Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Biological Engineering and Medical Science (ICBioMed 2022), Part I

    Conference Date






    978-1-915371-25-6 (Print)

    978-1-915371-26-3 (Online)

    Published Date



    Gary Royle, University College London

    Steven M. Lipkin, Weill Cornell Medicine


  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220152

    AlphaFold2-based structure prediction and target study of PD-L1 protein

    PD-L1 is an immune protein in human body that can play an important role in cancer immunotherapy. By binding to antibodies, the binding activity of PD-L1 and PD-1 is blocked, which in turn inhibits cancer cells. Thus the structure of PD-L1 is very important in studying the binding of antibodies to it. However, experimental methods to solve the structures of PD- L1 and numerous complexes are expensive and consuming. Thus, it is essential to exploit computational methods to help biologists figure out the structures and the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we explore whether AlphaFold2 is able to accurately predict the structure of PD-L1 and whether we can use AlphaFold2 to capture the binding sites of PD-L1 when binding to different antibodies. Our results show that AlphaFold2 has high confident scores and accuracy in predicting the structure of PD-L1 and the binding sites with atezolizumab and durvalumab. For the interaction between PD-L1 and the antibodies, AlphaFold2 can capture most of the hydrogen bonds as well as the salt bridges. Our work suggests that AlphaFold2 can not only be used as a tool to predict the structure of proteins, but also serves as a useful tool for antibody discovery, e.g. providing high-quality predicted structures for downstreaming docking, which brings new hope for drug discovery.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220153

    Analysis on the Control Strategies of Hip Exoskeletons and Exosuits

    Lower limb exoskeleton has been proven to be effective in gait training and locomotion assistance. Specifically, control strategies of exoskeletons play the most important role in safe and effective interaction between the user, the exoskeleton, and the environment. In this paper, an analysis on the control strategies of hip exoskeletons and exosuits is performed. The controls are divided into three levels: high, medium, and low. The definition of high-level control as well as the corresponding control methods are listed and the principle of each is explained. Then, the mid-level control section is divided between detection and action layer and each control that belongs to one of the two categories is analyzed. The definition of low-level control and its control methods are then explained. At last, according to the results of various studies, the advantages and potential disadvantages of each method are put forward. The purpose of this paper is to provide reference and guidance for future researchers who hope to develop new controls or improve existing control strategies for hip exoskeletons and exosuits.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220164

    A study on the Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Adjuvant Treatment

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world. Globally, nearly one-sixth of deaths are caused by cancer. Cancer raise wide attention from the researcher in recent years, chemotherapy is the main cancer treatment, but chemotherapy has many side effects, the common effects are weight loss, hair loss, and figure. These side effects will bring many pains for patients, as result, sciences made a research to reduce the suffering for patients. In this article, the research method of archival research is used to retrieve the relevant research on the side effects of chemotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. By reviewing the previous literature on chemotherapy, we can understand the history, classification, and mechanism of chemotherapy. Through the relevant research on chemical side effects and side effect adjuvant therapy, the following conclusions can be drawn. The common side effects of chemotherapy are bone marrow suppression, gastrointestinal adverse reactions, neutrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and easily overlooked taste change. The adjuvant treatments are Chinese herbal therapy, physical therapy, trace element therapy, and psychological therapy. It provides a basis for future medical researchers to study the side effects and auxiliary treatment of chemotherapy, and non-medical researchers can have a clear understanding of chemotherapy. At the same time, it provides a research direction of possibility and increases the interest for my future study.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220165

    Comparison of meat nutritions and flavor between Chinese Yanbian yellow cattle and Simmental cattle

    This research explored the difference between Chinese Yanbian yellow Beef and Simmental Beef in nutrients, meat quality and flavor, aimed at providing a basis for the development of Chinese Yanbian yellow cattle resources. Eight Chinese Yanbian yellow cattle and eight Simmental cattle were selected in this experiment. All the experimental cattle were fenced to 30 months of age under the same feeding conditions and slaughtered to determine the quality and flavor substance content of beef. The results showed that the contents of crude protein, ether extract and various amino acids in Chinese Yanbian yellow beef were significantly higher than those in Simmental beef (P<0.05). The shear force of Chinese Yanbian yellow beef was significantly lower than that of Simmental beef (P<0.05). The results of Gas chromatography. mass spectrometry (GC-MS) also showed that the kinds of flavor substances in Chinese Yanbian yellow beef were more than those in Simmental beef. In conclusion, the nutritional level and flavor of Chinese Yanbian yellow beef are better than those of Simmental beef. In conclusion, the nutritional level and flavor of Chinese Yanbian yellow beef are better than those of Simmental beef.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220167

    The Role of Spontaneous Thoughts in Human Cognition

    Spontaneous thought is a cognitive process that ubiquitously happens in daily life. Humans spend 30-50% of their lives in spontaneous thinking, but the impact and consequence of spontaneous thought have not been widely studied in cognitive neuroscience. It is crucial to expand the research involving spontaneous thought since it benefits human's memory encoding and decision-making abilities. This review has two main aims: the first is to explore the cognitive impact of goal-directed and spontaneous thought; the second is to discover the benefits of spontaneous thought to humans. This paper concludes that spontaneous thought has the role of improving memory encoding and facilitating future planning.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220172

    New Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Alzheimer’s disease is a major degenerative disease characterized by impaired memory, aphasia, apraxia and the changes of personality and behavior. As the population ages, the incidence of AD is increasing. According to an analysis of 10000 people with up to 30 years of follow-up data, elderly over 55 years old, the risk of dementia increased nearly four- fold if they have three or more chronic diseases at the age of 55. The pathogenesis of AD has not been fully studied, a lot of mechanisms such as neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal metabolic are related to the pathology of AD. The abnormal deposition of Aβ and hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein are identified mechanism of AD. Finding new drugs for AD has always been a research hotpot, preclinical work of new anti-AD drugs is being carried out on a large scale in the world. However, in all types of new developing drugs for AD, the failure rate is about 99%. The drugs approved to treat AD such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and glutamate receptor antagonists, only slow symptoms other than change the progression of this disease. Deep researches are required to study the pathogenesis of AD, developing drugs that can reverse the progression is the key to the treatment for AD. This review introduces new developing therapy and potential targets of future research into treatments of AD.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220173

    A Review of Innovated Treatment for Gliomas

    Brain tumors are difficult to be totally cured , and also associated with high rates of mortality and morbidty, therefore the therapy is always a hot issue.This review introduces glioma treatment techniques through literature summarization and qualitative analysis. According to the data, technologies that can improve median survival and potentially substitute contemporary techniques during the treatment, including photon therapy, and hyperthermia. Moreover, some techniques can improve the accuracy and safety of surgical, such as Intraoperative Neuromonitoring and Neuronavigation During Resection. Other treatment methods, such as gene therapy and immunotherapy, are feasible based on their principles. However, their current effects have not reached expectations, so they are not widely used at this stage, and further innovation and experimental proof are needed.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220174

    Analysis of Autoimmune Disease: Mechanism, Genetic Susceptibility and Environmental Factors

    This article discussed three aspects of autoimmune disease, including mechanism, genetic susceptibility, and environmental factors. Molecular mimicry and dual T cell receptor are two systems of the mechanism. Genetic susceptibility is depending on the environment and polymorphism. Lastly, the environmental factors rely on latitude, industrial development, and gender bias. This article provides a review of autoimmune disease which can help the researchers to further understand the basic information.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220179

    Interventions in Ischemic Stroke Targeting Microglial Activation

    Ischemic stroke is one of the biggest health concerns nowadays, leading to nonnegligible disability and mortality in its patients. During its pathological development, resident microglia in the central nervous system play a significant role to repair the damage, but may also expand the lesion because of the excessive microglial activation. As a result, microglial activation is considered a potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke. Since microglia polarized into different phenotypes ranging from M1 to M2 display proinflammatory and neuroprotective functions, regulation of the morpho-functional change of microglia became a further way of intervention in ischemic stroke. This review qualitatively analyses drugs for ischemic stroke that were studied by credible research in the recent ten years in terms of experimental methods, applied animal models, and potential signaling pathways, so as to provide clues for future studies on the fine regulation of microglial activation to treat ischemic stroke.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220183

    Development of Current COVID-19 Vaccines, A Review

    The virus known as severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 is extremely pathogenic. and has already give rise to worldwide contagious pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 new variations, particularly the Omicron strain, are a major global concern. To reduce the spread of virus, considerable efforts have been made towards the development of effective vaccines and drugs against SRAS-CoV-2. The current available vaccines include inactivated vaccines (Sinopharm and Sinovac), protein-based vaccines (Novavax), DNA vaccines, RNA vaccines (Moderna and Pfizer), viral vector vaccines (Oxford-AstraZeneca). These various vaccinations act in different ways to improve human immunity with their own strengths and drawbacks but both of them could work very effectively to prevent infection. In this review, recently significant progress in the development of COVID-19 vaccination, including vaccine type, efficacy and safety issues, and variant protection are summarized.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220186

    The Role of Platelets in Central Hubs of Inflammation Regulation

    When receptors were found, the study of platelets turned to the signaling pathway. When platelets in the progression of some disease could provide valuable clues, the study of platelets turned to the relationship between platelets granules, platelet morphology and inflammatory immune responses. And even some geneticists through the analysis of genes tried to encode the secret of platelets and inflammation. We reviewed the study of platelets and found the substance released by platelets could perform complex functions. The formation of immunothrombosis was central to immunological platelet function. And it could lead to the release of platelets granules, thus initiating a cascade of inflammatory immune responses, which played a central role in adaptive and innate immune. And we found platelets induced epilepsy immune by S100b. In this review, we focused on sterile inflammation, pathogen infection immunity, tumor immunity and provided the latest evidence. Hoping in the future development, platelets shed new light on pathogens infection.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220191

    Analyzing Flagellum Structure of Trypanosoma Brucei Using Electron Tomography Datasets from Electron Microscopy Data Bank

    African trypanosomiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease. The main parasite that causes the disease is Trypanosoma brucei, also known as T. brucei, which infects its hosts through the tsetse fly. Trypanosoma brucei has an important structure, the flagella. The parasite relies on the flagella for survival and movement, so studying the flagella structure in detail is essential to understanding its function. Therefore, we use electron microscopes for multi-angle observation and photography. We identified some important structures of flagella which aligned with previous literature including the 92+2 axoneme, and the paraflagellar rod (PFR), and we even captured some novel features including densities connecting the axoneme and PFR, densities that interconnect the microtubule, and densities that bridges the different zones of PFR. We also did literature reviews and proposed hypotheses about the functions of these structures. Our structural study could shed light on the inhibition of the flagella movement, thereby treating trypanosomiasis.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220195

    Research Progress in Pathogenesis and Treatment of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    With the continuous development of the sports in China, sports trauma is also on the rise year by year, of which the former cruciate ligament injury is quite common. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), one of the two main types of intraarticular fibrous ligament, it can provide the rotational and translational stability for the knee. When it injurys, patients' exercise ability and life well-being will decline, and even lead to a series of complications, especially in women. The risk of the ACL injury in the women is almost 3.5 times that in men. There are many factors leading to ACL injury. Studies have shown that after anterior cruciate ligament injury, most patients choose surgical treatment. With the development of the Arthroscopic technique, most of the patients would be likely to choose the surgical treatment, especially the people that are young and active. The surgical treatment have several advantages, like the post-operative recovery is fast, less traumatic, fewer complications. At present, the surgical treatment is mainly reconstruction under arthroscopy. The reconstruction materials include autografts, allografts, artificial ligaments and so on. It is necessary to understand the difference of biochemical and biological characteristics of different grafts in the process of ligament healing. For some elderly patients or patients with other special needs, non-surgical treatment can also be selected. This article reviews the pathogenic factors, surgical methods, grafts, and other aspects for clinical reference.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220196

    Pathological Analysis of down Syndrome and Its Nursing Care

    Down Syndrome sounds like a rare case that can only be found in biology courses that are unrelated to normal people’s life. However, it occurs once every 1200 people according to CDC. Scientifically, Down syndrome is a genetic disease caused by trisomy 21 that cannot be cured by direct means of surgery or drugs. People must study the biochemical pathway Down Syndrome interferes with human body development, symptoms usually exhibit in patients, and Down Syndrome’s relationship with other diseases like Alzheimer’s in-depth and provide advanced detection for parents inclined to have Down Syndrome babies. Due to patients’ intellectual disability, someone must make important decisions for them so that they can receive needed treatments, Nursing patients with it not only requires extensive medical care but also patient emotional support. Well-trained nursing is required to protect this vulnerable group, not only to bring patients the chance to live a normal life but also to help their families avoid living in conflicts.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220204

