Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Biological Engineering and Medical Science (ICBioMed 2022), Part I
Gary Royle, University College London
Steven M. Lipkin, Weill Cornell Medicine
PD-L1 is an immune protein in human body that can play an important role in cancer immunotherapy. By binding to antibodies, the binding activity of PD-L1 and PD-1 is blocked, which in turn inhibits cancer cells. Thus the structure of PD-L1 is very important in studying the binding of antibodies to it. However, experimental methods to solve the structures of PD- L1 and numerous complexes are expensive and consuming. Thus, it is essential to exploit computational methods to help biologists figure out the structures and the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we explore whether AlphaFold2 is able to accurately predict the structure of PD-L1 and whether we can use AlphaFold2 to capture the binding sites of PD-L1 when binding to different antibodies. Our results show that AlphaFold2 has high confident scores and accuracy in predicting the structure of PD-L1 and the binding sites with atezolizumab and durvalumab. For the interaction between PD-L1 and the antibodies, AlphaFold2 can capture most of the hydrogen bonds as well as the salt bridges. Our work suggests that AlphaFold2 can not only be used as a tool to predict the structure of proteins, but also serves as a useful tool for antibody discovery, e.g. providing high-quality predicted structures for downstreaming docking, which brings new hope for drug discovery.
Lower limb exoskeleton has been proven to be effective in gait training and locomotion assistance. Specifically, control strategies of exoskeletons play the most important role in safe and effective interaction between the user, the exoskeleton, and the environment. In this paper, an analysis on the control strategies of hip exoskeletons and exosuits is performed. The controls are divided into three levels: high, medium, and low. The definition of high-level control as well as the corresponding control methods are listed and the principle of each is explained. Then, the mid-level control section is divided between detection and action layer and each control that belongs to one of the two categories is analyzed. The definition of low-level control and its control methods are then explained. At last, according to the results of various studies, the advantages and potential disadvantages of each method are put forward. The purpose of this paper is to provide reference and guidance for future researchers who hope to develop new controls or improve existing control strategies for hip exoskeletons and exosuits.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world. Globally, nearly one-sixth of deaths are caused by cancer. Cancer raise wide attention from the researcher in recent years, chemotherapy is the main cancer treatment, but chemotherapy has many side effects, the common effects are weight loss, hair loss, and figure. These side effects will bring many pains for patients, as result, sciences made a research to reduce the suffering for patients. In this article, the research method of archival research is used to retrieve the relevant research on the side effects of chemotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. By reviewing the previous literature on chemotherapy, we can understand the history, classification, and mechanism of chemotherapy. Through the relevant research on chemical side effects and side effect adjuvant therapy, the following conclusions can be drawn. The common side effects of chemotherapy are bone marrow suppression, gastrointestinal adverse reactions, neutrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and easily overlooked taste change. The adjuvant treatments are Chinese herbal therapy, physical therapy, trace element therapy, and psychological therapy. It provides a basis for future medical researchers to study the side effects and auxiliary treatment of chemotherapy, and non-medical researchers can have a clear understanding of chemotherapy. At the same time, it provides a research direction of possibility and increases the interest for my future study.
This research explored the difference between Chinese Yanbian yellow Beef and Simmental Beef in nutrients, meat quality and flavor, aimed at providing a basis for the development of Chinese Yanbian yellow cattle resources. Eight Chinese Yanbian yellow cattle and eight Simmental cattle were selected in this experiment. All the experimental cattle were fenced to 30 months of age under the same feeding conditions and slaughtered to determine the quality and flavor substance content of beef. The results showed that the contents of crude protein, ether extract and various amino acids in Chinese Yanbian yellow beef were significantly higher than those in Simmental beef (P<0.05). The shear force of Chinese Yanbian yellow beef was significantly lower than that of Simmental beef (P<0.05). The results of Gas chromatography. mass spectrometry (GC-MS) also showed that the kinds of flavor substances in Chinese Yanbian yellow beef were more than those in Simmental beef. In conclusion, the nutritional level and flavor of Chinese Yanbian yellow beef are better than those of Simmental beef. In conclusion, the nutritional level and flavor of Chinese Yanbian yellow beef are better than those of Simmental beef.
