancers globally. Previous studies on bevacizumab and chemotherapy provided efficient treatments with a survival benefit for women, but different strategies are needed to increase the overall survival rate of this cancer. Tisotumab vedotin is an investigative and pioneering immunoglobulin-medicine combination that targets tissue factor (TF), a protein in high concentrations in various solid tumours. Tisotumab vedotin bonds to tissue factor on aimed cells and then releases monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE). In addition, Tisotumab vedotin’s direct cytotoxicity may increase nearby tumour cells’ spectator toxicity and various immune-linked effects. This paper will discuss previous studies on Tisotumab vedotin, and their data will be analyzed further. The improvement toward this treatment will be proposed as well. This paper aimed to establish a thorough understanding and further analysis of the previous clinical trials and findings on Tisotumab vedotin.
Senescence, also known as biological aging, is the gradual deterioration of functional characteristics in living organisms. Human civilization has spent tremendous efforts dealing with senescences in the past centuries. In the process of senescence, cellular and genetic-based materials face several variations, and they can be varied beneficially by preventing cancer cell development, such as tumor cells. However, it surely will result in several problems due to cellular senescence. Moreover, factors contributing to human senescence will be elaborated in the following review paper. Telomere will be one factor that plays an essential role in growing old. Due to its unique characteristic of shortening, the ability to repair after the replication will be heavily reduced. Thus, this review intended to illustrate the overall process of human senescence, which involves fundamental causes of senescence, telomere shortening, and its consequences.
Nanomaterials have great application prospect in biological medicine due to their strong permeability, repair and regeneration. In particular, nano silver has excellent antibacterial ability and no toxic effect, which makes it widely used. The specific content of this paper introduces a method of using silver nanoparticles to generate silver ions, and then make it react with hydrogen peroxide, through the colorimetric device to react with different color changes corresponding to different concentrations, through this biosensor to determine the concentration of such as cholesterol lactic acid and other substances.And when detecting miRNA,AuNPs were further modified by complementing the DNA (cDNA) of target mirnas. AgNPs could not be attracted to negatively charged DNA due to electrostatic repulsion by immobilized modified gold nanoparticles on the electrode surface. After analyzing the peak of silver stripping, miRNA can be accurately detected.Furthermore, chitosan coated silver nanoparticles were designed, and polyethylene glycol was used as a stabilizer. Finally, its good blood compatibility and antibacterial ability, as well as its cytotoxicity to cervical cancer cells were demonstrated by characterization.Finally, the accumulation and changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen (RNS) induced by silver nano are introduced, and it is confirmed by measurement that they are important factors in apoptosis of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
The world is entering an era of strong infectious diseases, and it is urgent to develop a new type of rapid, efficient detection system. This graph specifically illustrates the detection function of the gold nanoparticles, and the gold nanoparticles-based sensor. Gold-based nanoclusters (NCs) which has a small particle size, has a high degree of stability and no impact on the biological activity. Gold-based NCs has a surface plasma resonance effect and produces visible color, which can be detected by observing the color change using the agglomeration reaction of the detected substance with Gold-based NCs. In order to specifically detect certain biomolecules, some functional groups or small DNA molecular chains of nanolodin are usually modified on it to have a selective detection capability. In the review, we introduce a total of four nano-gold applications, for bacteria, viruses, DNA and cancer, also, respectively elaborating some recent Gold-based NCs detection applications.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with progressive memory and cognitive impairment. Due to the devastating social and financial impacts of AD, extensive research is put into gaining a clearer understanding of its pathogenesis and risk factors, as well as the development of treatments that can slow or reverse the disease progression. Despite this, early and accurate detection of AD and the development of curative treatments are yet to be achieved. Further, major challenges remain in the symptomatic treatments available today, as the delivery of Alzheimer’s medications is limited by low efficiency due to difficulties in blood-brain barrier permeation and poor absorption. The incorporation of nanotechnology in current and potential treatments present unique opportunities for the delivery of therapeutic agents with increased specificity, lower toxicity and controlled release. In this review, we outline the proposed pathogenesis, current diagnosis and treatment methods of AD, and discuss recent advancements in nanomaterial-based systems that target major hallmarks of AD through different mechanisms, including targeted drug delivery, inhibition of Aβ aggregation, delivery of neuroprotective agents and Aβ removal from the blood.
Probiotics are living microorganisms that when administered in appropriate quantities bring health benefits to the host. Probiotics products have been developed in the form of dairy products, dietary supplements, fermentation and enzyme preparations or other biological agents, and the global probiotics industry is growing at a rate of 15% to 20% per year. The clinical application of probiotics is becoming more and more extensive, especially in bacteriostasis, treatment of intestinal diseases, neonatal diseases and immune diseases, as well as in lowering blood pressure, lowering blood lipids, anti-aging, anti-tumor and central nervous system diseases. Metagenin refers to the bioactive compounds beneficial to health produced in the fermentation process of probiotics. Metagenin has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, immune regulation, antioxidant, anti-obesity, anti-hypertension, hypidemia, liver protection, promoting wound healing and other biological activities, which has broad prospects in the development of new health functional food. This topic will be used for the method of investigation and demonstration to study the research status and future development of probiotics and metagenics cosmetics, as well as the safety evaluation of cosmetics components and human body. The main research direction is on lactic acid bacteria and bacillus.
Wearable biosensors have the potential to provide valuable information about our physiological states and transform traditional healthcare. Compared to traditional blood sampling, on-body analysis of non-invasive biofluids can offer continuous and painless monitoring of relevant biomarkers. Recent developments in epidermal sensors feature integrated systems capable of sensing multiple factors while providing easy readout and great skin conformity. Innovative solutions based on advanced material fabrication and novel designs have also emerged to address challenges such as power, sensor sensitivity and selectivity, and communication. As a result, more possibilities have emerged to develop sophisticated integrations with more functionalities, optimized skin conformity, and less disruption of daily routine. While sensing performance and functions continue to improve, attention should also be drawn to practical problems such as biofouling, contamination, and complex composition dynamics. Moreover, although past and current research have highlighted studies investigating the use of sweat in diagnostics, more evidence of correlations between sweat biomarker levels and physiological conditions is needed to promote the utility of these systems.