    The Application of Nanotechnology in Natural Cosmeceuticals

    With the continuous improvement of people's economic level and the maturity of consumption concepts, natural cosmeceuticals (with therapeutic effects) have received more and more attention, which has prompted the innovative development of the cosmeceuticals industry. Natural ingredients derived from plants and the marine have attracted the attention of scientists for their sustainability and less skin irritation. These ingredients, along with low skin penetration and instability, influence formulation development. Nanotechnology is used to help improve the shortcomings of natural ingredients such as instability in formulations. However, the toxicity of nanotechnology and regulatory gaps have also raised concerns and potential concerns among consumers. This paper provides an overview of potential active ingredients in botanical and marine cosmeceuticals and how they can improve formulation innovation under the action of different nano delivery systems. Relevant literature from pub med, web of science, and other websites are studied to corroborate the most recent trends in the development of cosmeceuticals and the most recent advancements in industry regulation. As a result, a key area of research for scientists continues to be how to enhance formulations while creating natural nano-cosmeceuticals to allay consumers' worries about toxicity.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220207

    Factors of Knee Joint Injury and Rehabilitation Measures

    Knee joint is one of the most important joints to participate in human daily activities and various sports. However, at present, knee joint injuries are still common for both athletes and ordinary people. Wrong exercise style and bad living habits will cause knee joint injury. Weak rehabilitation concept after knee joint injury also leads to poor prognosis in most cases of knee joint injury. Based on the above background, this paper will analyze and sort out the causes of knee joint injury, and explore the rehabilitation methods after injury, so as to provide ideas for future research on knee joint protection and rehabilitation after injury.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220208

    Atopic Dermatitis: Mechanism and Topical Treatment Strategies

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis relating to immunology, genetic inheritance, and environmental conditions. Various treatments are applied to relieve the symptoms of AD. One of the most common types of medication applied is topical treatments. The review examines the mechanisms of action and pathways for topical corticosteroids, non-steroid topical calcineurin inhibitors, and phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors based on a wide range of research and studies targeting AD. The three treatment strategies are compared under different disease conditions. The review suggests that to maximize the effectiveness and minimize side effects, the application of each type of medication should be carefully considered depending on the severity of AD conditions and the individual's physical condition.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220209

    Chemical Synthesis of Chiral Drugs

    Chirality exists in most drugs and has a non-negligible impact on the pharmacological activity, metabolic process, and toxicity of drugs in the human body. Drug molecules can only bind to specific receptor molecules in the human body, and the difference in chirality will lead to different structures of drug molecules, which will lead to the inability of drug molecules to bind to receptor molecules, resulting in a decrease in the efficacy of the drug and even adverse effects on the human body. Therefore, the synthesis of correct chiral drugs has always been an area worth exploring. At present, there are two main approaches for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral drugs: chemical synthesis and biosynthesis. This paper explores the application of chemical synthesis to chiral drugs by combining asymmetric organocatalysis with chemical synthesis. In addition, this paper finds that asymmetric organocatalysis is a very worthwhile way to synthesize chiral drugs and has great potential in the development of new drugs.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220210

    HER 2 Targeted Therapy and Its Potential Risk of Drug Resistance

    HER2, human epidermal receptor 2(c-erbB-2 gene), is a hot targeted point in various cancer’s targeted therapy. Breast cancer including HER2 positive or negative. HER2 is an oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase. HER2 gene amplification occurs in some of breast cancers (BCS), resulting in overexpression of the HER2 protein. Compared to the trastuzumab or pertuzumab, the performance of trastuzumab deruxtecan is excellent. Drug resistance is known to be the main cause of failure of tumor chemotherapy. Tumor drug resistance involves various mechanisms, such as those involving decreased intracellular drug concentration, changes of drug target molecules, metabolic detoxification, and imbalance of DNA damage repair function. HER2-positive breast cancer becomes resistant to trastuzumab, thereby blocking effective binding and developing resistance. The significance of this review is to understand the mechanism of drug resistance from molecular and chemotherapy perspectives by studying the structure and overexpression of HER2 protein as predictors, so as to grasp the progress of current targeted drug therapy. Our review starting from HER2 and its targeted therapy gets to the deep insight into the antibody drug conjugates and explores the possible proteins which may become the potential targeted points in future research.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220214

    Review of Treatments for ADPKD on Tolvaptan and ketogenic Dietary Intervention as a Novel Therapy

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most prevalent genetic kidney disease, affected millions of individuals worldwide. And it is also one of the most prevalent causes of kidney failures and transplants. Previously, in many years, mitigating its symptoms had been the only treatment for this disease. After more than a decade after the early clinical studies of medicines for ADPKD began, the first medication that may successfully delay the course of the condition is now on the market. Due to the severe side effects and high cost of tolvaptan, it cannot be considered a full success, but rather the beginning of therapeutic research. More recently, enlightened by the discovery of the defective metabolism of PKD related cells, researchers have been designing dietary plans and new lifestyles for ADPKD patients to slow down or even halt the disease progression. Current outcomes have been promising. This article will address the best practices for treating ADPKD patients, with a focus on medications that have been proved to be beneficial in preserving kidney’s function and structure.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220215

    Ethical Research on Human Gene Editing

    The development of biotechnology will inevitably increase its application in medical and health care. Since the experiment of Huang Jun and his team in 2015, there have been a number of biomedical laboratories trying to apply gene editing technology to human therapy. This has aroused great controversy in international academic circles. Many people believe that the misuse of gene editing will not only destroy the existing ethical construction of society, but also affect the ability of human beings to adapt to the future environment. However, this paper believes that gene editing technology can be gradually applied to human body after the government first makes relevant policy preparations and technological breakthroughs are achieved in epigenetic editing. It is hoped that this paper can dispel the excessive concerns of those who oppose human gene editing and provide constructive suggestions on the development of this technology’s humanbody application.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220219

    The review of fundamental retrosynthetic analysis and simple practical to hydroxychloroquine

    In this paper, we discussed the basic mechanism of retrosynthetic analysis. We start with the idea of disconnection, which is a hypothesis to break the target molecule into some relatively simpler and more common molecules. Then we break bonds to verify our hypothesis made during disconnect. Based on the number and location of the functional groups, we can apply different methods for retrosynthetic analysis. We also apply our research of retrosynthetic analysis on the synthesis of hydroxychloroquine. In the second part of our paper, we discussed which method is more efficient to synthesize hydroxychloroquine, which should simplify the steps as much as possible, reduce the need for special conditions such as temperature, pressure, etc., and reduce waste liquid pollution, to ensure the ultimate industrial production effect.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220220

    Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

    As a neurodegenerative disease, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is not completely clear Alzheimer's disease not only afflicts the patients themselves, but also causes harm to countless families. Therefore, the treatment of Alzheimer's disease urgently needs to be studied. This paper summarizes some existing methods for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease,which are described from the molecular mechanism of Alzheimer's disease, the symptoms and the future development of Alzheimer's patients. Based on the current studies on the therapeutic method of Alzheimer's disease, more targeted interventions will be developed in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220226

    The Influence of Environmental Index on Sleep Quality

    With the changes of the times, people have given different definitions of sleep. After recent years of research, modern medicine generally believes that sleep makes energy storage, which is conducive to the recovery of human's mental and physical strength. Good sleep is not only the basis for the maintenance of health and physical strength, but also the guarantee of a high degree of production capacity. However, in today's society, the problem of insomnia bothers many people. There are many factors affecting insomnia. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of environmental index on human sleep quality, and to develop devices to improve sleep environment.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220227

    The Impact of Monetary Incentives on COVID-19 Vaccination Rates in the US

    Despite the usage of prizes, gift cards, and cash to incentivize COVID-19 vaccinations across US states during the COVID-19 pandemic, research on the impact of monetary incentives on vaccine behavioral decisions is conflicting and limited. There is little to no existing literature on whether public health driven financial incentives increase COVID-19 vaccine intake even though this approach has been adapted by state public health departments in varying degrees. This research investigates if there is significant association between state monetary incentives and COVID-19 vaccination status. Upon establishing strong correlation between monetary incentives and COVID-19 vaccination status using statistical methods and analysis, a linear regression model was developed to evaluate which types of monetary incentives were most effective in increasing statewide vaccination status. With the plethora of pandemic health data instigated from scientific and governmental learnings, big data and computational tools hold the key to crafting evidence-based public health infrastructure that will fully prepare future generations for tackling the next unforeseen health crisis.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220228

    The Current Status and Future Development of the HPV Vaccine

    The introduction of the HPV vaccine in 2006 significantly decreased the prevalence of cervi-cal cancer in the populace. Preventive HPV vaccinations have produced impressive outcomes based on the HPV mechanism. However, there is still great room for development in thera-peutic vaccinations. In addition, there are still many issues and skepticisms surrounding the safety, efficacy, and sexuality of the HPV vaccine. In a nutshell, the human papillomavirus is a widespread human infection that poses a major risk to human health by increasing the risk of malignant tumors like cervical cancer. The WHO is developing a global strategy to eradi-cate cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine is successful in reducing HPV infection and the ill-nesses it causes. Future commercial manufacture of the 14-valent HPV vaccination will greatly contribute to the implementation of this strategy.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220229

    PD-1 and PD-L1 Treatment in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Renal cell carcinoma as the top10 diagnosed cases of cancer. The treatment strategies such as surgical or ablative therapies works on early diagnosed patients but rarely works on metastat-ic RCC patients. However, nearly 30% of patients developed into metastases. As the common strategies that target the VEGF pathway, resistance is common in tumours, thus, more prom-ising method development is imperative. To overcome the evasion strategies, immune check-point inhibitors is promising treatment strategies. For renal cell carcinoma treatment, the an-ti-PD-1 medicine, Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab, and anti-PD-L1 medicine, Avelumab shows better outcome under the clinical trials. Despite the resistance situation occurs in some cases, immunotherapy anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 showed better outcomes in both ORR and OS compare with targeted molecular monotherapy. Recently, the combination of anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 with targeted drug (for example, TKI) or other type of immune checkpoint inhibi-tor (for example, CTLA-4) provides new perspectives.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220232

    Structural and Research Advances in CAR-T Cell Therapy

    The treatment of a variety of recurrent or resistant hematologic malignancies with chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR- T) cell therapy has seen significant success in recent years. The current CAR- T cell therapy approach is not without flaws, nevertheless, and there are still several issues with clinical treatment, including antigen escape, significant toxicity, and sus-ceptibility to drug-resistant recurrence. This paper introduces the structural development and characteristics of CAR-T cells, reviews the limitations of CAR- T cell therapy, including an-tigen escape, toxicity, CAR-T cell depletion and drug-resistant relapse after treatment, and summarizes the related improvement and optimization strategies. The paper concludes that CAR-T cell immunotherapy has brought new hope to patients with hematologic malignancies, making a cure for refractory and recurrent hematologic malignancies possible. Although CAR-T cell therapy still has many challenges at present, such as immunogenicity, drug re-sistance, and toxicity.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220233

    Epidemiological Surveillance of Type 2 Diabetes Among Adolescents and Children

    With a high incidence of the condition worldwide, type 2 diabetes has emerged as one of the most worrisome chronic diseases. Type 2 diabetes has been identified in certain public health research to have an early beginning tendency, and the rapid rise in teen and child prevalence may be an epidemiological warning sign. This study uses systematic retrieval and induction techniques to examine the prevalence and trajectory of type 2 diabetes in children and adoles-cents. In this paper, the useful data and literature collected are discussed and sorted out in an attempt to establish a complete field of analysis of current type 2 diabetes, which is to criti-cally discuss the practice of current epidemiological surveillance and screening systems for adolescents and children, and to propose possible constructive suggestions. This study finds that the development trend in adolescents and children may not be optimistic, and there are differences in risk based on geographic demography, gender, race, etc. Epidemiological screening and surveillance of type 2 diabetes in adolescents and children, as well as targeted public and individual prevention and intervention, could have significant implications.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220234

    Analysis on Characteristics of Implants and Surface Bionic Prosthetic Materials

    According to the 1990–2020 Internet for literature on materials commonly used in prosthetics and their compatibility with skin tribology and biology, it found that with the large number of amputees affected by the disease, traffic accidents, work-related injuries, and natural disasters, the relatively high manufacturing costs of prostheses could place a financial burden on patients. In addition, the choice of prosthetic material itself affects the comfort and ease of use for the patient. Whether it is an osseointegrated prosthesis or a cavity-receiving prosthesis, the use of appropriate materials is an important issue in prosthetic engineering. This paper analyses the research conducted over the last 20 years on materials for implantable prostheses and receptive cavity materials and presents some of the findings on the preferred material selection for each type of material, as well as the associated biomechanical effects and skin tribology. Through the analysis, the paper concludes that for implantable materials, biocompatible materials such as metallic materials, bioceramics, and composites are preferred. For receptive cavity materials, polymeric materials such as thermoplastic sheets, resin-based composites, and low-temperature thermoplastics are preferred.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220235

