Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Medicine and Global Health (ICMMGH 2023)

    Conference Date






    978-1-915371-65-2 (Print)

    978-1-915371-66-9 (Online)

    Published Date



    Tooba Mahboob, UCSI University

    Sheiladevi Sukumaran, SEGi University


  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230107

    Two-step synthesis and oxidizing power assessment of novel pyrylium

    Photoredox catalysis is a relatively new concept, and it involves the absorption of light for more productive use of lower energy radiation and to catalyze selective reactions. Traditionally, catalysts used for oxidation or reduction reactions were metal catalysts, such as iridium. However, these metal catalysts are not environmentally friendly and are expensive, prompting the use of organic catalysts. Pyrylium salt, an organic catalyst, can be used as a catalyst. However, the oxidizing ability of basic pyrylium is not that good and can still be improved. In this project, a pyrylium salt with substituents that include fluorine and chlorine (halogens) was synthesized to boost its oxidizing ability in an alcohol oxidation reaction due to its electron-withdrawing groups. Despite unsuccessful oxidation, there is still much research to prove that it can substitute for metal catalysts.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230109

    Evaluation of school-based obesity prevention model

    Obesity is a prevalent disease found among adolescents in the United States. The rising incidence in recent years has raised concerns among the public, for obesity is known as the risk factor for several chronic and severe diseases. Programs aimed at treating and preventing childhood obesity are therefore in high demand. Since the enrollment of American youth–who are between 5 and 17 years old–in schools is higher than in any other institution in the United States, schools can implant effective obesity-targeted programs by providing cheap, convenient, and accessible settings for treating and preventing obesity for the student population. This article will review and analyze the success of primary preventive initiatives implemented in schools by comparing the effectiveness of four out of eight components of am integrated comprehensive model for school-based prevention of obesity: physical education courses, food service and nutrition environment, school-site health promotion, and health service. At the end of this article, a future research plan will be introduced. A sample of 154 residential students from a local high school located in Fryeburg, Maine will be observed and surveyed to test the effectiveness of the school-based primary prevention model for obesity.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230113

    Research progress in the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic nephropathy

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common, frequent, age-related diseases, and it is also an important cause of chronic renal failure and end-stage renal diseases. It has always been one of the research hotspots. The high cost of treatment will bring a great burden to society and families. Therefore, it is very important to study the pathogenesis and treatment methods of DN. At present, many methods have been put forward for clinical diagnosis and treatment like Thiazolidinediones, renin inhibitor drug -aliskiren, tregs cells. These methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. However, the etiology of diabetic nephropathy is complicated and the course of the disease is long, and current treatments cannot achieve the expected target. Scholars also have studied many symptomatic treatment methods for different pathogenesis. However, the specific pathogenesis of DN has not yet been fully elucidated, and there is no special medicine for DN yet. This article briefly reviews the pathogenesis and treatments of DN based on the existing kinds of literature and new advances to provide some references for its clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230118

    Bacteriostasis of bacillus sp. 22T against penicillium expansum and comparison between its ability on pear and grape

    In the biological lab of Zhejiang University, we justified and tested a type of bacillus to improve the anti-bacteria ability of commonly affecting diseases of fruits, such as pear and grape, which would lead to a large amount of economic loss and unpredictable negative influence if they were rotten before being sold. Using techniques such as gram staining and bacteriostasis test, this paper explores and confirms the results that bacillus sp. 22T has a strong ability to inhibit the growth of penicillium expansum on pear and grape. After 96 hours of exposure to fermentation broth containing bacillus sp. 22T to suppress the growth of penicillium expansum, 33.33 percent of pear and 16.66 percent of grape were not impacted by the bacterium.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230126

    A review of current developments in Alzheimer’s disease treatment methods

    This article will summarize the results of recent years of exploration into deeper causes of Alzheimer’s disease with possible therapeutic strategies. The most popular pathological hypothesis for the causation of Alzheimer’s is the Aβ cascade hypothesis. Aβ has a dominant role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, according to genetic and pathological data. Another significant histological characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease brains is the presence of neurofibrillary tangles made of the protein tau, which is related with microtubules. In the brain, neuronal loss, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress can result from the cascade consequences of tau toxicity. But as research has progressed, it has been found the Aβ. The accumulation of protein and neurofibrillary tangles composed of phosphorylated tau are only manifestations of AD, not the result. This is also the reason why many drugs fail the phase III clinic. So people began to look for a way out of the problem, starting in the direction of the gene. How to diagnose AD early in the MCI stage, how to find markers for early diagnosis and how to inhibit the progression from the MCI stage to the dementia stage are all questions that need to be investigated in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230135

    Research on British epidemic forecast——Based on SIR model

    Since the beginning of 2020, COVID-19 has swept the world and continues to threaten human society. Forecasting the future trend of the epidemics is very important for the prevention of COVID-19. The SIR model is an important mathematical model to forecast future epidemic in epidemiology. In a press conference from London on July 5th, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson said the British government will end nearly all of the coronavirus restrictions starting July 19. This paper aims to use the SIR model to predict epidemics after deregulation of social distance. The results show that as of July 8, 2021, the number of people infected will continue to increase after deregulation, reaching approximately 30000 per day. The British government should reconsider completely liberalizing epidemic control.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230139

    Principles and applications of fluorescent probe imaging technology

    Fluorescent probe technology was discovered in the 19th century and imaging techniques were applied to microscopy around 1670. Fluorescence microscopic imaging is a classical method for observing the structure of organisms in the life sciences. In this regard, single-molecule fluorescence imaging uses fluorescent probes to label, detect, and analyze individual molecules, helping scientists to clearly observe the activities of individual molecules without disrupting the normal physiological state of the organism. In this paper, the principles and applications of fluorescent probe imaging techniques are described and analyzed. The common detection methods of fluorescent probes are spectrophotometry, electrochemistry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Rapid detection results can be obtained depending on the specific method.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230161

    A review on the β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a well-known mental illness and memory loss is its most common symptom. Until now, the reason of AD has been an unsolved mystery, with the two most prominent previous hypotheses being β-amyloid deposition and Tau protein phosphorylation. However, this year, a seminal paper studying the β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis was found to be falsified, therefore, a large number of scientists have questioned the research value of this hypothesis. This paper is a review of the β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis. The development of β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis is described and previous studies on Aβ*56, Aβ42, and Aβ40 are reviewed. It is concluded that β-amyloid precipitation should continue to be studied. The author also argues that the falsification does not mean that the "amyloid" hypothesis is wrong; the only protein suspected of falsification is Aβ*56. The Aβ hypothesis can still be pursued because there are many other Aβ oligomers that have been shown to be neurotoxic.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230163