Spontaneous thought is a cognitive process that ubiquitously happens in daily life. Humans spend 30-50% of their lives in spontaneous thinking, but the impact and consequence of spontaneous thought have not been widely studied in cognitive neuroscience. It is crucial to expand the research involving spontaneous thought since it benefits human's memory encoding and decision-making abilities. This review has two main aims: the first is to explore the cognitive impact of goal-directed and spontaneous thought; the second is to discover the benefits of spontaneous thought to humans. This paper concludes that spontaneous thought has the role of improving memory encoding and facilitating future planning.
Alzheimer’s disease is a major degenerative disease characterized by impaired memory, aphasia, apraxia and the changes of personality and behavior. As the population ages, the incidence of AD is increasing. According to an analysis of 10000 people with up to 30 years of follow-up data, elderly over 55 years old, the risk of dementia increased nearly four- fold if they have three or more chronic diseases at the age of 55. The pathogenesis of AD has not been fully studied, a lot of mechanisms such as neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal metabolic are related to the pathology of AD. The abnormal deposition of Aβ and hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein are identified mechanism of AD. Finding new drugs for AD has always been a research hotpot, preclinical work of new anti-AD drugs is being carried out on a large scale in the world. However, in all types of new developing drugs for AD, the failure rate is about 99%. The drugs approved to treat AD such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and glutamate receptor antagonists, only slow symptoms other than change the progression of this disease. Deep researches are required to study the pathogenesis of AD, developing drugs that can reverse the progression is the key to the treatment for AD. This review introduces new developing therapy and potential targets of future research into treatments of AD.
Brain tumors are difficult to be totally cured , and also associated with high rates of mortality and morbidty, therefore the therapy is always a hot issue.This review introduces glioma treatment techniques through literature summarization and qualitative analysis. According to the data, technologies that can improve median survival and potentially substitute contemporary techniques during the treatment, including photon therapy, and hyperthermia. Moreover, some techniques can improve the accuracy and safety of surgical, such as Intraoperative Neuromonitoring and Neuronavigation During Resection. Other treatment methods, such as gene therapy and immunotherapy, are feasible based on their principles. However, their current effects have not reached expectations, so they are not widely used at this stage, and further innovation and experimental proof are needed.
This article discussed three aspects of autoimmune disease, including mechanism, genetic susceptibility, and environmental factors. Molecular mimicry and dual T cell receptor are two systems of the mechanism. Genetic susceptibility is depending on the environment and polymorphism. Lastly, the environmental factors rely on latitude, industrial development, and gender bias. This article provides a review of autoimmune disease which can help the researchers to further understand the basic information.
Ischemic stroke is one of the biggest health concerns nowadays, leading to nonnegligible disability and mortality in its patients. During its pathological development, resident microglia in the central nervous system play a significant role to repair the damage, but may also expand the lesion because of the excessive microglial activation. As a result, microglial activation is considered a potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke. Since microglia polarized into different phenotypes ranging from M1 to M2 display proinflammatory and neuroprotective functions, regulation of the morpho-functional change of microglia became a further way of intervention in ischemic stroke. This review qualitatively analyses drugs for ischemic stroke that were studied by credible research in the recent ten years in terms of experimental methods, applied animal models, and potential signaling pathways, so as to provide clues for future studies on the fine regulation of microglial activation to treat ischemic stroke.
The virus known as severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 is extremely pathogenic. and has already give rise to worldwide contagious pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 new variations, particularly the Omicron strain, are a major global concern. To reduce the spread of virus, considerable efforts have been made towards the development of effective vaccines and drugs against SRAS-CoV-2. The current available vaccines include inactivated vaccines (Sinopharm and Sinovac), protein-based vaccines (Novavax), DNA vaccines, RNA vaccines (Moderna and Pfizer), viral vector vaccines (Oxford-AstraZeneca). These various vaccinations act in different ways to improve human immunity with their own strengths and drawbacks but both of them could work very effectively to prevent infection. In this review, recently significant progress in the development of COVID-19 vaccination, including vaccine type, efficacy and safety issues, and variant protection are summarized.