    The Condition of Isolation During the COVID-19: A Review

    Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, attention has been paid to the function of buildings to isolate the virus and the impact of buildings on the mental health of patients. This article discusses the architectural design of the COVID-19 isolation through a literature review. Current research related to the COVID-19 isolation condition focuses on the design of ventilation, fluid dynamics, clinical environmental medicine, and the application of architectural psychology.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220236

    mRNA Vaccine for Infectious Disease Prevention and Cancer Immunotherapy

    The recent rapid advance in biotechnology has enabled the therapeutic use of messenger RNA (mRNA) to fight against a wide range of viral diseases and cancers. The development of mRNA vaccine and mRNA therapeutic agent showed extraordinary potential in safety, effica-cy, and industrial production. One of the most effective preventive measures against unex-pected, widespread outbreaks of infectious illnesses, like the pandemic coronavirus sickness that is presently raging, is the use of mRNA vaccines (COVID-19). It took decades for scien-tists to make the mRNA vaccine an applicable approach for medical use due to the stability and delivery of mRNA. Although the previous challenges were overcome, scientists still in-tended to further improve the stability, immunogenicity, delivery systems, and translation ef-ficiency of mRNA into the body to make mRNA technology even more powerful in both pre-ventative and therapeutic use. Encouraging results showed that the mRNA vaccine is a tre-mendous platform against infectious diseases and cancers, which is a new era in vaccinology and oncology. This study concentrated on a thorough overview of mRNA vaccine develop-ment, including a basic explanation of the mechanism of action of mRNA vaccines, various delivery techniques, present obstacles, and future prospects of mRNA vaccines for both pre-ventive and therapeutic purposes.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220238

    An Overview of Current Research on Alzheimer’s Disease

    Alzheimer’s disease, a typical neurodegenerative disease, has been one of the most chal-lenging problems for researchers and doctors. Having known many of its negative impacts such as cognitive decline and disturbed sleep, researchers are yet unable to figure out what specifically causes it and how to effectively cure it. In other words, the underlying mecha-nisms of the disease seem to be very complex, contributing to an incomplete understanding of the disease and an increasing number of patients who cannot be fully recovered. There-fore, the purpose of this article is to summarize current findings about the disease and to provide suggestions for future research. It seeks to answer the question of what can be done to find a cure for the disease. To conduct this research, information and data from academic journals will be analyzed. Some relevant theories such as the amyloid cascade hypothesis will also be covered. As a result of this research, it is suggested that researchers should fo-cus on causes of the abnormalities of different proteins, treatments for tau pathology as well as the specific relationship between healthy lifestyle and cognitive health.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220242

    The Mechanism of Action of Anti-CTLA4 and Advantages, Limitations and Development in Cancer Treatment

    At present, with the frequent occurrence of cancer, especially malignant cancer, more and more scholars begin to pay attention to the treatment method, treatment effect, prognosis, and side effects of cancer. Anti-CTLA-4 immunosuppressive agents have become another pillar of the treatment of related cancers with high efficacy, low toxicity, and good prognosis. Research on Anti-CTLA-4 has never stopped. This article focuses on Anti-CTLA-4, summarizes the related mechanism, clinical treatment, and toxic side effects of CTLA-4, and hopes to provide a new research direction for researchers.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220243

    The Hippocampus: A Review of the Development and Importance of the Hippocampus During a Person’s Stage of Learning, Aging, and Injury

    It has been recognized that the brain is one of the most important and complicated organs in the human body, and it is what sets humans apart from animals, but insight into how the brain controls behaviors, and through what processes people have become the way they are today lacks. Studying the distinct functions of organisms inside of the human brain, it is acknowledged that the hippocampus plays an important role in determining our personalities, learning abilities, and orienting skills. This review introduces the role of the hippocampus in different stages of a person’s life (toddler, adolescence, and during and after adulthood), dominant functions of small parts of the hippocampus, and brain diseases that are caused by damage to the hippocampus such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD). Many common behaviors that are performed every day could be explained by brain mechanisms, and the brain diseases that we hear of constantly but feel distant about actually have many characteristics shared in common. The information is provided with the purpose of arousing readers’ awareness of brain health by introducing hippocampal functions, brain chemicals, and pathologies of brain diseases. The most practical ways of preventing and detecting brain diseases along with the mechanisms behind those methods are summarized. Since AD and PD are two high-risk brain diseases, tips for interacting with patients who have AD and PD are also provided so that people will have an idea of how to treat their loved ones if they are affected by those diseases.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220245

    Differentially expressed markers between chemoresistant and non-chemoresistant cells in TNB

    This study focuses on chemoresistance in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Dataset GSE118389 and paper Unravelling subclonal heterogeneity and aggressive disease states in TNBC through single-cell RNA-seq from Simona Cristea from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute was used to discover genetic markers that are related to chemoresistance in TNBC. Differentially expressed genes between a chemoresistant cluster and non-chemoresistant clusters in various subpopulations of the TNBC samples were identified, compared, and analyzed. 1987 markers that are differentially expressed in the chemoresistant cluster and non- chemoresistant clusters were found.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220246

    The Relationship Between the Three Genes of Apolipoprotein E and the Hippocampus and Interference with Alzheimer's Disease

    Glycoproteins in the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) class have a role in controlling lipid metabolism. In astrocytes, microglia, vascular wall cells, and choroid plexus cells of the central nervous system, it is abundantly expressed. According to the rapid advancement of contemporary medicine, numerous investigations have demonstrated the existence of ApoE in chylomicron (CM), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and certain high-density lipoprotein (HDL). ApoE has also been demonstrated to have a substantial impact on Alzheimer's disease (AD). To enhance the investigation of innovative medications and give researchers a theoretical foundation, research on ApoE is required in this area. Because damage to the hippocampus is a significant concern for the population in Alzheimer's research, we need to study the effects of ApoE on the hippocampus. This paper will discuss the relationship between age and sex of hippocampal atrophy after the ApoE gene has caused AD. The paper through a method of literature review and the analysis of some clinical cases explores the impact of the ApoE gene on health, followed by a comparison of the disease state before and after, as well as the clinical pattern of hippocampal atrophy, including a description of clinical symptoms. The paper finds that ApoE significantly impacts AD and that the hippocampus is significantly atrophied after the onset of Alzheimer's disease.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220247

    Seaweed Potential in Environmental Improving

    Owing to the effect of frequent human activities, the climate nowadays on plaxnet earth has become more and more stressed. Pollutions such as greenhouse gases are products from factories and other human activities and have become extremely severe, for the damage they could cause to both human health and surrounding environments. For decades, scientists have been seeking ways to mitigate the situation (while minimizing the cost), and seaweeds, a cheap and widespread species can be a key solution to several problems. In this paper, we demonstrate 3 uses--seaweed as forage to reduce methane production by cattle, seaweed as a heavy metal filter, and seaweed-based biofuel--and the mechanism of each. By doing research on the existing literature, we find that seaweeds have considerable potential in alleviating environmental pressure.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220248

    Diet and Exercise Treatment and Prevention for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases Patients

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a chronic metabolic disease, has been studied for decades. There is already well-recognized pathogenesis from pathology, epidemiology, physiology, gene expression, etc. While the understanding of the disease itself is increasing, therapies for this issue seem to have some obstacles: there has been no officially accepted direct pharmaceutical treatment(targeted drugs) until now. Nevertheless, lifestyle regulation has been investigated a lot to fill in this gap. Many researches have already given recommendations in fields of diets or physical activities. However, there is a lack of a comprehensive review to combine both perspectives and give an overview of the disease. This article will review the researches on the lifestyle recommendations for NAFLD patients from both diet and exercise aspects. All the references throughout this research, including journals and literature reviews, are conducted from online databases. The content will mainly discuss the effectiveness of different types of diet and how exercise taking place with respect to reducing the NAFLD risk factors. In brief, most current experimental/observational results suggest that a Mediterranean diet combining with moderate intense exercise could be remarkably beneficial in the management of NAFLD.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220250

    Overview of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become more and more common in older people, and the data show that the number of people with AD might increase rapidly in the next few decades if there are no interventions and prevention. However, some people are still confused between AD and dementia. Lots of people believe that dementia is a sign of getting old, so it is common and normal. Thus, some people with AD may miss the most important time to find treatment, which could cause them to be in a more serious condition. Knowledge about AD is still not propagated. This paper wants to show the importance of familiarity with the symptoms and treatment of AD. Forgetfulness is one of the typical symptoms, but there are other symptoms that people are not aware of, such as personality change, depression, and language ability. Therefore, people need to either prevent this disease or get intervention earlier. Although there is no medication or surgery to cure AD, nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments are helpful to reduce some symptoms and slow the progress of AD. A healthy lifestyle also plays a significant role in preventing AD, and a healthy lifestyle could decrease the risk of AD and have positive outcomes for people with AD.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220255

    Research Progress of Postpartum Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Postpartum stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is one of the gynecological disorders that plague postpartum women, which severely affects women’s daily work and life and may even cause anxiety and depression among women while decreasing their quality of life. In recent years, conservative treatment methods have been explored and applied extensively in postpartum SUI rehabilitation. Experimental data suggest that providing specific treatments for specific groups can greatly improve the efficiency of treatment and that classifying different types of treatments can also effectively promote the advancement of related diagnostic methods. This article systematically reviews the literature on the pathological mechanisms, and conservative treatment of postpartum urinary incontinence (UI), and discusses the optimal treatment methods for different etiologies, providing some insights for the rehabilitation and management of patients with postpartum SUI.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220256

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Insulin Administration Methods for the Treatment of Diabetes

    The prevalence of diabetes has been on the rise in recent years, with a significant increase in China. 1980 epidemiological data on 300,000 people in 14 provinces and cities across the country showed that the prevalence of diabetes was 0.67%. By 2013, the prevalence had skyrocketed to 10.4%. Subcutaneous injection is the main route of insulin administration, however, patient compliance is poor and there are many adverse effects. This paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages from both non-injectable and injectable delivery perspectives through a literature review. This paper finds that insulin pumps and insulin needle-free syringes are both good treatments for diabetes, but they are expensive and not easily accessible on a large scale, while oral administration is also a good treatment, but with low bioavailability. This paper provides researchers with new developments and perspectives on the future of insulin delivery and provides patients with a painless and efficient way to administer insulin.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220260

    Advances in Pathogenesis and Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease Based on Abnormal Accumulation of Alpha-Synuclein

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease in which dopamine neu-rons in the substantia nigra of the brain gradually die over time. PD mainly manifests as rest-ing tremor, bradykinesia, stiffness, and ultimately the inability to control motor function and cause severe disability. It has now been shown that neuronal Lewy bodies (LBs) and the intra-synaptic aggregation of α⁃Synuclein (α⁃Syn) are hallmarks of brain lesions in PD, and Lewy body lesions have been found to be present in the peripheral nervous system in PD. Interfer-ing with LBs formation has become a new hot topic in Parkinson's disease treatment. The formation of LBs has been linked to the transport of α⁃Syn in brain cells and the blood-brain barrier. Nonetheless, treatment options still produce little effect. According to past investiga-tions, this paper addresses the question of advances in pathogenesis and treatment of Parkin-son’s disease using literature review as an investigation method. It introduces the pathogene-sis and the latest treatment strategies of PD based on the aspect of abnormal accumulation of α⁃Syn, which can provide a theoretical basis for subsequent treatment of PD.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220261

    Application of Synthetic Biology in SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Development

    The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has been spreading at an extraordinary rate since it first appeared in late 2019, causing a large number of infections and deaths. The COVID-19 pan-demic can be successfully controlled most effectively with vaccines, and efforts are being made globally to create new vaccines. Synthetic biology is a design-oriented field that focus-es on creating novel biological functions by discovering, analyzing, and repurposing biologi-cal components. Many SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been developed using synthetic biology, and the recent approval of a few more vaccines is evidence of the field's continuous growth. This review discusses the use of synthetic biology technology in the creation of several COVID-19 vaccines, concentrating on how to produce vaccines that are safer and more effec-tive through genome optimization and delivery mechanism optimization. Finally, this article highlights some existing problems of synthetic biology technology and provides an outlook on the future development of application this technology in COVID-19 vaccines.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220263

    Targeting Gut Microbiota in Cancer Therapy

    Our knowledge of the complex interactions between the gut microbiome and the numerous mechanisms by which they affect health and illness has greatly increased. Recent evidence suggests the composition of the gut microbiota can alter the effectiveness of both cancer radiation and immunotherapies. However, existing microbiota-based modification techniques including fecal microbiota transplantation, antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics are insufficient due to the wide variety and fluidity of the microbiota. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing and CRISPR techniques, future research will be able to accurately identify favorable and non-favorable microbial targets that can improve immunotherapy efficacy and expand the use of microbiota precision medicine.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220264

    Challenge and Solution for Cancer Vaccine Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Although the development of targeted drugs has gained great success in cancer treatment, all metastatic cancers have developed resistance. All these therapies are no longer effective for about 33% of people with HER2-positive breast cancer. In vaccine treatment, antigens are delivered, interacting with cancer cells, and inducing a prolonged immune response. Effective vaccines can especially prevent cancer recurrence and defend against various tumor antigens since they have a longer immunological memory. Although there have been great advancements in cancer vaccine development over the past 10 years, there are still some major challenges to overcome. Combining adjuvants has considerably aided cancer vaccines in overcoming challenges such as tumor immunosuppression and antigenic immunogenicity. The benefits, drawbacks, and most recent developments of four breast cancer vaccinations are examined in this research. The result of the development of adjuvant techniques to circumvent low antigen immunogenicity and tumor immune evasion, which also can help the researchers to understand the molecular mechanisms behind these issues.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220268