    Treatment methods for children with severe asthma in and abroad

    Asthma is one of the common chronic diseases in children, and so far there is no cure for asthma. Asthma sufferers are estimated to be more than 300 million people worldwide, and the number of asthma treatments is growing every year. In recent years, thanks to advances in therapeutic medicines, asthma symptoms can now be successfully controlled with inhaled corticosteroids and, if necessary, in combination with bronchodilators. However, even with maximum use of these drugs, the effect may be insufficient, and there are still some patients with refractory asthma that are not adequately controlled with general treatment. Drugs called biologics may become a drug that works well for previously poorly treated asthma and is recently available in children with severe asthma. Three biologics are currently available for use in children: omalizumab, mepolizumab (6 years and older), and dupilumab (12 years and older). However, there is still a lack of clinical research evidence for the specific clinical improvement rate. Therefore, in this study, this paper conducted a literature review on the latest clinical trials of biological agents at home and abroad, summarized the clinical trials of common biological agents, and introduced the latest treatment methods. The differences and deficiencies between each other achieve the effect of enhancing the prevention and cognition of asthma.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230167

    RNA interference: from target validation to therapeutics

    Generally, a new targeted medicine takes a long time, usually 5 to 15 years, from the discovery and validation of its target to its actual use in treating a disease. There is no doubt that steps such as target validation and target evaluation are essential in preclinical development of new drugs to ensure safety, bioavailability, and efficacy of the drug, and in the target validation phase, RNA interference (RNAi) is a very important method. RNAi drug has double-stranded RNA function, so the targeted mRNA of a specific gene sequence is degraded, its transcription process is abnormal, which leads to gene silencing, and related protein synthesis failure. RNAi technology could specifically shut off specific genes, and, it is a targeted drug with great potential. Therefore, RNAi technology can be used to treat some rare diseases, such as acute hepatic porphyria (AHP) in adults, by using drugs as carriers. In 1998, Andrew Fire and Craig C. Mello first defined the RNAi phenomenon and was honored with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2006 for their discovery of RNAi and their outstanding contributions to the field of gene silencing. Since then, RNAi drugs have been studied by pharmaceutical scientists around the world, but many of the previous drugs have been stopped at the evaluation stage due to their chemical instability. Until October 2018, the world’s first RNAi drug (patisiran) was successfully marketed so that the RNAi drug development became popular again because of remarkable pesticide effect.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230169

    Efficacy and mechanism of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors against cancer

    This paper focuses on an overview of the development progress of different cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. The CDKS are a group of kinases that are indispensable in the cell cycle. However, when it comes to cancer, the cell cycle is not healthy which causes malignancy of the cell that is able to mitosis infinitely. Considering the CDK are a group of molecules that is fundament during mitosis, researchers have developed its inhibitors to inhibit the effect that it has during the cell cycle to postpone the growth of cancer and lead to cancer cell apoptosis. This paper targets on the CDK inhibitors of pan-CDK, CDK4/6, 7, 9, and 12, also introducing their development history and current stages in clinical trials, as well as the drugs related to these CDK inhibitors that are FDA-approved for cancer treatment. In addition, the paper also introduces the future potentials of CDK inhibitors in the treatment and therapy of cancer-related diseases.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230175

    Effect of dietary patterns on the prognosis of breast cancer patients

    Breast cancer (BC) is a serious threat to women's health. Higher BC risk is allegedly related to personal lifestyle like diet. However, it is still unclear how dietary quality affect BC survivors. This meta-analyse aimed to figure out it. The highest and lowest categories of healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns were compared by using the random-effects meta-analyses, which combined relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that were multivariable-adjusted. 11 eligible articles, including two RCTs, three case-control studies, and six cohort studies, were found and included in this paper after they met the inclusion criteria. According to the pooled analyses, when compared to the lowest group, women with the highest quality healthy diet (highest quintile/quartile/tertile) had 24% lower risk of overall death(random effects (RR = 0.76; 95%CI = 0.67-0.86), 16% lower risk of BC specific death (random effects (RR = 0.84; 95%CI = 0.75-0.94), 28% lower risk of No-BC death (random effects (RR = 0.72; 95%CI = 0.63-0.83),and 4% higher risk of recurrence (random effects (RR = 1.04; 95%CI = 0.97-1.12). According to our meta-analysis, consuming a high-quality healthy diet was linked to a lower risk of all-cause death. The results could have significant effects on encouraging the use of daily dietary treatment regimen to benefit breast cancer patients. To achieve better long-term survival and better quality of life for BC patients, definitively establishing effective interventions will necessarily require further researches.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230176

    Eribulin and its application as anti-cancer treatment

    Eribulin (E7389) is a synthetic small molecule medication with high anti-cancer efficacy exhibited in preclinical studies. It is a structure-simplified macrocyclic ketone analog of Halichondrin B, which can inhibit the development of microtubule that is essential for the mitosis of cancer cells. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given eribulin approval as a third-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer (approved in 2010) or metastatic liposarcoma (approved in 2016). In a number of clinical trials, eribulin has shown outstanding efficacy and safety in the treatment of solid tumors, particularly for breast cancer and sarcoma. Current eribulin clinical trials focus on its use in the therapy of other various cancer types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), salivary gland cancer, cervical cancer, urethral cancer, and prostate cancer, and its application in combination treatment. The present study summarizes the mechanism, development, and future directions of eribulin, with an emphasis on the results of clinical trials.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230179

    The public health risks of e-cigarettes: a systematic review

    With the relevant anti-smoking policy introduced by the state, people realized the significance of smoking cessation. Therefore, E-cigarettes were regarded as a replacement of cigarettes. The analysis, which is about prevalence trends, the reason about taking systematical review, and the value of systematical review, explains this review’s stand. In this paper, the 9 articles from PubMed was collected and organized for classification.The dangers of human health is caused by the special component of e-cigarettes. Generally speaking, some countries’ legislate measures related to tobacco control have not fully met the requirements of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and played a role in protecting people from tobacco hazards, displaying in the lack of smoke-free legislation in public places at the national level, relatively low tobacco consumption taxes, no comprehensive ban on tobacco sponsorship. The control of e-cigarettes as tobacco products in many countries may not achieve the purpose of strict regulation. The authority believed to add punishment to people who sell novel flavor e-cigarettes should let them take legal responsibility. Furthermore, schools should increase publicity and education about public and individual health, to promote people’s health awareness and stop them from using e-cigarettes at a relatively young age.The objective of this review is to spot literature and describe the effects of e-cigarettes on public human health. Through researching and comparing articles, this article discusses the reason of smoking, the lack in policies in public health, and the solutions what people should take.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230180

    Clinical efficacy of sodium dependent glucose transporters 2 inhibitor in the treatment of heart failure

    When it comes to diseases, heart failure is always an important issue for people around the whole world. Patients may suffer a lot when they have heart failure. Every year, there are a lot of people who dead because of having Heart Failure in and out of America. Nowadays, there are mainly two types of heart failures, HFrEF (heart failure reduced ejection fraction) and HFpEF (heart failure preserved ejection fraction). Research show that SGLT2 including Dapagliflozin, sotagliflozin, empagliflozin, and other types of inhibitors are effective when used to treat with heart failure patients regardless of whether they have had diseases like diabetes before. With the support of researches mentioned in the following passage, this idea will be reliable and we believe that with such kind of good news that the SGLT2 inhibitor are actually contributing to the process of dealing with HF, people who have been suffer from HF will one day be able to cured.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230188