When receptors were found, the study of platelets turned to the signaling pathway. When platelets in the progression of some disease could provide valuable clues, the study of platelets turned to the relationship between platelets granules, platelet morphology and inflammatory immune responses. And even some geneticists through the analysis of genes tried to encode the secret of platelets and inflammation. We reviewed the study of platelets and found the substance released by platelets could perform complex functions. The formation of immunothrombosis was central to immunological platelet function. And it could lead to the release of platelets granules, thus initiating a cascade of inflammatory immune responses, which played a central role in adaptive and innate immune. And we found platelets induced epilepsy immune by S100b. In this review, we focused on sterile inflammation, pathogen infection immunity, tumor immunity and provided the latest evidence. Hoping in the future development, platelets shed new light on pathogens infection.
African trypanosomiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease. The main parasite that causes the disease is Trypanosoma brucei, also known as T. brucei, which infects its hosts through the tsetse fly. Trypanosoma brucei has an important structure, the flagella. The parasite relies on the flagella for survival and movement, so studying the flagella structure in detail is essential to understanding its function. Therefore, we use electron microscopes for multi-angle observation and photography. We identified some important structures of flagella which aligned with previous literature including the 92+2 axoneme, and the paraflagellar rod (PFR), and we even captured some novel features including densities connecting the axoneme and PFR, densities that interconnect the microtubule, and densities that bridges the different zones of PFR. We also did literature reviews and proposed hypotheses about the functions of these structures. Our structural study could shed light on the inhibition of the flagella movement, thereby treating trypanosomiasis.
With the continuous development of the sports in China, sports trauma is also on the rise year by year, of which the former cruciate ligament injury is quite common. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), one of the two main types of intraarticular fibrous ligament, it can provide the rotational and translational stability for the knee. When it injurys, patients' exercise ability and life well-being will decline, and even lead to a series of complications, especially in women. The risk of the ACL injury in the women is almost 3.5 times that in men. There are many factors leading to ACL injury. Studies have shown that after anterior cruciate ligament injury, most patients choose surgical treatment. With the development of the Arthroscopic technique, most of the patients would be likely to choose the surgical treatment, especially the people that are young and active. The surgical treatment have several advantages, like the post-operative recovery is fast, less traumatic, fewer complications. At present, the surgical treatment is mainly reconstruction under arthroscopy. The reconstruction materials include autografts, allografts, artificial ligaments and so on. It is necessary to understand the difference of biochemical and biological characteristics of different grafts in the process of ligament healing. For some elderly patients or patients with other special needs, non-surgical treatment can also be selected. This article reviews the pathogenic factors, surgical methods, grafts, and other aspects for clinical reference.
Down Syndrome sounds like a rare case that can only be found in biology courses that are unrelated to normal people’s life. However, it occurs once every 1200 people according to CDC. Scientifically, Down syndrome is a genetic disease caused by trisomy 21 that cannot be cured by direct means of surgery or drugs. People must study the biochemical pathway Down Syndrome interferes with human body development, symptoms usually exhibit in patients, and Down Syndrome’s relationship with other diseases like Alzheimer’s in-depth and provide advanced detection for parents inclined to have Down Syndrome babies. Due to patients’ intellectual disability, someone must make important decisions for them so that they can receive needed treatments, Nursing patients with it not only requires extensive medical care but also patient emotional support. Well-trained nursing is required to protect this vulnerable group, not only to bring patients the chance to live a normal life but also to help their families avoid living in conflicts.
With the continuous improvement of people's economic level and the maturity of consumption concepts, natural cosmeceuticals (with therapeutic effects) have received more and more attention, which has prompted the innovative development of the cosmeceuticals industry. Natural ingredients derived from plants and the marine have attracted the attention of scientists for their sustainability and less skin irritation. These ingredients, along with low skin penetration and instability, influence formulation development. Nanotechnology is used to help improve the shortcomings of natural ingredients such as instability in formulations. However, the toxicity of nanotechnology and regulatory gaps have also raised concerns and potential concerns among consumers. This paper provides an overview of potential active ingredients in botanical and marine cosmeceuticals and how they can improve formulation innovation under the action of different nano delivery systems. Relevant literature from pub med, web of science, and other websites are studied to corroborate the most recent trends in the development of cosmeceuticals and the most recent advancements in industry regulation. As a result, a key area of research for scientists continues to be how to enhance formulations while creating natural nano-cosmeceuticals to allay consumers' worries about toxicity.