    Comparison of COVID-19 Live Attenuated and mRNA Vaccines in Manufacturing and Clinical Treatment

    In modern times, the global effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are immeasurable. It causes a great threat to the economic development, health and safety of human society. The most basic and safest approach is to study and improve the efficiency of the COVID-19 vaccine. The diverse characteristics of different COVID-19 vaccine types mean various effect routes and clinical application ranges. This paper provides a comparative analysis of different vaccines by comparing two types of COVID-19, combining their production procedures, vaccine routes and mechanisms, clinical applications, and possible side effects. Through our discussion and analysis, we find that the production patterns, effective mechanisms, and possible side effects differ between different vaccines, and the COVID-19 vaccine has been improved today. Comparison and synthesis to analyze the next stage of COVID-19 vaccine research and development. Recognizing the diversity of COVID-19 prevention and control, the development of the COVID-19 vaccine will have a great impact on human health benefits.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220271

    Review on the Method of Generating Vascular Cells from iPSCs and Its Application

    Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) embryonic-like stem cells are reprogrammed from skin or adult somatic cells. iPSC-derived cardiovascular cells have been widely used in many cardiovascular disease models and drug discovery. This paper reviews and summarizes the method of generating three different types of iPSC-derived cardiovascular cells, including iPSC-derived Endothelial Cells (ECs), Cardiomyocytes (CMs), and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (vSMCs), and the application of these iPSC-derived cardiovascular cells. The diseases discussed in this paper are pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and critical limb ischemia (CLI). Additionally, construction of tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) for vascular grafting has also been discussed. To conclude, iPSCs, as a promising technique, is used in disease modeling, drug screening, tissue engineering, and the discovery of specific cardiovascular therapies for various patients.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220272

    The Effect of Mutated TPH2 on Depression

    Depression is a worldwide disease which has a great impact on people’s mental health and social functioning. Finding the factor causing depression is the precondition of treatment. This area has been investigated by enormous researchers. This paper reviews the researches about depression, including the effect of depression on brain, the relationship between tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and depression and treatment. These references indicate that depression can affect the structure of brain, including synaptic plasticity and hippocampal volumetric changes and so on. Mutated TPH2 is a major reason of depression. This mutation will inhibit the expression of TPH2 and affect the produce of serotonin. Moreover, researchers are able to use mice to do experiments on TPH2, because TPH2 is conserved between human and mice. Medication can be used to treat depression and it’s the main way to treat it. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) can also be used to treat it, but now it has some technical problems in treating human and also have some ethical problem because it will change patients’ gene.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220273

    Editing Mutations of GABRB3 Using CRISPR-Cas9 as a Potential Treatment for Epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    The treatment of a variety of recurrent or resistant hematologic malignancies with chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR- T) cell therapy has seen significant success in recent years. The current CAR- T cell therapy approach is not without flaws, nevertheless, and there are still several issues with clinical treatment, including antigen escape, significant toxicity, and sus-ceptibility to drug-resistant recurrence. This paper introduces the structural development and characteristics of CAR-T cells, reviews the limitations of CAR- T cell therapy, including an-tigen escape, toxicity, CAR-T cell depletion and drug-resistant relapse after treatment, and summarizes the related improvement and optimization strategies. The paper concludes that CAR-T cell immunotherapy has brought new hope to patients with hematologic malignancies, making a cure for refractory and recurrent hematologic malignancies possible. Although CAR-T cell therapy still has many challenges at present, such as immunogenicity, drug re-sistance, and toxicity.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220274

    The Pathogenesis of Epilepsy

    Epilepsy, a group of chronic brain diseases characterized by different level of dysfunction of movement, sense, consciousness and autonomic nerve. The most common factors include: genetic factors, injury of brain cell and so on. At the molecular level, the imbalance between inhibition and excitation is considered as a concrete mechanism. When the ion channels on membrane change, the flow of ions will be interfered so that the excitability of cells will change, probably leading to epilepsy. Also, when the production of neurotransmitters goes wrong, normally the amount of inhibitory transmitter like GABA declines, and neurons will be over-excited. In addition, other reasons like parasite infection can also lead to epilepsy. This review aims to summarize the literatures investigating the relationship between different ion channels and epilepsy and the influence of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters on epilepsy. This article does not only illustrate possible reasons causing epilepsy but, for each related channel or receptor protein, the basic information, subunit of protein and physiological function will be also covered in the review. The purpose of this article is to sort out the current researches on the pathogenesis of epilepsy so that people can have a comprehensive grasp of this field.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220276

    Different Types of Vaccine and Their Properties-taking Inactivated and mRNA Vaccines as Examples

    In the background of COVID-19, vaccines have become the central point. Various countries and companies investigated vaccines against the virus in various forms, including inactivated, mRNA vaccines, and so on. However, they always talked independently and never compared with each other. The paper discussed their unique dominance and compared their contributions in the battle with COVID-19. In addition, some accessories for vaccines like carriers and adjuvants were also considered, although they may be special for one type of vaccine. The paper concludes that mRNA as a novel vaccine played a more determined role against COVID-19 than inactivated or other vaccines, but all approved drugs could trigger an immune response. Apart from viruses, mRNA is also a potential warrior against cancer. The investigation of inactivated vaccines is still at its recent pace.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220282

    Innovation, Application, and Trend Analysis of Digital Health in The Era of Big Data

    Recent years have witnessed a dramatically technological boom in various realms. Big data is one of the cutting-edge advancements which are driving enterprises to make reformation and innovation. Especially, as a powerful tool to support and analyze the ceaseless new data surging from the Internet, big data is the key to help the traditional medical system make a huge breakthrough. This article is to give a brief overview of digital technology and medical evolution by analyzing the current system and application cases, including clinical support, personalized health and digitalization of medical information. Based on substantial data, the paper also shows the algorithm and the helpful predictive modeling technique for some special medical utilization. Furthermore, this paper summarizes the limitation of existing digital healthcare and claims its enormous promise. It reveals that this new model of healthcare is a new trend with the advent of digital times and then concludes that it will become an indispensable topic in the coming future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220286

    Current Application of Different Kinds of COVID-19 Vaccines

    Nowadays, the mortality and morbidity of malignant neoplasms in people is rising, which pose serious risk to human beings. Therefore, finding suitable methods to treat these diseases effectively is arousing more and more attention. Among them, phototherapy, such as PDT and PTT is a good strategy due to the advantage of antibiotic-free. This review focused on the near-infrared light-induced materials involving in conjugated polymer, organic small mole-cule, quantum dots, metal organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks and inorganic semiconductor, and discussed their applications in NIR-guided PDT/PTT synergistic therapy. The review further provides a critical analysis of the future development of PDT and PTT. It is believed that NIR-guided PDT/PTT synergistic therapy will promote the therapeutic devel-opment of cancer.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220287

    Nanotechnology for COVID-19: Vaccine Research, Detection and Therapeutic

    COVID-19 has triggered a worldwide need for effective detection, treatment as well as infection control, with academic and industrial efforts around the world to control or contain COVID-19-related epidemic conditions. As in other fields, nanotechnology offers Therefore, faster, easier and more effective diagnostic methods based on nanomaterials and nanotechnology-based the variety of approaches and technologies with great potential and promise to address the COVID-19 crisis. One of the key elements to combat SARS-COV-2 is to diagnose quickly if the virus is mutated and to initiate therapy in time. Therapeutic methods as well as nanotechnology-based vaccines occupy an important position in combating COVID-19. In addition, the application of nanomaterials provides new ideas for the production of antiviral protective masks, gloves, and laboratory garments. We discuss ongoing nanotechnology-based treatment and prevention strategies to address health crises caused by pandemics, highlighting a key part of nanoscience involvement.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220289

    Analysis on Human Monkeypox 2022

    Monkeypox, a zoonotic orthopoxvirus with a clinical presentation similar to smallpox, was first reported in the DRC in 1970 and is still being reported. The vast majority of human infections are reported in West and Central Africa. The first outbreak outside of Africa occurred in the United States in 2003. A British national resident with a history of travel to Nigeria recently developed a visible skin lesion and other symptoms of monkeypox infection. Soon after, several countries that have never been exposed to monkeypox report abnormally high rates of infection, causing widespread panic. Using a literature review method, the paper provides a retrospective study of human monkeypox, including the early outbreak and current circumstances, analyzing the characteristics of MPV and providing some effective treatments. To combat the monkeypox outbreak, it is critical to have a thorough understanding of the virus.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220290

    Application of ECoG and Electrode in BCI

    The brain-computer interface (BCI) is a new technology that connects a computer or other electronic devices to the brains of humans, animals, or even brain cell cultures. It creates a link between the brain and technology so that messages can be sent immediately. It does not rely on the muscles and peripheral nerves that generally aid in the transmission of brain information. It is widely used in rehabilitation medicine, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, and other fields. Nowadays, with the development of neuroimaging technology, brain imaging technologies recording activities on different scales have been emerging. Electrocorticography (ECoG), which is involved in semi-invasive BCI and depth electrode, which is involved in invasive BCI, has greatly promoted the development of BCI. This paper, through a method of literature review, provides general perspectives on the application of ECoG and depth electrode in BCI; describes the advantages and disadvantages of ECoG and depth electrode; and finally discusses chances for further research. Representative research findings regarding ECoG and depth electrodes in recent years were reviewed. In summary, though ECoG and depth electrode still have some limitations, their importance in the future is undisputed.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220291

    Discovery of new microbial natural products by genome mining

    Microbial natural products are an important source of new drug creation. As more and more microbial whole genomes are sequenced, bioinformatics analysis shows that the natural prod-uct resources contained therein are greatly underestimated. Genome mining is a new strategy for natural product discovery guided by gene cluster sequences. At the same time, it can di-rectly associate the structure of natural products with synthesis pathways, which is conven-ient for biosynthesis and combinatorial biosynthesis research. This paper reviews the repre-sentative examples of successful discovery of novel natural products using genome mining strategy in recent years, which fully shows the great advantage of this strategy in exploring the potential of microbial natural metabolites. It is believed that with the continuous devel-opment and improvement of genome mining methods and technologies, it will be possible to realize the in-depth development of microbial natural product resources.This paper describes the application of combinatorial biosynthesis in new drugs, points out the existing problems and puts forward some feasible suggestions.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220292

    The Advance of Maternal Health and Fetal Outcomes

    Maternal health and fetal outcomes have become one of the global public health issues. Among all factors, maternal nutrition and psychological stress play the significant role in the physical and mental health of newborns. Improper nutrition or excessive psychological stress may lead to a series of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as congenital malformations, neuropsychological defects and mental disorders, such as autism (AD), schizophrenia and attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinically, it can be intervened in a variety of ways. In terms of nutrition, such as folic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, choline and leucine, it can be supplemented with multiple nutrients. In terms of psychology, it can be family-based intervention and mindfulness-based plan to alleviate maternal stress and maternal depression. Most of the clinical studies tend to supplement nutrition or psychological intervention. The research on combination therapy needs to further explore its clinical effectiveness and whether it can achieve the effect of one plus one more than two.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220293

    Current Situation and the Challenge of Eliminating Hepatitis B in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) belongs to chronic inflammatory disease. It is primarily transmitted through blood, mother to child, and sexual contact. In clinical practice, it is necessary to improve the examination as soon as possible. Only by early treatment can people delay and control the development of the disease and stabilize the disease. Otherwise, it will cause cirrhosis and lead to complications, such as ascites, bleeding, liver cancer, and so on. Antiviral therapy is the first choice for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. There are many drugs related to antiviral treatment in clinics, and different drugs have different effects. Vaccination can reduce the occurrence of diseases to a certain extent. However, despite hepatitis B having very effective vaccinations and excellent vaccinations available, there are still lots of patients that with the chronic hepatitis B in the sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the low HBV birth rate and limited resources in the sub-Saharan Africa, an effective and trustworthy strategy need to be built to achieve the goal of HBV elimination in sub-Saharan Africa. This article analyzes the current situation of prevention of the hepatitis B in the sub-Saharan region, and puts forward some intervention and prevention measures in order to provide some theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220294

    The long-term impact from colonialism to the public health behaviour and healthcare utilization in Cameroon

    The management of public health has always been a very important content in every country, such as curbing the development of HIV or AIDS related diseases is an important link in promoting the healthy development of global health. However, there are still many deficiencies, especially under the influence of colonial culture. This study exploits the long-term effect of partition by two different colony authorities with using regression discontinuity design when the British and the French administrations divided the German Cameroon into their colony in 1919. Results indicated that the individuals’ knowledge level for preventing HIV/AIDS from the side of French is lower than the British side from 0.3% to 6%, the knowledge of avoiding injections is 4% higher from the side of French compared to the other side, and the refuse rate to take a blood test for HIV/AIDS from the French Cameroon is higher than the British side about 2.2%. This research argues that the effect from the force injection and ineffective treatment during the medical campaign in Cameroon has persisted through its impacts on mistrust of western medical services. Hence, clusters on the French side which exposed by the largest medical campaign had lower knowledge about preventing HIV/AIDS, more awareness against injections, and less trust in the medical services.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220295