    Immune escape mechanism of PD-1/PD-L1 in non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC) and its related drug treatment

    In recent years, a variety of treatment methods for Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been used, but most of them fail to show significant effect due to the late stage of diagnosis. At present, immunotherapy has become a new way of tumor therapy and attracted wide attention, among which programmed death molecule-1(PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1(PD-L1) have been proved to relate to immune escape in NSCLC, and relevant clinical drugs have shown a clear therapeutic effect. The related drugs can relieve the immune tolerance by blocking the pathway, and play a role in tumor killing. There are now various related drugs. Here, I review the progresses of the mechanistic role of PD-1 pathway in the tumor immune escape and effect of related drugs therapy.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230191

    Research on the role of hippocampus in memory consolidation

    The length of time needed to recover memories in the hippocampus area varies greatly across the existing theories of system-level consolidation. These competing hypotheses do, however, have connections. The standard consolidation theory, multiple trace theory, and scene construction theory are the three existing models that are examined in this study. After reexamining their features, the authors test whether the three models can be integrated in terms of trace duration and function. It is better to think of the hippocampus's contribution to system-level consolidation as a functional transition from retention to rebuilding through time rather than just a question of persistence. The involvement of the hippocampus in memory retrieval may be fitted into a more thorough model in terms of functional transformation since the two functions, retention and reconstruction, are of equal significance and can scarcely be divided into two sections.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230192

    Liquid biopsy of circulating tumor DNA in cerebrospinal fluid for early diagnosis of brain malignancies: A review

    Brain cancer is the most aggressive intracranial disease: once diagnosed, 70% of patients will not survive. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential to improving the survival rate of diagnosed patients. Currently, imaging scans and pathological biopsies are mainly relied on to confirm the diagnosis of brain tumors. However, imaging scans do not confirm the diagnosis or tumor grade, nor do assess response and monitor treatment effect. Similarly, pathological biopsies are highly invasive and difficult to repeat. To address these limitations, the field has proposed the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a liquid biopsy method to detect circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). This review focuses on how liquid biopsy of CSF ctDNA can facilitate and complement the clinical care of patients with brain tumors. Relevant reviews in the past five years show that ctDNA is highly expressed and its content in CSF is higher than that in plasma. By sequencing the ctDNA of CSF, the diagnosis and prognosis information of brain tumors can be obtained, the best treatment method can be selected, the treatment response can be monitored, and the tumor evolution can be tracked. Because ctDNA detection is still in the research stage and lacks standardized technology, its effectiveness and practicality require further investigation before they can be used in clinical practice.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230193

    The advantages and disadvantages of different types of vaccines: DNA vaccine, mRNA vaccine, and inactivated vaccine

    The use of vaccines to combat disease by humans has been ongoing for centuries and has produced significant results. However, with the development of technology, different types of vaccines have emerged, and often people are confused as to which is the best. This paper have analyzes three main types of vaccines that have been developed and commercialized: DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines, and inactivated vaccines, to gain insight into the issues associated with vaccines. This paper explained the mechanisms of action and the process of their production, and identified some of their potential advantages and disadvantages. Finally, this study draw the conclusion that each type of vaccine has unique properties that cannot be replaced by others and that it was not easy to determine the best among them.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230194

    Association of tau protein and Alzheimer’s disease

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a kind of neurodegeneration disease and often happens in older people. Age is an influencing factor in the prevalence of AD. Up to now, AD is still difficult to cure and only limited medications can relieve some of the symptoms. Therefore, research on the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases has become more and more popular in recent years. Multiple studies offer some proof that the tau protein mutation and AD are related. This review described the structure and the purpose of the tau protein. The linkage between abnormal tau mutation and AD is further clarified, and a summary of two medications for AD is also included.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230197

    Overview of hydrogenated vegetable oil

    People are always amazed by the crunchiness of a great cookie or cupcake. What are the substances involved? The author discovered a chemical dubbed "trans-fat" in the nutrition table while browsing it. We discovered that trans-fat is formed by hydrogenated vegetable oil through data collection. Hydrogenated vegetable oil is extensively used in foods such as cream, biscuits, and ice cream. People taste and appreciate the food at the same time. People are wondering about whether these butter goods are beneficial to their bodies and how much they should eat on a daily basis when they taste the cuisine. This research using a literature review examines how hydrogenated vegetable oil is produced and used, as well as how it affects the human body. This study uses the strengths of previous authors' work to determine how to lower the trans fatty acid content of hydrogenated vegetable oil products and how much trans fatty acid-containing hydrogenated vegetable oil products should be consumed daily.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230198

    Current drug treatments for Alzheimer's disease

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the four biggest killers of the elderly, along with heart disease, lung cancer and cerebrovascular disease. However, the current understanding of the underlying causes and treatment of AD is based only on some hypotheses, which makes our research on AD urgent. Based on the common inducing hypotheses of Alzheimer's disease, such as β-amyloid deposition hypothesis, tau protein phosphorylation hypothesis, and viral infection hypothesis, this article will search and summarize a variety of specific drugs for different pathological hypotheses in the medical community, including those that have been marketed and those that have shown good therapeutic effects in clinical trials. Find, understand and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each specific drug, so as to better and faster help to study the latest specific drug for Alzheimer's disease, and change the quality of life and physical condition of people with Alzheimer's disease and their families.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230199

    The role and mechanism of adipose stem cells in facial anti-aging

    ADSCs are stem cells found in adipose tissue that can self-renew in vitro and undergo multidirectional differentiation in containers. They may have anti-aging effects through their growth factors as well as their multidirectional differentiation function. In this paper, we searched PubMed, Web Of Science, CNKI, and other databases for related articles in recent years through relevant keywords, and the results showed that ADSCs have significant effects on facial anti-aging such as inhibiting skin wrinkle increase, whitening facial skin, and promoting hair regeneration. This paper presents a multifaceted analysis of the underlying mechanisms of action and related research on the application of adipose stem cells in facial skin anti-aging. It will enable medical aesthetic physicians to have a better understanding of the role and mechanism of ADSCs in facial anti-aging so that they can better provide healthy and standardized medical aesthetic services.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230205

    A review of Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in HER2+ metastatic breast cancer treatment development