Knee joint is one of the most important joints to participate in human daily activities and various sports. However, at present, knee joint injuries are still common for both athletes and ordinary people. Wrong exercise style and bad living habits will cause knee joint injury. Weak rehabilitation concept after knee joint injury also leads to poor prognosis in most cases of knee joint injury. Based on the above background, this paper will analyze and sort out the causes of knee joint injury, and explore the rehabilitation methods after injury, so as to provide ideas for future research on knee joint protection and rehabilitation after injury.
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis relating to immunology, genetic inheritance, and environmental conditions. Various treatments are applied to relieve the symptoms of AD. One of the most common types of medication applied is topical treatments. The review examines the mechanisms of action and pathways for topical corticosteroids, non-steroid topical calcineurin inhibitors, and phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors based on a wide range of research and studies targeting AD. The three treatment strategies are compared under different disease conditions. The review suggests that to maximize the effectiveness and minimize side effects, the application of each type of medication should be carefully considered depending on the severity of AD conditions and the individual's physical condition.
Chirality exists in most drugs and has a non-negligible impact on the pharmacological activity, metabolic process, and toxicity of drugs in the human body. Drug molecules can only bind to specific receptor molecules in the human body, and the difference in chirality will lead to different structures of drug molecules, which will lead to the inability of drug molecules to bind to receptor molecules, resulting in a decrease in the efficacy of the drug and even adverse effects on the human body. Therefore, the synthesis of correct chiral drugs has always been an area worth exploring. At present, there are two main approaches for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral drugs: chemical synthesis and biosynthesis. This paper explores the application of chemical synthesis to chiral drugs by combining asymmetric organocatalysis with chemical synthesis. In addition, this paper finds that asymmetric organocatalysis is a very worthwhile way to synthesize chiral drugs and has great potential in the development of new drugs.
HER2, human epidermal receptor 2(c-erbB-2 gene), is a hot targeted point in various cancer’s targeted therapy. Breast cancer including HER2 positive or negative. HER2 is an oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase. HER2 gene amplification occurs in some of breast cancers (BCS), resulting in overexpression of the HER2 protein. Compared to the trastuzumab or pertuzumab, the performance of trastuzumab deruxtecan is excellent. Drug resistance is known to be the main cause of failure of tumor chemotherapy. Tumor drug resistance involves various mechanisms, such as those involving decreased intracellular drug concentration, changes of drug target molecules, metabolic detoxification, and imbalance of DNA damage repair function. HER2-positive breast cancer becomes resistant to trastuzumab, thereby blocking effective binding and developing resistance. The significance of this review is to understand the mechanism of drug resistance from molecular and chemotherapy perspectives by studying the structure and overexpression of HER2 protein as predictors, so as to grasp the progress of current targeted drug therapy. Our review starting from HER2 and its targeted therapy gets to the deep insight into the antibody drug conjugates and explores the possible proteins which may become the potential targeted points in future research.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most prevalent genetic kidney disease, affected millions of individuals worldwide. And it is also one of the most prevalent causes of kidney failures and transplants. Previously, in many years, mitigating its symptoms had been the only treatment for this disease. After more than a decade after the early clinical studies of medicines for ADPKD began, the first medication that may successfully delay the course of the condition is now on the market. Due to the severe side effects and high cost of tolvaptan, it cannot be considered a full success, but rather the beginning of therapeutic research. More recently, enlightened by the discovery of the defective metabolism of PKD related cells, researchers have been designing dietary plans and new lifestyles for ADPKD patients to slow down or even halt the disease progression. Current outcomes have been promising. This article will address the best practices for treating ADPKD patients, with a focus on medications that have been proved to be beneficial in preserving kidney’s function and structure.