    Current Situation and Prevention and Control Challenges of the Monkeypox

    Since the first case of monkeypox was reported in the UK in early May 2022, by mid-July, more than 60 countries around the world had reported more than 10,000 confirmed cases of monkeypox, with deaths occurring in countries in non-endemic areas. Monkeypox is caused by monkeypox virus, the same orthopoxvirus as smallpox virus. It is necessary to review the history of the human fight against smallpox virus and to develop measures against monkeypox virus. The eradication of smallpox might make the public feel like the orthodox virus should not be a danger to humans anymore. However, the continually increasing number of confirmed monkeypox cases is telling us that people should always be aware of those potential threats. The clinical manifestations of monkeypox cases are mild, but there is still a lack of specific treatment options. Therefore, the essential information and basic diagnosis methods are gathered in this article for people to know about monkeypox and prepare well to combat and control the spreading of monkeypox.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220298

    Channelopathies in Epilepsy: from Precision Medicine to Gene Therapy

    Epilepsy is a common and debilitating neurological disease with a significant genetic component. Inherited or de novo mutations in ion channels resulting in periodic network hyperexcitability is a major cause of epileptogenesis. Understanding of the genetic etiology of epilepsy opens up the avenue of personalized treatment. A range of precision medications are designed to target the defective ion channels, with varied effects. In addition, the underlying mechanisms of channelopathies can also be addressed by gene therapy. Expression of mutated ion channel genes can be regulated via gene replacement or gene silencing approaches, including viral vector-mediated gene replacement and antisense oligonucleotides. Aside from directly compensating of ion channel dysfunction, another strategy of gene therapy involves the overexpression of certain ion channels to modulate neuronal excitability, which particularly targets focal epilepsies. In line with the paroxysmal nature of epileptic seizures, optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches, which permits conditional activation of gene products can be particularly beneficial. The ideal gene therapy to treat genetic epilepsies and channelopathies would be in vivo gene editing, making precise gene modifications to correct mutations harbored by each individual. Advances in CRISPR- Cas technology has brought the idea closer to reality, yet technical and ethical concerns surround its therapeutic application.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220299

    Research Progress on the Relationship Between the Regulation of SLC6A4 Gene and Anxiety Disorders

    Anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental disorders. Numerous studies have demonstrated the critical role played by genetic variables in the etiology of anxiety disorders. SLC6A4, which encodes serotonin transporter, is considered to be an important gene associated with anxiety susceptibility. The SLC6A4 gene's upstream promoter has a polymorphism region that has an impact on the transcriptional activity of the gene. Research has shown that this promoter polymorphism has a certain relationship with the occurrence of anxiety disorders and drug treatment. Anxiety disorders are also linked to SLC6A4 gene methylation and intron 2 (Stin2) polymorphism. Stin2 point and SLC6A4 gene methylation are all related to gene expression. This review summarizes the current research on the relationship between SLC6A4 gene promoter polymorphism, Stin2 polymorphism, and SLC6A4 gene methylation in the pathogenesis and drug treatment of anxiety disorder, to understand the current research progress of SLC6A4 gene expression in anxiety disorder.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220307

    Research on Environmental Factors and Lifestyles Related to the Prevalence of Infectious Diseases

    In recent years, several infectious diseases like COVID-19 and Monkeypox have been spreading worldwide, causing varying levels of panic. This paper explores the development of these diseases against the environmental factors for the population that they are living in, and if a person’s living lifestyle is associated with the prevalence and cumulative incidence of these infectious diseases, for example, the relationship with other epidemiological diseases (diabetes and cardiovascular disease, whereas the risk for a person having diabetes is higher than the population without the certain diseases). This paper provides a broad overview of information related to environmental factors and living lifestyles associated with infectious disease prevalence and cumulative incidence by reviewing and collating some data on industrialization and ecosystem, and people’s living lifestyles related to exercise and nutrition. Based on data from past periods of high virus prevalence, polluted environments and bad habits may lead to a higher risk of being infected diseases.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220314

    Alpelisib: a novel PI3K inhibitor for the treatment of breast cancer

    Breast cancer is a common malignancy that causes people to die easily, especially for women. HR-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancers occur in more than 70% of patients, who have a driver mutant kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) in the phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-diphosphate 3-kinase gene, resulting in impaired phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and in 40% of cases, loss of cell growth. However, drug resistance remains a problem in the early stages of endocrine therapy in these patients. And a promising new approach to overcome resistance to autologous treatment in breast cancer is the inhibition of PI3K. Alpelisib is a selection PI3K inhibitor for HR-positive, HER2-negative, PIK3CA patients - with mutant breast cancer that has advanced on autologous treatment. FDA approved alpelisib in 2019 which was produced by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. It is recommended to take this drug with fulvestrant which is also an estrogen receptor antago-nist that slows the growth of breast cancer. Although alpelisib is an effective drug for the treatment of breast cancer, some adverse reactions may happen, such as stomatitis, nausea, diarrhe, dermatitis, and so on. Sometimes it also causes skin reactions, such as SIS, TEN, EM. Thus, when these serious adverse reactions happen, dosage should be reduced. As a result, some recommendations are provided for patients, and they must follow the instructions in or-der to live a more pleasant life. In this article, the working mechanism, structure, characteris-tics, clinical studies of alpelisib were reviewed and its comparison with other drugs was also provided for reference.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220315

    Fexinidazole, A Promising Oral Treatment against Human African Trypanosomiasis, Clinical Research, and Potential

    HAT, a parasitic disease that has significant impact on human nervous system, has caused several epidemic in sub-Sahara area. Between 1960-1990, approximately 5 HAT epidemic broke out in these areas. HAT can be aggressively communicable and vital without any treatment with a death rate of 95%. In addition, only little symptoms showed after infection so many patients who are not conscious about it may cause even more severe epidemic. In recent years, roughly 300 patients still die for it yearly. To cope with the disease, several medical companies make efforts to seek for treatments effectively against HAT. These research on treatment can prevent the wide spread of HAT and help patients to come back to their normal lives. The life expectancy and quality will also improve with treatment for HAT. Therefore, in this review, we collect information and data about HAT and relevant treatment. Among treatments, we focus on a recent drug named Fexinidazole, which can be effective to treat all phases of HAT. Furthermore, it also has potential to guide a new approach in finding new drugs by research on its mechanism.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220330

    Development of Vyvgart (Efgartigimod Alfa-Fcab) for Generalized Myasthenia Gravis (gMG) Therapy

    Generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) is a type of myasthenia gravis (MG), a relatively rare neurological disease which would lead to muscle weakness and be life threatening. The pathogenesis of MG is associated with antibodies against acetylcholine receptors, which blocks the neuromuscular transmission. Vyvgart™ (efgartigimod alfa-fcab) is a recently approved drug for gMG therapy that targets the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). By inhibiting the interaction between FcRn and Immunoglobulin G (IgG), efgartigimod promotes the degradation of IgG and autoantibodies, therefore alleviates the symptoms of gMG. Antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) or low- density lipoprotein receptor related protein 4 in the postsynaptic muscle membrane would lead to the blocking of the receptors, and block the movement of muscle. Vyvgart™ (efgartigimod alfa-fcab) is a promising drug, this article contains a brief introduction to the pathogenesis of MG, information about the identification of FcRn as an effective target, and the development as well as advantages of Vyvgart™.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220332

    Current Status and Challenges of Malaria in Zambia

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infection caused by the Plasmodium parasite, which infects a person carrying the parasite through mosquito bites or blood transfusions. It is the world's leading parasitic disease. There are four species of Plasmodium in the human body, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale. More than 100 countries and regions are reported to be affected by malaria to varying degrees. Malaria has a high incidence in Zambia, which seriously endangers people's life and health, and increases the social and economic burden of the affected communities to a certain extent. In addition, the number of malaria deaths remains high, the number of malaria cases has even risen, and the eradication of malaria has stagnated. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis is of great significance to effectively prevent malaria, control its spread, and give patients early treatment. This article describes the current progress and challenges of malaria elimination in Zambia, and Outlines current malaria elimination strategies and key interventions.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220334

    Interaction Between Neuroimmune Activation Mechanisms in Epilepsy: the S100b Signaling Network and Brain-gut-bio-axis

    Epilepsy is a syndrome characterized by abnormal firing in the brain, with numerous risk factors. Autoimmune central nervous system diseases are currently being widely explored; however, the neuroimmune processes involved in epilepsy have not been fully elucidated. This disorder is associated with the rise in the blood protein S100b concentration; hence, S100b levels are considered damage markers. From a recent review, we discovered the interaction of epilepsy with neural immunity and intestinal immunity. Neural immunity in epilepsy is associated with S100b generation and consumption. Therefore, we expect that S100b can be used as immune activation material to amplify immune responses in epilepsy simultaneously with intestinal immune suppression. The symbiotic relationship with intestinal biological immune upregulates the intestinal immune function, alleviating adverse outcomes of neural immunity in local brain regions.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220339

    The Progress of AIDS Treatment Methods And Interventions

    The immune system, the body's built-in system of disease prevention, is targeted by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). If left untreated, HIV can severely weaken the immune system, making it unable to resist infection. This article introduces the existing treatment methods, such as taking drugs to prevent HIV, taking blocking drugs to prevent virus invasion, antiviral treatment, and the methods being studied and expected to cure AIDS: "activation and eradication" and gene editing. This article focuses on the treatment mechanism of HIV patients in recent years and various HIV drugs and their mechanisms of action. This paper briefly introduces the mechanism of action of HIV virus pairs, and classifies and summarizes the existing mechanisms of HIV drug treatment at the molecular level with time as the axis.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220348

    Application of nanomaterials for drug delivery

    One of the most important trends in recent years has been the use of nanomaterials for drug delivery. Drug treatment and application have been considerably aided by drug delivery techniques. The relentless search of cutting-edge delivery systems and methods is essential to the quick development of the medication therapy profession. The development of nanomedicines, or drug-delivery particles of 1-100 nm in size manufactured from medications and excipients, is the result of the fusion of nanotechnology and pharmacy. The primary drug delivery techniques currently in use, the nanomaterials that can be used, and the actual applications of nano-delivery are briefly discussed in this research. The topic of this research is increasing the likelihood and precision of multi-armed bandit attacks. The purpose of this research is to improve understanding of the nanodrug delivery framework. The prevailing trends in the area of drug delivery is further analyzed, where several researches have demonstrated that nanomaterials are one of the good options for drug delivery. The reported research shows several applications of drug delivery in different research areas to demonstrate that nano-delivery holds good promise for use and development. In addition, this research helps one to understand, review and enhance the basic application and development framework of nanodrug delivery

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220350

    Well-Designed wearable devices in healthcare

    In recent years, wearable devices have gradually become a hot topic in the society. Due to their advantages such as ease to carry, ease to operate and diverse functions, the scientific community and businesspeople are developing them. Numerous new products, such as smartwatch eyes, have entered the market, which reflects the huge demand for wearable devices in today's society. Wearable devices in medicine and health monitoring have played a vital role in such aspects, such as early detection of diseases and low-cost medical services. But distance wearable devices into everyone's life is still a long way to go. This paper studies the current wearable devices' problems, such as privacy leak risk and poor battery life, and wearable devices' potential development direction in the future. It is concluded that wearable devices have achieved good development results in medical treatment. Wearable devices come in various forms and have unlimited development potential in the future. Its importance to the intelligent era is undeniable. Wearable devices have put forward solutions to solve the problem of insufficient social resources.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220351

    Heart Disease Diagnosis Associated with Potential Causative Factors Based on the 2020 Data

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. In order to determine the relationships between heart disease and some potential causing factors, this paper conducted the data analysis based on the survey results from the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). By analyzing the correlation index and p-index, the author defined the general health condition, age, and background disease as the potential causative causing factors. At the same time, a logic regression model is applied to explore the relationship between them. It could be found as a result that with age increasing, people will face a higher risk of suffering from heart disease. Also, unhealthy daily life habits (i.e., smoking) would also increase the risk of heart disease. Furthermore, background diseases such as diabetics could also be a potential causative factor.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220353

    Research on the Importance and Methods of Core Strength Training for Track and Field Athletes

    Nowadays, more and more people do not pay attention to core training when exercising, and only pay attention to the training of large muscle groups and anaerobic endurance training. Core training is actually one of the most important aspects of training. Therefore, this study explores the importance and methods of core strength training for track and field athletes. From reading the literature, this study found that core strength plays an important role in athletic performance. Using different core strength training methods can give us different core training effects.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220355