    Metastatic breast cancer continues to have high mortality rates despite the numerous advances in drug therapy. Breast cancer patients have acquired resistance to current treatments, and severe adverse effects, such as cardiotoxicity caused by Trastuzumab, further contribute to the high mortality rate. Therefore, novel drugs with greater specificity and less severe adverse effects must be developed to combat the rise in treatment resistance. Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is an attractive drug of choice since lapatinib is not associated with cardiotoxicity, given its greater specificity to HER2 receptors compared to trastuzumab. This review provides a brief overview of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their overall mechanism of action in treating HER2+ cancers. The study further summarizes the mechanism of action of Lapatinib, its pharmacokinetic properties, its clinical applications, the tools of the act of lapatinib resistance, and recent advances in developing derivatives of Lapatinib to combat lapatinib-acquired resistance.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230208

    COVID-19 policies: Analysis and implication

    Since the spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 from China to different parts of the world, every country’s government has tried their best in conducting policies to protect their people and their economy. Their approaches can be generally classified into three types, moderatism represented by Singapore, conservatism represented by China and liberalism represented by the United States. To investigate the effectiveness of these measures, the data about the economy (in particular the Gross Domestic Product) as well as about the coronavirus (in particular the fatality rate and the number of confirmed cases) is studied and analysed. The relationship between GDP and the number of confirmed cases can be deducted. The development of the virus against time can be simulated and discussed. The results and further discussions can be helpful in clearing the pandemic from the Earth especially from less developed countries and in better preparing us when facing future possible pandemics.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230213

    The effect of the Mediterranean diet on obesity

    Due to the rising prevalence of obesity, it has become a major public health problem. This paper explores the effects of the Mediterranean diet on obesity and the possible mechanisms through literature research. According to the findings, a strong adherence to the Mediterranean diet was linked to greater weight loss and a lower risk of obesity. Prevention of obesity is key, and strategies to change the eating habits of people are needed to slow the progression of obesity prevalence.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230216

    The influence of vortices on hemodynamics in blood vessels

    Blood flow in vessels is affected by several factors like vessel shape, blood thickness, and heart function. Swirling patterns of flow, called vortices, are often seen in blood vessels and can affect how blood flows. This study aims to understand how vortices affect blood flow and the reasons behind these changes. Different instruments, like particle image velocimetry (PIV), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were used to measure and analyze blood flow. CFD simulations were done using realistic blood vessel models to study how vortices form and how they affect blood velocity and pressure. The results show that vortices can cause significant changes in blood velocity and pressure, which can lead to changes in blood flow. The increased wall shear stress may contribute to the development of heart disease. This research highlights the importance of considering the impact of vortices on blood flow dynamics when designing and assessing cardiovascular devices and treatments.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230219

    The inverse relationship between income and the prevalence of dementia in high-income nations

    Dementia continues to be a serious problem worldwide. A negative relationship between the prevalence of dementia and the level of socioeconomic status (SES), such as income can be observed in most countries. The aim of the study in this paper is to explore the possible pathways that contribute to this negative relationship. This article analyses and presents three possible causes of health inequalities between SES gradients in dementia and possible solutions to them, through a large collection of articles. Differences in health literacy, housing levels and social support caused by SES such as different incomes lead to social inequalities in health through behavioral/cultural pathway, material pathway and psychosocial pathway respectively.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230221

    Analysis of the possibility of effectiveness that therapeutic techniques for diabetes in the treatment of heart failure

    Many studies have revealed that the recurrence of heart failure (HF) in patients with diabetes is significantly higher than that in patients without diabetes, and insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism are common in patients with HF. Therefore, heart failure is an important clinical problem in diabetic patients. Diabetes and heart failure are "killers" that go hand in hand. They share common risk factors. Patients with heart failure frequently have hyperglycemia, and heart failure is a typical complication for diabetic patients. Based on the possible association between the two diseases, this paper will further analyze the therapies of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and explore whether it can have an effect on how to address heart failure. The study's findings demonstrated that treating type 2 diabetes did have some influence on the management of heart failure and that treating type 2 diabetes did reduce the progression of heart failure symptoms.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230222

    CRISPR-Cas9 as a tool for treating cystic fibrosis through gene editing

    The most common cause of mortality is Cystic Fibrosis, a fatal genetic disease. However, in recent years, there have been a growing number of papers concentrating on CRISPR-Cas9, a gene-editing tool that is being used to permanently cure this genetic disease, named by a biopharmaceutical company EditasMedicine, invested in by Bill Gates. However, before the breadth of search and study of this technology continuously expands, challenges and remaining issues should be addressed. This paper reviews the mechanisms of cystic fibrosis and discusses its technical challenges, such as efficiency, safety and delivery of gene editing, potential side effects, and ethical issues, this paper also talks about the future applications of CRISPR-Cas9 in other diseases, so as to provide an alternative treatment method for the diseases with gene editing better results can be obtained.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230223

    T-cells’ roles and potentials as a therapeutic target in human sepsis

    Sepsis is a severe syndrome that is associated with both inflammatory responses and immune system dysfunctions. The most frequent location of injuries caused by sepsis is the respiratory system, followed by the digestive system, and the circulatory system. Researchers have revealed the relationship between T cells and sepsis. To be specific, during the pathology of sepsis, T cells could be damaged, deactivated, and inhibited, while they could also act as an agent that amplifies the sepsis syndrome. This paper focuses on analyzing 3 types of T cells: CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and regulatory T cells. The populations of the first two types would be reduced, while the functions of regulatory T cells could lead to further immunosuppression during sepsis. Although to date there is no effective treatment to cure this disease, treatment plans targeting immune stimulation and Treg suppression are also examined and analyzed in depth in this paper.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230224

    Does oridonin inhibit the growth of small-cell lung cancer?

    Research Question: Can oridonin inhibit small cell lung cancer growth by blocking the Notch signalling? Purpose: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive illness with a low 5-year survival rate. Oridonin is a Chinese medicine extracted from the leaves of the Rabdosia rubescens, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, which has been proven to have many medical effects in opposition to the tumour. Notch signalling is an essential pathway in multicellular organisms and transfers information into living organisms. Methods: This study will use a human small-cell lung cancer cell line (H1688). Migration assay will test the influence of oridonin on cell migration. A Xenograft mouse tumour model is created to determine the effect of oridonin on tumour growth. Annexin V will test cell apoptosis, and a western blot is used to test whether Notch signalling is activated. All the assays are repeated three times, and the statistics are analyzed by calculating the means and doing the student's t-test. Possible results: There are three main possible results:(1) Oridonin can inhibit SCLC growth by blocking the notch signalling. (2) Oridonin can inhibit the tumour growth of SCLC cells but not by blocking notch signalling. (3) Oridonin cannot inhibit tumour growth but can block the notch signalling. Conclusion: The study will show whether oridonin can inhibit the growth of SCLC by blocking the notch signalling. It will provide a new method of treatment for those with SCLCs.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230226

    Correlation and enlightenment between type 2 diabetes and aging from the perspective of oxidative stress

    Type 2 diabetes is a very common type in diabetes, which is also called noninsulin-dependent diabetes. This paper focuses on the correlation between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and aging from the perspective of oxidative stress (OS), including the pathway that T2D produces oxidative stress and the effect that oxidative stress imposes on T2D. This paper also mentioned some specific mechanisms, like a glycolytic pathway, enhanced formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), activation of protein kinase C (PKC), and deactivation of the insulin signaling pathway. In addition, this paper also talks about the important influence of OS in the process of aging. And, the attention was focused on the excessive ROS produced by mitochondria. On this basis, this paper sorts out the correlation between aging and T2D in OS and finds some experimental evidence, through which this paper also offers some enlightenment from the way of anti-aging to anti-diabetes.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230229

    Research on factors associated with lung cancer

    Lung cancer has become one of the most widely infected cancers around the world and is getting more attention from scientists and the public. Thus, based on the dataset Lung Cancer uploaded on Kaggle in 2022, this paper reviews previous research on risk factors about their effects and mechanisms on lung cancer. Besides, by transforming categorical variables into numerical ones and using chi-square tests of independence, this paper examines whether independent variables in the dataset are associated with lung cancer development. This paper finds that variables ‘gender’, ‘smoking’, ‘chronic disease’ and ‘shortness of breath’ are not tested associated with lung cancer development; variable ‘yellow finger’ and the other nine independent variables are tested as factors contributing to lung cancer. Identifying these risk factors and analyzing their mechanisms can effectively help people prevent lung cancer and support the development of lung cancer treatment.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230230

    Analysis on the effect of genes on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive weakness and atrophy of the muscles including the bulb (the part of the muscles innervated by the medulla oblongata), limbs, trunk, chest, and abdomen following injury to upper and lower motor neurons. However, the reasons for developing ALS are still not very clear. Both genetic defects and environmental factors may damage motor neurons. At present, ALS is a difficult disease to cure. For environmental factors, people can change their lifestyles to reduce or avoid the effects of the environment. However, inherited genetic defects are hard to avoid. Therefore, in this paper, the author explores the treatment of ALS by analyzing and summarizing a large number of papers and experimental studies learning the relationship between genes and ALS. In conclusion, the gene TARDBP and the gene C9ORF72 were found in a large number of disease-causing genes. Mutations in these genes can lead to changes in the encoded proteins that cause the development of ALS disease.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230233

    The role and efficacy of PROTAC in FLT3-mutated AML treatment

    Small molecule Proteolysis Targeting Chimera (PROTAC) is an effective therapy for patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia (AML). By activating the ubiquitination system, PROTAC can generate protein and kinase degradation upon FLT3 to perform outcomes of antiproliferative activities. The focus of this study revolves around the investigation of the efficacy of VHL and CRBN-based PROTAC on FLT3 degradation compared to conventional immunotherapy agents such as quizartinib. By assessing the performances of PROTAC on MOLM-14 and MV4-11 cells with other therapies, comparing both adverse effects and benefits could demonstrate crucial approaches to applying PROTAC for AML treatments. The VHL-recruiting PROTAC based on the modification of quizartinib has shown promising effects where FLT3 within MV4-11 injected athymic mice had experienced around a 60% of decrease. The CRBN-based degrader TL12-186, on the other hand, had also demonstrated antiproliferative outcomes where 14 out of 7559 proteins of the MOLM-14 cell have been successfully degraded, showing a more than 25% decrease. Even though there seem to be some improvements in the VHL-recruiting PROTAC compared to traditional immunotherapy agents like quizartinib, CRBN-mediated PROTAC has shown a relatively less significant result. Critiquing in a variety of aspects, quizartinib has demonstrated better performance in cell permeability, low nanomolecular concentration, and degradation. The significance of this study provides an overview of existing PROTAC technology that shows effects on the treatment of FLT3-mutated AML. Further studies may be conducted on the foundation of this study to demonstrate the enhancements of each modified PROTAC compared to existing therapies.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230239

    Scientific facts on proteins when cooking

    Protein is an essential part of food and makes a large contribution to the nutritional value of food. This paper evaluates protein by finding out the impact of different cooking methods on protein, and the influence of protein properties on the choice of cooking method. The results of this paper indicate that deep-frying maximizes the nutritional value of sturgeon. Cooking time and temperature have an impact on protein denaturation and nutritional value. Controlling heating time and temperature precisely can maximize retention of the color, flavor, and aroma of food. Using low-temperature vacuum cooking can reduce the loss of nutrients and moisture and also prevent secondary contamination. Different processes before cooking, such as basting, can not only increase the nutritional value but also enhance the flavor. The analysis can provide detailed information about the protein value and know what is the best way to cook sturgeon. It also provides a better understanding of the choice of cooking method and how to handle the food before cooking.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230242

    Research on the effects of gaming on the brain

    In recent decades, with the help of computer brain imaging technology and other advanced science and technology, a wealth of research achievements has been made in brain science related to games. These achievements explain the deep mechanism of games and provide scientific theoretical basis for the application of games. This paper analyses the effects of games on the brain. On the one hand, it focuses on the analysis and discussion of the positive effects on the brain in four aspects, including games make the brain excited, become more intelligent, improve agility skills, and improve observation. On the other hand, it summarizes the negative effects of excessive games on the brain, including the structural changes of the brain, mental malaise and brain stunting. In the end, the paper summarizes and summarizes the full text.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230245

    Mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase and therapeutic modalities

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is crucial in the metabolism pathway that converts isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. When isocitrate dehydrogenase is mutated, IDH produces 2-hydroxyglutarate instead of alpha-ketoglutarate. The newly formed IDH, with the ability to dysregulate the metabolic pathways of cells, can potentially lead to the development of cancer. The mutation leads to malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia and glioma. Current treatment for IDH-related malignancies includes IDH inhibitors, epigenetic modulators, immunotherapies, and cancer vaccination. The development of a cancer vaccine requires the discovery of a suitable epitope being found. Newly developed deep learning algorithms have the ability to predict protein structures and thus have the potential to help discover suitable epitopes for cancer vaccines. This study discusses the structure of IDH and gives an overview of how mutated IDH can potentially cause malignancies. In addition, this study proposed potential approaches with deep learning to aid the investigation of preventing IDH using cancer vaccines.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230249

    Existing methods to improve immunotherapy's limitations: CAR-T cell therapy and checkpoint inhibitors

    Immunotherapy is a form of treatment for cancer that works by provoking the immune system of the body into tracking down and destroying cancer cells. CAR-T-CT is a treatment that makes use of CAR-T cells (CARs), which are T cells (T-Cs) that have been modified in some way by the incorporation of engineered synthetic receptors. This therapy is designed to destroy cells that express a specific target antigen, and its primary objective is to do so by locating and killing those cells. Due to the fact that Immune CPI inhibits the production of specific proteins (checkpoint protein) on immune cells as well as on cancer cells thereby preventing the immune system from combating cancer, Immune CPI are used to treat cancer. By inhibiting the activity of these proteins, CPI is able to contribute to the process of stimulating the immune system to specifically target and destroy cancer cells. However, there are still some limitations that exist, and these have the potential to reduce the effectiveness of the treatment or produce some side effects that are life-threatening. This article makes a few suggestions for innovative steps that could be taken in order to both improve the current state of affairs and find answers to any problems that may arise in the near or distant future. The article makes these suggestions in order to improve the current state of affairs and find answers to any problems that may arise in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230250