    Research on Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention of Lumbar Muscle Strain

    The rapid development of the medical industry has eased the health worries of many people. For example, uterine cancer and breast cancer are no longer as incurable as they used to be. Benign tumors basically do no harm to people's health. However, diseases such as lumbar muscle strain have not received much attention in today's medical field. Lumbar muscle strain is an injury caused by excessive fatigue. When the lumbar muscles are overused or overloaded, there will be ischemia, spasm, tension, pain, swelling and other inflammatory manifestations. That is, we feel "low back pain." This kind of illness cannot be improved very well by going to the hospital for surgery. Through this paper, we will introduce what lumbar muscle strain is, what its clinical manifestations are, and what solutions are available for different groups of people. The experimental conclusion of this paper is that there is still a lot of room for development in the field of treating lumbar muscle strain. At present, physiotherapy is the method to solve the least side effects of lumbar muscle fatigue, and the effect is relatively obvious. However, the way to avoid the disease is to pay attention to your posture, control your weight, and eat a healthy diet.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220363

    Application of Different Spectral Methods for Target Analysis

    Spectral analysis methods are widely used for the analysis of different targets such as viruses, bacteria, heavy metals and their harmful substances due to their simplicity and efficiency. Among these spectral analysis methods, the study of luminescence and light absorption of different substances has important theoretical and practical significance. Atoms are different and emit different bright-line spectra, and the atoms of each element have a certain bright-line spectrum. Therefore, a diverse of different spectroscopic techniques can be used to achieve various target detection. In this research, four common spectral analysis methods are introduced, including Raman spectroscopic analysis, electroluminescence analysis, fluorescence analysis and colorimetric analysis. And this research analyzes the detection effect of these four spectral analysis methods on different targets, such as virus and pathogens. With the features of scientific type spectroscopic instruments or systems with high sensitivity, high resolution, high reliability and multidimensional information in spectroscopic techniques, the developed spectroscopic techniques to detect viruses effectively. And the demand for its application will be more urgent and will surely become a direction of great interest for quite a long time to come.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220368

    Nonenzymatic Glucose Biosensors: Latest Advances and Perspectives

    Over the sixty years since glucose biosensor was introduced, development of glucose biosensor had experienced three generations. Considering the increasing demand of glucose biosensor, research and development has been carried out for more promising nonenzymatic glucose biosensor. Compared to the traditional enzyme-based glucose biosensor, nonenzymatic sensor is more capable to continuous glucose detection and has higher stability. Additionally, nonenzymatic glucose biosensor has a lower fabrication cost, which can be beneficial to the wide range of patients with the need for constant checking for blood glucose concentration. This paper introduces two proposed nonenzymatic glucose detection models: activated chemisorption and incipient hydrous oxide adatom mediator. As the developing trend of glucose biosensors is toward wearable and continuous glucose monitoring, two wearable sensors and working principles are introduced. This paper describes the application progress of different types of materials in enzyme-free blood glucose sensors, puts forward the existing problems in the application of enzyme-free blood glucose sensors, and looks forward to its future application prospects.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220370

    The Role of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of COVID-19 Patient

    COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, was the most serious pandemic which strongly impacted people’s daily life. During the three years that it has swept the world, it has caused severe and huge losses to the economies of various countries. resulting in tens of thousands of deaths. At present, the virus is still raging, threatening global human health. Patients showed symptoms similar to people with colds or fevers. As it becomes more and more serious, many scientists found that Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has effects to cure the disease, particularly in the management of fevers and colds. This implies that TCM might be useful in the management of COVID-19 disease. Scientists did experiments on TCM which concluded the fact that TCM indeed is a way to treat COVID-19. TCM can alleviate COVID-19 symptoms by increasing CD4+/CD8+ ratio and recovering damaged body tissues. COVID-19 infected patients who are getting better after they received TCM treatments. The aim of this paper is to introduce the ways of why TCM plays an important role in treating SARS-CoV-2 virus.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220371

    Key Substitutions in the Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron Variants

    The delta and omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 (PANGO B.1.617.2. and B.1.1.529) outcompeted the earlier variations shortly after they were discovered due to their quick global dissemination. While the majority of these changes are extremely unlikely to alter the spike protein's composition or function, some might increase the virus's susceptibility to infection or make it less susceptible to vaccination, in which case they are referred to as "variants of concern" (VOC). According to previous research, the severity and transmissibility of mutant spike proteins might change if certain critical changes were present. Based on the verified mutations of spike protein, this article will discuss the specific amino acid mutations’ effects on the change in its transmissibility and severity. The main mechanisms affected by the mutation are the cleavage of S1 subunit1/S2 subunit2 and conformation alteration of the receptor binding domain (RBD). In conclusion, mutations in delta drastically increased its transmissibility, and mutations in omicron increased its transmissibility by becoming more stable in the environment with compromised cell fusion ability, leading to lower severity. These results emphasize the intricate relationships between alterations happened in the spike protein which influence virus’ stability, neutralization, and cell entering.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220372

    A Neuromuscular Electrotherapy Device Based on Arduino System

    One form of electrophysiological therapy, low frequency impulse electrotherapy, makes use of electrical impulses of very low voltage and frequency. The low frequency impulsed current affects the skin's outer layer, causing an electrolytic effect and a powerful stimulation of nerves, which in turn activates the nerves, improves local blood circulation, and, most importantly, provides analgesia. The frequency, time, waveform, and duty cycle of the electrical pulse have a significant impact on the efficacy of low frequency impulse therapy. The design is built on an Arduino UNO development board, with five additional buttons and LED beads for display. Electrotherapy impulses of varying frequencies and duty ratios can be generated by pushing the correct button, and the device can be preconfigured to provide high, medium, or low levels of stimulation. Then, two amplifier circuits send the electrotherapy impulses to two electrodes that are placed on the skin's surface.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220374

    Analysis of Commonly Used Sport Supplements

    The famous Olympic phrase "faster, higher, stronger" continues to inspire millions of athletes who strive to improve their athletic performance. There has also been a debate in sports history over whether to allow athletes to use sports supplements. This article aims to analyze several different commonly used sports supplements. At the same time, this study also provides a scientific method of supplementing sports supplements for athletes according to the different functions and disadvantages of these supplements. In the end, it can be concluded that, in combination with the various needs of athletes, different supplements can help athletes recover quickly to maximize their potential during sports.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220375

    The Investigation of Whether the Choice of Medical Sponge in Sinus Surgery Has a Different Effect on the Recovery Period of Adhesions

    Medical sponges play a vital role after surgery for hemostasis. However, for sinus surgery, using medical sponges will also bring one complication: adhesion. This research investigates the relationship between the choice of medical sponge in sinus surgery and the recovery period of adhesion. The method is to give out questionnaires to the professional ENT doctors in 21 hospitals in Jiangsu, one of the most productive regions in China, asking them to asses the performance of three types of medical sponges(expansion sponge, gelatin sponge, and absorbable nasopore) on the recovery period of adhesions. The result shows that the possibility of adhesions is greatest for the expansion sponge and least for the absorbable nasopore. The severity of their adhesions is almost the same. The recovery cycle takes the longest for gelatin sponges and the shortest for expansion sponges. As a result, for the future choice of medical sponges, it is recommended to choose expansion sponges and nasopore.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220376

    Interface Technologies applied for bionic prosthetic limbs

    For a very long time, people have wished for a way to repair a broken limb and make it work again. The limbs are responsible for the vast majority of human movement, grasping, and other actions. If you lose them, your mental and physical health will suffer drastically. The quality of life for amputees continues to improve as new and better prosthetics are developed thanks to advancements in technology. Effective use of prostheses requires that they be at-tached to the user's natural body in some way. The development of prosthetic limbs, therefore, relies heavily on the findings of studies examining prosthetic limb interfaces. This paper pro-vides a summary of the research conducted on prosthetic interface technologies since 1985 through a method of literature review. The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise over-view of the current technologies employed in the field of prosthetic interfaces and to specu-late on the direction of future research and development in this area.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220378

    Pharmacological Therapy for Obesity

    Obesity is the main obstacle to human health in the world today, and it is more and more popular in the world.There are many methods to treat obesity in modern society, such as behavioral therapy, surgical treatment and pharmacological therapy.The author aims to give a review of pharmacological therapy for obesity based on existing literature research results and data. This paper mainly introduces the three drugs which are Phentermine, Sibutramine and Orlistat their mechanism.The result shows that these three drugs are applicable to moderate and severe obesity, and they can not be overused. Sibutramine, which can increase the risk of serious cardiovascular and cerebrovasular diseases, has been banned. The remaining two drugs, Phentermine and Orlistat, can be taken normally as long as they are under the guidance of doctors.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220386

    Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Sport-related Concussion

    Concussion is a serious injury with potential long-term cognitive complications. Due to the prevalence of undiagnosed concussions and their detriments to health, concussion treatment and prevention are important topics of exploration. By investigating concussion diagnosis and management, the types of treatment, and preventive methods, this study demonstrates the positive role of active rehabilitation in concussion management. It presents opportunities for future studies to focus on more specific types of exercise and possible rule regulations. Results show that concussion symptoms may vary according to severity, from minor headaches and loss of concentration to depression, dementia, and impaired cognitive function. Clinical or syndromic concussion diagnosis is the most used and reliable subjective assessment method in the contemporary health and scientific field. Immediate removal from sport and vigorous exercise is crucial after athletes experience a concussion to avoid exacerbating the symptoms or causing an additional concussion. Contrary to the belief of complete rest after a concussion, early sub-symptom aerobic exercise and a gradual return to sports participation are important and effective measures for concussion treatment. Patients experiencing prolonged symptoms may also benefit from aerobic exercises. Additionally, there is no effective equipment for preventing concussions in the current sports world. Sports rule changes and education could be efficacious in preventing concussions.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220388

    Risk Factors and Treatments of Non-specific Low Back Pain

    Non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) is one kind of low back pain (LBP) that most commonly happened and causes a great amount of disability and recurrence, putting a heavy burden on the medical system. However, research about mechanisms, risk factors, and treatment of NSLBP is still limited. This study discusses the mechanism and risk factors of LBP in detail and analyzes physical, biopsychosocial, invasive, and pharmacological treatments of NLBP. Results show that many intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence NLBP. Age, gender, and obesity degree are intrinsic factors. A sedentary lifestyle, smoking, heavy lifting, long-time driving, stress, and fear-avoidance beliefs are extrinsic factors. Effective physical treatments include pilates, core stability, and hip muscle strengthening exercises. Biopsychosocial treatments such as psychologically informed practice, are also considered an evolutionary treatment method. Surgery, radiofrequency denervation, and acupuncture are also should be considered if other invasive therapies are ineffective. Muscle relaxants and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are strongly recommended for acute or sub-acute LBP.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220395

    The Clinical Application of Bispecific Antibodies in Cancer Treatment

    Bispecific antibody (bsAb) is a type of human-modified antibody which two or more sites are capable of binding two or more individual antigens. This dual specificity enables bsAbs to have superior application than the monoclonal antibodies as they can eliminate tumour cells via recruiting T cells and also the accessory immune cells in some cases, as well as can simultaneously block two different signalling pathways or different disease mediator. More than 30 technologies have been applied for the development of bsAbs based on heavy chains and light chains heterologous recombination. However, only three bsAbs have been approved and available on the market, whereas over 110 BsAbs are at different clinical or research stages. In this paper, different types of bsAbs will be elaborated as well as the clinical significance of the approved bsAbs.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220401

    Application of Hydrogel in Artificial Organs

    Hydrogels with excellent biological properties are highly suited for usage as bionic materials for artificial organs, which is crucial to the development of artificial organs. As a novel bionic material, hydrogel offers a wide range of medical applications. Recent advances in hydrogel research have led to a further refinement of the technology by fitting various hydrogels to various artificial organs in order to reach an optimal fit. Due to the vast array of medical uses, many evaluations choose to examine the development of hydrogels in the context of the biomedical field as a whole. However, the research in the refined medical area is equally worthy of consideration and summation. This paper provides a brief introduction to the necessary properties and preparation methods of hydrogel medical materials, highlights the application of hydrogel medical bionic materials in various artificial organs, and presents some challenges of the current hydrogel, offering new ideas and methods for the development of artificial organs in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220403

    The Factors Associated with Parkinson’s Disease and the Current Treatment on PD

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is neurodegenerative disease that occur in 1% of people in their sixth and subsequent decades. The classical of PD symptoms include of tremors, bradykinesia, muscle stiffness, and loss of balance, and are associated by the reduced function of degenerative neurons and intracellular accumulation of abnormal proteins. The exact causation of PD is unknown, with environmental and genetic factors showing relation to PD. Genetic mutations and environmental toxicants, such as pesticides, are related with an elevated incidence of PD, according to epidemiologic research. Several investigations carried in animal models confirmed this association. Currently no treatment can retard or halt the disease progression, including the most commonly used therapy which is the replenishment of striatal dopamine through oral administration. This do alleviate most of the symptoms, but it also introduces several side effects including dyskinesias. At present, gene therapy is not used in the treatment of PD; rather, it is only employed in disease trials. The non-disease modifying treatments have been showing encouraging results while the disease modifying treatments hold a greater potential.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220408

    Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder and Its Distinction with Other Disorder

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental disorder and had high prevalence among the world. The overall lifetime prevalence of BP-I, BP-II and subBP are 0.6%, 0.4% and 1.4%, respectively. This article will discuss symptoms, genetic traits, hereditary patterns and treating procedure of BD. Also, differences between BD and other mental disorders and differences between sub types of bipolar disorder will be discussed in this article. For bipolar disorder patients, they will experience manic episode and depressive episode alternatively, with interphase between the two episodes. Differences in etiological agents between BD and other mental disorder lied in difference in expression of allele and environmental factors, such as childhood trauma or stressful environment. Improvement in understanding of the etiological factors and symptoms of the disease could help researchers and psychiatrists to diagnose and treat the patients.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220413

    Impact, Responses and Future Prediction of Climate Change on the Phenology of Jellyfish

    Climate variation can be devastating to marine life. This essay mainly focuses on how jellyfish cope with changes in ocean temperature and whether they benefit or are also affected by the population's decline. In terms of whether jellyfish benefit from climate change, this paper focuses on two case studies: the mass propagation of jellyfish in the coastal areas of China and the abundance change of jellyfish in the Bering Sea area. The results conclude that jellyfish are increasing because of climate change. However, for the case study on the decrease of the race caused by the influence of jellyfish, this paper only found that it occurred in Humboldt Current, West Greenland Shelf, and Oyashio Current. Through comparative study, this paper demonstrates that jellyfish mainly benefited from climate variation because overfishing significantly reduced their predators. Critical species of the Marine food chain were transformed into flagellates. Flagellates reduce the oxygen content in the ocean. In addition, the paper found that the mortality of individual jellyfish in the study was increased by ocean acidification due to climate change. The increase in mortality rate is because the jellyfish's reproductive and body functions are greatly affected, leading to higher mortality. This discovery proves that there are still a few jellyfish that could be negatively affected by climate change. As a result, jellyfish, with their simple but adaptable bodies, gradually replaced fish as the dominant creatures in the water. Since studies of jellyfish and their corresponding measures are still scarce, researchers will need more attention to these small and unremarkable creatures in the future. Even in the face of human overfishing, their numbers are still more significant than the correct number. To restore the marine ecosystem balance, scientists must do something to reduce the number of jellyfish in the ocean.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220414

    The Impact of Jellyfish Population on Human Economy and Countermeasures

    Global warming has brought huge changes to marine life. This essay analyses the direct and indirect factors that lead to changes in the number of jellyfish, and the impact of the increase in the number of jellyfish on humans. The direct cause of the impact on the jellyfish population is due to global warming, and human overfishing is an indirect factor leading to the increase in the jellyfish population. However, as a result of the development of coastal cities by humans, the living environment of some giant jellyfish has been destroyed which resulting in a decline in the number of giant jellyfish. The growth in the number of jellyfish has caused a huge expense on the human economy in beach recreation, fishing and aquaculture. Therefore, the government needs to take some targeted measures to prevent the increase in the number of jellyfish and planning to prevent ecosystem changes due to continued global warming. Global warming and human overfishing lead to imbalances in marine ecosystems. This essay hopes to find more solutions that to prevent jellyfish populations from continuing to increase which can protect marine ecosystems and sustain the human economy.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220417

    Climate Change and Its Impact on Butterflies

    Climate change had been influencing the world since the industrial revolution when fossil fuels including coal and petroleum were greatly used for industrial and production purposes. Increasing output of greenhouse gases had blocked more heat in the atmosphere, increasing the global temperature. Butterflies, from the class Insecta, had been living for thousands of years. These insects sit in a unique niche, considering their special place as both pollinators and primary consumers. Studying the butterflies will be a good approach to figure out the impact of climate changes on the ecosystems, by studying how butterflies are affected by climate changes, since they adapted and lived for billions of years. The results had shown that while butterflies have a certain extent of phenotypic plasticity to combat climate change, overall, climate change is destroying their lifespan and behaviors, causing losses in populations of butterflies throughout the globe. Our paper gives a rough frame about how, or in what factors, butterflies are influenced by climatic changes. However, more studies are needed to further investigate all the influences climate change conducted on butterflies. Also, more acts need to happen to successfully stop climate change from making butterflies and the biospheres even worse.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220420

    Analysis of Epigenetic Effect on COVID-19

    The global spread of coronavirus illness (COVID-19) has been the most serious public health hazard to human life since 2019. For approximately three years, the COVID-19 pandemic has spread over the world, causing individuals to suffer not only from the virus's anguish but also from the consequences once they recover. Symptoms such as pneumonia, hypoxia, and severe respiratory distress emerge as the condition advances. The impact of gender, age, and genetic differences on the outcome of COVID-19 symptoms has piqued the interest of researchers in this field. Scientists from all over the world have established that the sequel is related to the epigenetic mechanism. As a result, the author examines the epigenetic effect on COVID-19 using a literature review method.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220424

    Research on the Necessity of Wearing a Mask after Vaccination

    In recent years, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused many people to wear masks. This article discusses the need for masks after vaccination. The research method of this study is to do some statistics and compare them to confirm the conclusions. Research shows that wearing a mask for extended periods of time after vaccination provides better protection. Therefore, it is very necessary to wear a mask after vaccination.According to the number of statistics to prove the necessity of wearing masks and vaccinations, people are urged to take relevant protective measures to minimize the spread of the virus, reduce the transmission rate, and end the era of the virus early.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220431

    Roles of Increase Fatty Acid Utilization in the Pathological Pathway of Heart Failure in Diabetes

    This paper reviews the molecular mechanism that led diabetic patients to its major complication heart failure. While AGEs, RAAS, impaired Ca2+ handling, and ER stress also contribute to the progress of diabetic cardiomyopathy, this review emphasizes on the effect of increasing fatty acid (FA) uptake and utilization since it interconnects with other crucial causes of diabetic cardiomyopathy such as lipotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and myocardial apoptosis. The review started with the root of increasing myocardial FA metabolism, which is the overactivation of a transcription factor called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Then, the paper detailedly reviews the molecular mechanism of how increasing FA oxidation and impaired glucose oxidation leads to lipid accumulation, apoptosis, and cardiac inefficiency, which ultimately causes contractile dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy, and heart failure.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220435

    The Role Ipilimumab Plays in the Treatment of Melanoma

    While melanoma is not as common as other types of skin cancer among the whole dermatologic cancer category, it appears to be extremely aggressive for its high death rates. Conventional treatments like radiation therapy (RT), chemotherapy, and surgery have showed either significant side effects or limited improvement to the disease. Ipilimumab, anti-CTLA-4 antibodies, is immune checkpoint Inhibitor (ICI) approved by the FDA for being one source of treatment in the advanced melanoma in 2011 as an immunotherapeutic approach. Anti-CTLA-4 is authorized for usage as monotherapy treatment for advanced metastatic melanoma. it licensed as combination treatment for melanoma. The new study shown that the ipilimumab combined with pembrolizumab may be feasible in treating more cancerous diseases. For individuals that suffer from advanced malignant melanoma, ipilimumab decrease the overall death rates in randomized trials. The combined approach of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies has shown feasibility.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220438

    ALK, TIMP1, GALNT14, New Emergent Poor Prognosis Indicators for Patients in Early Stage or Grade of Lung Cancer

    Lung cancer is presently the deadliest cancer worldwide, which causes large quantities of deaths, estimated more than 1.8 million, globally every year. Meanwhile, the diagnosis and prognosis for the early-stage lung cancer patients is always absent even until recent years, which has led to the result that the patients are mostly diagnosed with lung cancer in advanced stage. The present study searches for biomarkers related to early stage diagnosis so as to help deal with this factual problem. After analyzing plenty of samples on Kpalan-Meier plotter websites, this research discovers that ALK, GALNT14, TIMP1 are negatively related with OS of lung cancer patients. Further stratified analysis reveals that three proteins can indicate poor prognosis in the patients who got adenocarcinoma and were in early stage or grade. In addition, the present study also finds that the three proteins can respectively work as prognosis factor among three different groups of patients divided by gender, smoking history, and whether receiving chemotherapy or not. Conclusively, this research have discovered three biomarkers which can be applied in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment in the patients with early stage or grade of lung cancer.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220443

    Privacy Issues in Big Data in Medicine

    With the rapid development of machine learning and artificial intelligence, the digital world is generating data at an alarming rate. This big data is bringing life to the development of medicine, from monitoring the safety of drugs, to the allocation of medical resources, to the diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases. But the development of big data also brings many risks and challenges, and it is particularly important to deal with the privacy of the data. Big data in medicine includes biological data, biometric data and e-health data, which are used by multiple organizations such as academia, medical institutions, and government departments. On the one hand, the data is widely used, and on the other hand, the public's idea of data protection is getting stronger and stronger, and many problems have arisen over time. This article concludes from the previous literature that more and more data are being used in an unregulated way and more people think they have lost control over data because of the incomplete aspects of the law and the difficulty for the government to control the level of privacy protection in some cases.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220448

    CAR T Cell Therapy: Evolutions and Emergent Improvements

    One of the latest developments in the field of anti-cancer immunotherapy is chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, which is considered magnificent and impressive owing to its superior response rates and efficacy. It has been proven to exhibit great efficacy in curing patients with B cell lymphoma and leukemia, and sometimes multiple myeloma as well. Nevertheless, despite the significant outcomes it has displayed, several limitations and restrictions still deeply restrain CAR T cell therapy from being widely used throughout the world. Particular challenges associated with T cells range from severe cytokine-related toxicities, the on-target off-tumor effect, and antigen escape, to inferior CAR T cell trafficking and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. To address the related problems, investigators learn from the evolutions of CAR design and incessantly attempt to modify and ameliorate CAR constructs and launch it to the wider extent of solid tumors and malignancies. A large array of methods and strategies have been adopted by investigators to fulfill this goal, ameliorating the efficacy, security, and applicability of CAR constructs. In this review, we will concentrate on the evolutions of CAR designs, and several limitations CAR T cell therapy recently faces, along with some innovative strategies come up by researchers to tackle them and explore the clinical benefits of this therapy against various cancers.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220452

    Research on AIDS Prevention and Treatment

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This syndrome is a sexually transmitted disease that caused millions of lives lost in the last century. This disease was notorious for its incurability. This paper introduces and analyzes the prevention and treatment of AIDS. To conclude, there are four types of symptoms, namely the regular symptoms, respiratory symptoms, nervous system symptoms, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The treatments for AIDS include the antiviral therapy, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), integrase inhibitors, fusion inhibitors, GP 120 attachment inhibitors, CCR5 antagonists, and post-attachment inhibitor or monoclonal antibody. The incurability of the syndrome still has to be solved since all of the treatments can only be used to prolong the patients’ lives.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220455

    How Food Causes Obesity

    One of the biggest threats to public health is obesity, which has developed into a concern. Obesity has been identified as an epidemic that affects people of all ages, genders, and ethnicity and requires immediate control and governance. Children and teenagers should be particularly mindful while eating ultra-processed foods. The implications of micronutrient insufficiency or the links between them and obesity are examined in this review of the literature. Findings from the research of university graduates in Spain, Brazilian civil officials, and UK Biobank show a substantial dose-response relationship between obesity and increased intake of ultra-processed meals. Additional literature review indicates the prevalence of obesity owing to its oro-sensory characteristics, satiety levels, and nutritional content.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220465

    Role of Astrocytes in Epilepsy and Schizophrenia

    The dangers of epilepsy and schizophrenia are increasingly being noticed. Its economic burden, social harm and harm to patients cannot be ignored. However, little is known about the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Relevant treatment is limited to symptomatic treatment. Research suggests astrocytes play a role in seizures and schizophrenia. In the occurrence and development of mental diseases such as epilepsy and schizophrenia, astrocytes cannot be ignored. The article introduces the current findings and theories on role and function of astrocytes, and their connection with epilepsy and schizophrenia. It describes the positive effects and negative effects of astrocytes and their basic mechanisms that are now believed. And those mechanisms include glutamate-glutamine cycle which is related to the synthesizing of gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA), blood brain barrier which is controlling the matter exchange between vessels and brain, several molecules and inflammatory factors’ effect on the channel expressing on the surface of astrocytes and other main paths that could contribute to neuronal disorders. The article also includes several chemicals and their effects on inhibiting astrocytes of isolated sample, from chliroquine, calmodulin-trifluoperazin, gamma globulin and anticardiolipin antibodies. Last, the present study on the relationship between epilepsy and schizophrenia is discussed.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220469

    Differences of Appearance, Life Cycle, Symptoms, Diagnose and Treatment Mmong Taenia Solium, Taenia Saginata and Taenia Asiatica