    Analysis of methods for heart failure

    Heart Failure (HF) is one of the major causes of death from various heart diseases and is a common complex clinical syndrome. HF has a high incidence and its 5-year survival rate is similar to that of patients with malignant tumors, which has a serious impact on the quality of life of patients and has become a major public health problem of worldwide concern. At this stage, the clinical treatment of HF is still mainly based on drug therapy. As clinical research progresses, more and more new HF therapeutic drugs are being introduced one after another, new uses of drugs are being discovered and clinical options for drug use are becoming more and more diverse. The drug therapy for HF is also changing from monotherapy to multi-target and multi-mechanism combined mode of action. Innovative mechanical therapy products are also bringing new strategies to the treatment of HF. This article reviews the medication treatment and device implantation strategies for the clinical treatment of HF.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230251

    Study of physiological and pathological information mining with biological information similarity analysis

    Chronic diseases, such as sleep apnea and Parkinson's disease, are characterized by insidious onset, complex etiology, slow course, and easy-to-cause other complications, which seriously affect life quality of the patients. Real-time monitoring of biological information can effectively reveal the occurrence and development of chronic diseases. It also helps in aspects of early diagnosis and treating options. In current study, the dynamic change rules of biological signals caused by chronic diseases have been explored, from which one can realize the auxiliary diagnosis and evaluation of these diseases. Attention has been focused on physiological fluctuation and coordination of biological information similarity, including pulse fluctuation detection in patients with sleep apnea and plantar pressure coordination assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease. In the biological similarity study, the heart rate from sleep apnea patients has been recorded two minutes before and after breath pulse. Information of the average plantar pressure from both foot of Parkinson patients has also been recorded and analyzed. Results show that: for sleep apnea patients, their heart rate fluctuation level has significantly reduced. That is because the human body enhances its sympathetic nerve activity to open the airway. The heart rate starts to change periodically, resulting in its fluctuations tending to be consistent. Compared with ordinary people, PD patients have weaker biological information similarities of plantar pressure on one foot. Also, information similarity between left and right feet of PD patients was more diversified. It revealed that the left and right foot plantar pressure fluctuated more and tended to be more consistent together with gait disorder and weakened balance. Such results show that the similarity of biological information can effectively excavate the fluctuation and coordination of physiological signals, and effectively contribute to the recognition and auxiliary diagnosis of chronic diseases. Data mining methods applied here helps to explore the physiological and pathological mechanism of the studied chronic diseases and sheds light on early diagnosis and severity assessment. It becomes more promising to develop algorithms, software, and hardware systems that is helpful for patients and facilitate promotion of human life quality and health cause.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230252

    How diseases spread through social networks

    This paper uses the main concept of centrality accompanied by the theory of “the strength of weak ties” to explain how social networks facilitate the spread of major diseases. The major diseases that this paper would take a look at are the COVID virus, smallpox, and cholera. Be-fore doing so, a brief introduction would be made and the paper would infer some research that utilizes social network models and helps the paper to further elaborate. Eventually, the paper would conclude with the reasons if applying social networks to the study of the spread of diseases could help with understanding the spread or not. As well as the fact to see what factors could interfere with the process.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230255

    Effect of production process and flavor additions on Greek yogur

    Greek yogurt has become increasingly popular among consumers in recent years because of its high protein and low fat properties. There are two main processes for the production of Greek yogurt, i.e. whey filtration process and non-whey filtration process. The whey filtration process is to separate the whey from the regular yogurt; the non-whey filtration process is to add whey protein to the regular yogurt to increase the protein content of the yogurt. In China, due to the short time of developing Greek yogurt, the utilization efficiency of whey is not high, so the production is still mainly based on non-filtered whey process. At this stage, many companies have developed various flavors of Greek yogurt to meet the consumers' demand for different flavors and tastes of Greek yogurt. In this paper, by comparing the raw material ratios and processes of plain Greek yogurt with fruit flavored Greek yogurt, rose flavored Greek yogurt and chia seed Greek yogurt, the results obtained show that the added flavor additives have a small effect on the raw material ratios of Greek yogurt production, and the nature of the added flavor additives will have an effect on the time they are added in the production, resulting in a product with uniform texture and smooth taste.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230257

    Brief classification and latest therapy for lactose intolerance

    Lactose intolerance is a digestive problem with a high incidence worldwide. The disease occurs mainly due to a lack or deficiency of lactase in the body, which prevents effective digestion of lactose. Congenital lactose intolerance is caused by a genetic defect that prevents the body from producing enough lactase, and its incidence is relatively low. Secondary lactose intolerance is caused by other gastrointestinal disorders, such as celiac disease, and is relatively common. Functional lactose intolerance is the most common form of lactose intolerance, in which lactase activity is reduced or lactose absorption is impaired, but there is no apparent organic disease. This article lists several possible solutions for different types of lactose intolerance based on the latest research. In studies of lactose intolerance, scientists have found that the rate of lactose intolerance varies widely across populations, with significant differences in prevalence by race and region. In addition, several studies have shown a link between lactose intolerance and the composition of the gut microbiome. Therefore, the study of lactose intolerance has important implications for understanding how the human digestive system works and the relationship between the gut microbiome and health.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230263

    Protein prediction algorithms: homology modeling, AlphaFold, and Foldit

    Protein, one of the most basic structures of biological molecules, have its own four level structure that corresponds with its function. The structures make every protein unique and diverse. Studies of protein must be based on the understanding on protein's structure. Thus, methods must be applied to predict the protein structure. Old methods include homology modeling that are both expensive and time consuming. With the development of modern technology, new methods such as Foldit and AlphaFold was invented. The report would introduce these methods and comparisons would be made between these methods.The introduction aims to improve the understanding about protein prediction for relative researchers.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230265

    G proteins: introduction of its history, structure, function, and drug development

    G protein-coupled receptor can be written in GPCR, it has a big great family and this species include 800 human genes, it become the important part of human body. Although each species has their own unique skills, it can make different kind of medicine that can save human’s life. And then there's the G-protein-coupled receptor mechanism. The GPCR desensitization regulator - arrestin was further analyzed, and researchers discovered that GPCRs could be activated not only through the G-protein-dependent pathway but also through the non-G-protein-dependent pathway, known as the -inhibitor pathway, to control the ingestion and desensitization throughout vivo and even start a new wave of signal transduction. The development of G-protein-coupled receptor drugs followed. GPCR is strongly associated to pathological conditions and has an essential function in cell signal transmission. More than 40% of the medicines on the market today target GPCR, which is the reached a high point family of pharmacological targets. The intracellular effector proteins (G proteins, etc.) that are activated by the GPCR play an important role in the regulation of its physiological function.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230267

    ATAC-seq: A powerful tool for investigating chromatin accessibility and transcription factor binding

    Chromatin Transposase Accessibility Sequencing is a new high-throughput sequencing technique developed by Professor William Greenleaf in 2013 which uses DNA transposase to probe chromatin accessibility with Tn5 transposase. This technique, which is simpler and more sensitive than DNase-seq, MNase-seq and FAIRE-seq and requires fewer cells, has been used to study chromatin accessibility using Tn5 transposase. ATAC-seq is important for the study of epigenetic molecular mechanisms because it can map chromatin accessibility on a genome-wide scale, compare open chromatin regions in different tumour samples, compare differences in transcription factor binding between treatments, reveal nucleosome localisation information and transcription factor binding sites, and can be used to locate specific unknown transcription factors, which can be used in combination with other methods to screen for specific transcription factors of interest. It is possible to combine this approach with others to investigate specific regulatory factors. Herein, ATAC-seq is systemically profiled to present that ATAC-seq has enormous potential to drive future discoveries in the field of genomics and beyond.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230268

    Treatment for heavy metal pollution: remediating soil environment by harnessing genetic and biochemical capabilities of bacteria

    Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances, also known as pollutants, into the environment. As all living things depend on clean air, water, and land for survival, pollution is a significant problem on a worldwide scale. In addition, heavy metals are the most essential and common contaminants in soil environments. These pollutants are widely diffused, harmful to human health, and persistent in soil environments. Owing to the circumstances locally and worldwide, pollution assessment and bacterial remediation techniques for polluted soil have gained substantial attention and become essential. Here, this review covers four bacterial processes involved in bacterial remediation technology, including heavy metal adsorption and adhesion, redox transformation of heavy metals, and the function of mycorrhizal fungi. Also, a case study of a detailed experiment on pollution treatment is presented. This research aims to eliminate heavy metal pollution by using bacterial remediation technology in order to save human beings and the environment since long-term exposure to heavy metals can cause lung cancer and bone fractures in humans, thus posing a significant security threat and hidden danger to human society.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230270

    Potential benefits of bird interspecies cooperation

    This meta-analysis explores the potential benefits of bird interspecies cooperation, which is less common than cooperation within a species but can yield more complex advantages. The study identifies various forms of interspecies cooperation, such as alarm calls, foraging flocks, and mobbing behavior, and suggests that these behaviors are primarily geared towards enhancing foraging efficiency and reducing predation risks. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the intricacies of animal behavior and can inform efforts to conserve and manage ecosystems. Studies on bird interspecies cooperation can provide valuable insights into the behavioral dynamics of different bird species and their interactions with other animals, which can be useful in understanding the intricacies of ecological systems. This knowledge can have significant implications for conservation efforts, as well as sustainable agricultural practices, particularly regarding pest control. Additionally, research on bird interspecies cooperation can inform our understanding of human behavior and contribute to environmental education efforts.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230271

    Effects of masks on marine animals

    Due to the global pandemic, we are producing a large number of discarded masks every day. At the same time, some of them will find their way into the ocean and affect the Marine ecology. This paper will analyze the damage of waste masks to the ocean, and give solutions for reference. Through case analysis, this paper concludes that waste masks have brought certain impacts on various Marine organisms and destroyed the stability of Marine ecosystems, but there are still some solutions to improve the problem. This article will provide solutions that can be adopted by governments today, as well as some directions and goals that can be developed in the future. In the future, we can better protect the Marine ecology and pay attention to environmental protection although there will be some cost burden for the government. To protect animals while improving the overall environment of the earth on which human live.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230276

    Global status of antibiotic resistance and management

    The greatest achievement of the 20th century is the invention and use of antibiotics. However, the abuse use of antibiotics caused by poor regulation has become an urgent issue worldwide, and has risen to be a threat to the global public health, bringing a great financial burden on society. From the perspective of the world, the United States has a long history of development in the discovery, application and regulatory process of antibiotics, forming sufficient cognition and relatively perfect countermeasures. Although the European Union and its member states started the measures to curb antibiotic resistance late, they also caught up and gradually established a complete monitoring system. As the largest developing country, China still has a lot to work on, especially the construction of basic medical facilities and systems. It can be seen that the importance of antibiotics use and management have become a global consensus. This article elaborated and focus the current situation of antibiotic resistance in the United States, the European Union and China as well as the corresponding countermeasures taken by each country. Countries should collaborate together and establish a global system to monitor the use of antibiotics in order to control antibiotic resistance.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230279

    Effectiveness of early cancer detection method: magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray technique

    Cancer is a major problem plaguing human society today. With the research and development of nano-drug delivery technology and new non-surgical treatment methods, many types of early cancers can be cured or effectively controlled. However, the current treatment methods for advanced cancer are still limited, and efficient early cancer identification is crucial for enhancing patients’ prognosis and survival rates. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray technologies are currently the mainstream and generally applicable means of early cancer detection. However, there is a lack of unified comparison and interpretation for their respective applicable cancer detection types. Herein, the paper first provides a comprehensive comparison and explanation of the working principles of the two technologies, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Further, this article introduces the application of MRI and X-ray technology in the early detection of different common cancer types, including lung, breast, and brain cancers. The paper found that MRI is crucial in the early detection of brain cancer, and X-ray is a common method for lung cancer screening. With further advances in technology, cancer-related deaths can be further curbed.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230283

    The measurement and analysis of cardiopulmonary system

    With the increasing aging population and prevalence of chronic diseases, the demand for vital signs monitoring is becoming more and more crucial. Pulse wave, blood oxygen, and respiratory wave are the three fundamental vital sign indicators that can provide essential health information and play a critical role in disease diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is increasingly important to utilize digital signal processing techniques to accurately monitor and analyze these vital signs. This paper talks about the how to measure the signal of the cardiopulmonary system with the digital devices and how to use the MATLAB to analyze the date to give a perspective about monitoring the health information.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230285

    The relationship between the wettability and the density of stomata

    stomata are channels for respiration of plants, and they are vital to keep it unblocked. In nature, in order to avoid the surface stomata being covered by water and ensure the normal respiration of stomata, plant leaves in nature are realized by a variety of methods, among which the difference surface wettability plays a crucial role in the distribution density of stomata. To explore the relationship between the wettability and the stomata density, this thesis investigates how the top and bottom density of stomata on plant surface affect the survivability of elm leaves (plant in the Ulmaceae family). Here, we find its lower surface with superhydrophobic function is covered by large amount of stomata. While the bottom surface with hydrophilic performance is smooth and covered by a small amount stomata. This research reveals the significant of waterproof function to the survival of leaf and has potential application in air exchange underwater.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230287

    Lysosomal proton pump: its role in SARS-CoV-2’s egress and future therapeutic application