    Tapeworm belongs to the class Cestoda of the Platyhelminth phylum. In tapeworms, the Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata are tapeworm that can infect human and cause taeniasis or other diseases. This essay concludes the basic information of these three kinds of tapeworms including the appearance, life cycle, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. In each part it summarizes the similarities and differences among them. The appearance introduces the entire body and gravid proglottid. It compares the length and width in these three kinds of tapeworms, their competence of producing last proglottid, the differences in hooks and the differences in gravid proglottid, which shows general figures of these three kinds of tapeworms. The lifecycle introduces their location and the ways of infection by comparing the differences. In the part of symptoms, the Neurocysticercosis is highlighted and introduce most, and the human immune inhibition is added to complement how human body to confront with tapeworms. In the diagnosis part, microscopical examination, PCR and antibody tests are used to identify the tapeworms. The PCR especially shows the differences of nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acids in tapeworms. For treatment, the similarities and differences in the treatment for different tapeworms are the important contents. Pumpkin seeds and areca nut extract are Chinese medicine, and it shows great power to deworm tapeworms. This essay hopes to get a deeper understanding of tapeworm through the above introduction, so as to promote the prevention and control of tapeworms.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220477

    The Value of Yogurt and Its Function in Health Care

    Yogurt is a dairy product that is high in nutritional content. Yogurt is high in protein, calcium, vitamins, and probiotics, making it beneficial to the human body. Consuming Lactobacillus-containing yogurt can help to enhance the intestinal environment and preserve intestinal flora equilibrium. Yogurt contains micronutrients that can boost the human body's innate immune system and reverse immunological weakness. Yogurt contains lactic acid, which can help to eliminate dangerous germs and improve digestion. Yogurt's phytosterols can help decrease blood cholesterol levels. Drinking yogurt can also help lactose-intolerant patients avoid the symptoms of lactose intolerance. Yogurt is a potential cancer treatment because it inhibits carcinogens and decreases inflammation. Patients suffering from diarrhea can minimize the frequency and duration of their symptoms by consuming yogurt. Yogurt can also help with chronic intestinal constipation in youngsters and constipation in pregnant women, especially when combined with bifidobacterium longum. The improved serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol after consuming probiotic-containing yogurt suggest that the yogurt could be used to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The nutritional value and health benefits of yogurt were summarized in this article.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220480

    Dairy Product as a Preventative and Therapeutic Method in Alcohol Liver Disease

    Alcohol is one of the most prevalent global causes of chronic liver damage. Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is a prominent cause of liver disease related mortality, yet few treatments are now available. Important variables in the development of ALD or alcoholic liver cirrhosis include inflammation, oxidative stress, innate immunity, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. Due to biological constituents of diary product, including as lactoferrin, bioactive peptide, immunoglobulins, lactose, and vitamins, it has become a popular candidate for the treatment of ALD, since it has a number of immune-enhancing properties. This paper summarized the attributing factor, parthenogenesis, and current preventative and treatment methods for ALD to provide a comprehensive understanding of the disease. The preventive and therapeutic effects of milk, fermented milk, whey, and camel milk against ALD were then analyzed. These methods are anticipated to add the protective and therapeutic choices for alcohol-related liver damage in clinical use, either alone or in combination with other medications.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220481

    Kombucha Tea: Microorganisms Communities’ Composition, Active Metabolites, Health Functions and Fermentation

    As a tea drinking product, Kombucha is made from sugar, water and tea as raw materials and fermented by a variety of probiotics and contains diverse metabolites derived from active microorganisms. As kombucha contains a variety of microorganisms, active ingredients, and uses a fermentation process, it has a wide range of health care functions such as antioxidant, liver protection, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular, and anti-cancer, and thus has become the focus of people all over the world. As a result, in order to better exert the health as well as commercial value of kombucha tea product, it is necessary to carry out research on the diversity of microorganisms in kombucha, active substance’s types and functions, and their relationship with the fermentation process. In order to further improve the flavor and health functions of this tea product and lay a solid foundation for the industrial production of Kombucha from the theoretical level, this thesis will provide a comprehensive analysis and summary of the latest research on microbial community’s composition, active metabolites, health efficacy and fermentation process factors of kombucha tea.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220482

    Types of vegetarian dietary patterns and their impact on diabetes and its complications

    Globally, diabetes is on the rise year by year, with type 2 diabetes accounting for a larger proportion. The choice of dietary pattern has a very significant part in the prevention and control of diabetes, especially for type 2 diabetics. Vegetarian and plant-based dietary patterns have received very wide attention in recent years. Studies have indicated that vegetarian diets can help people with obesity and body weight loss, and that vegetarians are much less likely to develop diabetes than omnivores, making them a very popular and widely recommended diet in recent years. Vegetarian or plant-based diets can lower the chance of developing diabetes and control its progression. Different types of vegetarian diets have different effects and there are some differences in how they affect diabetes, but all can help in some way. By comparing recent studies, a vegetarian diet can help treat and improve diabetes and its complications in several ways: cardiovascular disease, gut microbiota, kidney, vision, blood sugar, and inflammation.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220484

    Basic Concepts, Hypotheses and Drug Development of Alzheimer's Disease

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that involves complicated pathogenesis and etiology that not entirely defined. As the most common form of dementia, AD is irreversibly progressive and aggravates, causing a great burden to global community. Meanwhile, the number of AD patients is growing annually with the global population aging. Unfortunately, there is currently no cure for the disease and the need for effective treatments of AD is urgent. Drug research and development for AD is a long-term and complicated process, which requires a deep understanding of the mechanisms of AD. At present, anti-Tau protein drugs as well as anti-inflammatory drugs are hot research topics. However, the clinical application of drugs still remains to improve various symptoms related to AD. This paper describes the basic concepts of pathology and gives an overview of the pathogenesis theories of AD, which include Aβ hypothesis, Tau protein hyperphosphorylation theory, Cholinergic hypothesis and Inflammatory response. The final onset of AD is jointly caused by multiple mechanisms rather than a single one. In the paper, we summarizes the treatment strategies of AD and explores the status of drug development. This paper will help with understanding the causes of AD and provide insights into drug research and development for AD.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220486

    HPV Relevant Diseases and Vaccines, Analysis of Willingness to Vaccinate in Chinese Population and the Significance of Male Vaccination

    As a virus that commonly infects various populations, HPV has many types and can lead to many diseases and even malignant tumors. In this paper, the author mainly introduces HPV typing, the diseases that will cause it, and the current situation of HPV preventive vaccines, including the mechanism and types of preventive vaccines, as well as the willingness to vaccinate specific groups in some areas of China. At the end of this paper, the importance and necessity of HPV preventive vaccination for men are introduced. This paper can provide some help for future scholars in the improvement and innovation of HPV preventive vaccines, and provide some ideas and help in the direction of vaccination for male groups.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220489

    Statistic Study of Relation between the Algal Blooms and Chemicals in Water Body

    The global trend of the algal blooms is rising fast without any questions. This paper is to investigate whether we can predict the number of the algae in water body by the content of some common chemicals to avoid the algal blooms and, at the same time, use less time and costs. Step regression will be used to filter the independent variables, then use principal component analysis to get rid of multilinearity in the model and use ordinary least squares regression to fit the linear relationship between the principal components chosen and the number of algae. The results show that there is some relationship between the variables studied but not very strong. The R-squared values calculated are 2.86 for the row data and 3.58 for the test data. And the major influential factors are mxPH, mnO2 and PO4. In conclusion, we can use the model to briefly predict the trend of the algal blooms but cannot get the number accurately. However, the results do reveal to us that maximum pH value, minimum value of oxygen and average of orthophosphate indeed have some significant impacts on this kind of algae.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220490

    Clinical Management of Cerebral Aneurysms

    A number of people die every year because of aneurysms. Wide range of researches have been conducted into aneurysms, particularly for brain aneurysms. Due to the serious consequences of intracranial haemorrhage, there have been many new treatments including medication and surgical approaches developed in recent years, but at the same time there is still much room for technological improvement. As research has progressed, researchers have discovered that aneurysms are inextricably linked to inflammation and have proposed a number of medications to treat this condition. However, medication can only control aneurysms to a limited extent and is usually used as an adjunct to surgical treatment. This article summarizes the treatment of different aneurysms, as well as the prospect of surgical intervention and its future perspectives.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220491

    The Role of Gene Therapy for Primary Immunodeficiency

    Primary Immunodeficiency disease (PID) is a wide genre of inborn defects that affect the patients immune system. More than 430 distinct phenotypes have been reported and more are being identified. Traditional treatments to PID include clearance or prevention of infections, avoidance of exposure to pathogen and live vaccines, immunoglobulin replacement therapy, and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Mostly HSCT would be the only feasible radical solution, while others only offer temporary suppression of the condition. On the other hand, with the advancements in technology, gene therapy starts to show promising effects in multiple diseases including PID. In this review, we mainly discussed the effect and resent progresses of gene therapy on two common kinds of PID, SCID and WAS.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220493

    A Protocol for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Dietary Calcium and Fracture

    Despite the fact that there are few and inconsistent randomized controlled studies investigating calcium obtained from food, calcium and vitamin D are frequently utilized as calcium supplements in people's daily lives, so the effectiveness of food-derived calcium and calcium or a combination of the two is in question. Through a review and qualitative research, this paper explores the connection between dietary calcium and fracture incidence. The link between dietary calcium, vitamin D, or combination dietary calcium and vitamin D supplements and fracture incidence in the elderly over 65 years of age was examined. Calcium intake was based on food sources.A comprehensive search of the PubMed database was conducted. Use the keywords dietary calcium, vitamin D, and fracture to search for relevant randomized controlled trials in English studies. Search the Cochrane Library and EMBASE databases to add additional randomized clinical trials. Data were extracted from papers independently by two reviewers and entered into data tables. By using Cochran's Q statistic and the I-2 statistic, it was possible to determine whether the rate estimates were heterogeneous. Hip fracture was the primary outcome and total fracture was the secondary outcome.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220494

    In use of Olaparib for ovarian cancer: understanding from pathogenesis, target corroboration, discovering process and treatment techanism

    The second most prevalent gynecologic cancer, ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis, is difficult to diagnose, and has a high mortality. EOC (epithelial ovarian cancer) is the most common subtype. PARP inhibitor has so far been approved by FDA, and used for target therapy of epithelial ovarian cancer worldwide. This article based on lots of literature research, reviews studies of ovarian cancer pathogenesis, target corroboration, Olaparib discovering process and treatment mechanism. Somatic sequence mutation occupies a prominent position in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Type Ⅰ ovarian cancer behave PIK3CA KRAS, BRAF, PTEN, and CTNNB1 sequence mutation. Type Ⅱ ovarian cancers exhibit TP53 and BRCA1/2 sequence mutation. Angiogenesis, TP53, and PARP are studies in target therapy of ovarian cancer. PARP is regarded as ideal target, Olaparib is the first PARP inhibitors. Preventing PARP works in DNA damage repairing in BRCA mutation ovarian cancer cells causing cell death preferentially are confirmed as the therapeutic mechanism of Olaparib (PARP inhibitor), in therapy of ovarian cancer.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220496

    Third Generation ALK Inhibitors - The Development of Lorlatinib and the Problems that Exist

    The malignant tumor with the greatest morbidity and fatality rates in the world today is lung cancer, from which Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85%. To treat NSCLC, a variety of targeted therapeutics been developed in medicine. ALK inhibitors are one of them, and they're frequently used to treat NSCLC.The 3rd Generation of ALK inhibitors are now in use, starting with the initial 1st generation ALK inhibitors. Because the development of 1st and 2nd generation ALK inhibitors medicines has been motivated by a number of unfavorable factors. These medications include the 3rd generation ALK inhibitor lorlatinib as well as the 2nd and 3rd generation ALK inhibitors ceritinib and alectinib. Current study discusses the clinical features, effectiveness, and side effects of lorlatinib as well as its pharmacological effects.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220498

    The Recent Advances of PARP Inhibitors in the Treatment of Cancer

    This article introduces the discovery and research progress of Poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARP) inhibitors. The catalytic sites of PARP1 and PARP2 are designed as competitive inhibitors of NAD+, so that DNA single-strand repair cannot be completed through the combination of PARP1 and NAD+.PARP is quite crucial in the process of DNA single-strand damage repair. Inhibiting PARP function will interfere with normal DNA repair and induce DNA damage accumulation into more serious double-strand breaks through replication fork folding. Homologous recombination (HR) repair is the main way of double DNA repair, which needs to be mediated by key proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the same way, blocking the single chain repair and HR pathway, the synergistic lethal effect produced by combining these two nonlethal mechanisms, namely the synthetic lethality mechanism, provides a theoretical basis for PARPi. Olaparib was approved for clinical by FDA for the first time through this mechanism. The efficacy of Olaparib in the four approved indications was confirmed in clinical trials. It can benefit patients by improving the progress-free survival or objective response rate, and its safety is better than chemotherapy drugs. Even more clinically valuable combination of platinum and chemotherapy drugs has been proven to benefit significantly. At last, the paper pointed out the development emphasis and prospect of PARP inhibitors in the future.

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