    The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is currently spreading throughout the world. The severity of the situation has increased efforts to create efficient prevention and treatment strategies. SARS-CoV-2 has been the subject of numerous experiments, and as a result, scientists now understand it better. Usually, the virus exits the cell through exocytosis. However, SARS-CoV-2 utilizes deacidified lysosomes as a means to egress from the infected cell.This proposal shows a deep understanding of lysosomal viral secretion and elaborates on the impact of the lysosomal proton pump, which functions to regulate the pH value of the endo-lysosomal environment, on lysosome functioning. Experiment are proposed to test the ability of a lysosomal proton pump inhibitor to impede the egress of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and analyze its potential application in a therapeutic target.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230290

    Future directions for management and treatment of algal blooms: A case study of filamentous——Cyanobacteria in Dianchi Lake

    In March of each year, dormant spores of filamentous cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flosaquae) responsible for algal blooms in Dianchi Lake start to revive as the temperature reaches around 14 degrees Celsius. The apparent succession phenomenon between filamentous cyanobacteria and microcystis algae has made it one of the dominant species of eutrophication in Dianchi Lake. So far, China has invested more than 50 billion RMB in the treatment of eutrophication in Dianchi Lake, but the situation remains far from optimistic, with water quality only being classified as Class IV. To achieve sustainable development in Dianchi Lake water quality treatment and restoration, it is important to consider the economic value of the treatment products while implementing the remediation. Filamentous cyanobacteria, one of the main pollutants of eutrophication in water bodies, can be used to extract AFA-phycocyanin, which has been identified as a complex of C-phycocyanin/allophycocyanin, phycobiliproteins (including the chromophore phycoviolobilin), AFA-photosynthetic pigments, and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA). These extracts can be used in nutritional cosmetics and pharmaceutical compositions for the prevention or treatment of diseases, disorders, or symptoms involving acute or chronic inflammation, oxidative denaturation of cellular or tissue, or uncontrolled cell proliferation. By extracting and processing filamentous cyanobacteria, its economic value can be increased, treatment costs can be reduced, and contributions can be made to the sustainable development of algal bloom pollution control in Dianchi Lake.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230292

    Synthesis of dihydrolucilactaene: a newly discoveredantimalarial compound

    The discovery of dihydrolucilactaene as a secondary metabolite in fungus Fusarium sp. RK97-94 showed a 100-fold increase in potency in antimalarial activity compared with its analogue—lucilactaene. Although dihydrolucilactaene shows a high level of antimalarial activity and had been shown to be a promising drug lead candidate for malaria treatment due to its highly selective cytotoxicity towards malaria-causing pathogens and negligible cytotoxicity towards other cells at lower concentrations, its complete biosynthesis pathway in Fusarium sp. RK97-94 is still to be determined, making mass production of the molecule via biological means less than desirable. In this work, we propose a complete chemical synthesis route for dihydrolucilactaene via a series of reactions involving commercially available reagents for the potential industrial application and mass production of dihydrolucilactaene.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230293

    Different treatments for different types of gastric cancer

    Abnormal cell growth in the main part of the stomach is what usually leads to gastric cancer. 44% of newly diagnosed gastric cancer cases worldwide occur in China. Overall, gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death. In recent years, some progress has been made in treating gastric cancer, and it has been found through research that hereditary gastric cancer does exist. The treatment options for gastric cancer will be analyzed and studied in this article. The various stages of gastric cancer will be introduced, along with the various treatment options based on the staging. Through research, early, middle, and late stages of gastric cancer can be distinguished. Early gastroscopy, a CT scan, positron emission tomography, local excision in the middle and late stages, chemotherapy, immunology, and medications for treatment are a few of the treatment options for gastric cancer. Different gastric cancers and patients use various diagnostic and therapeutic approaches depending on the type of cancer they have. Patients can better combat tumor cells and increase their five-year survival rate by using various diagnostic techniques for various time periods. Gastric cancer diagnostic research is anticipated to significantly lower the incidence of the disease with better early detection and chemoprevention for patients.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230296

    Epigenetic regulation in plant salt stress response

    As sessile organisms, plants have evolved sophisticated regulatory systems because they must respond to a variety of environmental stimuli. Salt stress, in particular, affects the growth of crop plants and limits crop yield in many saline regions around the world. Therefore, developing salt-tolerant crop cultivars has great significance in global food security. Epigenetic regulation, which contributes to phenotype plasticity without altering the genotype, have important roles in how plant respond to salt stress. Moreover, the heritable nature of epigenetic modifications makes it possible to maintain the information and pass it down to the next generation as stress memory, thus enables the plant and its progeny to cope with recuring stress more efficiently. This paper provides an overview of major achievements in this field by analyzing previous studies, and concludes that major epigenetic regulatory pathways, including histone modifications, DNA modifications and small RNAs, are essential in plant salt stress response, and further insights into these mechanisms are of great value.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230299

    The current applications and potential advantages of the Neuropixels

    Neuropixels technology has revolutionized neuroscience research by allowing scientists to obtain physiological firing data from single neurons in the central nervous system with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. While the technology is already highly advanced, researchers continue to work on improving it further. In this article, the authors summarize several current studies on improvements and applications of Neuropixels probes. This technology is used to capture the characteristic waveforms of neurons in different brain regions, record particular types of neurons, and acquire detailed data. The improvement of the Neuropixels is the AMIE, which solves the problem of implanting the device in unrestrained mice and recycling, enriching the electrodes and the recording sites on each Neuropixels device. By discussion and investigation, the current conduct and some refinements of the Neuropixels are demonstrated in this brief review. However, fragility and ethical problems are still inevitable obstacles of Neuropixels, and their potential harm to human beings still deserves attention.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230300

    The influence of the nervous system on social behavior

    Social behavior plays an essential role in our daily life, not only in humans but also in other species, contacting with others through sociability can help organisms to contact with comrades and distinguish surrounding environments to survive well in different situations. This paper will focus on some techniques that are used widely in detecting neurons and the role of the nervous system in conducting animals' social behavior through mouse models to provide new ideas for the treatment of social disorders.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230307

    The current situation of water pollutants and pollution source in Poyang Lake: A review

    As the largest freshwater lake and the largest connecting lake in the Yangtze River basin, Poyang Lake stores abundant water resources, and undertakes multiple ecological functions. The water pollution of Poyang Lake is related to the ecological environment of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and also affects the regional economic and social development. After sorting out and summarising other literatures, we analysed the main pollutants in Poyang Lake. The discharge of some industrial waste and frequent human activities are the main reasons for the increase of total phosphorus nitrogen, heavy metal pollutants and microplastic pollutants in Poyang Lake.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230311

    Seabirds in China in the face of industrial activities and oil spill: lessons learnt from Bohai Bay

    Seabirds play essential roles in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems, but oil spill and habitat loss through reclamation and degradation have long been adversely affecting their populations worldwide, and thus affecting the well-being of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. In this study, using Bohai Bay in north China, a semi-closed continental sea where oil and gas activities and habitat loss are happening at a rapid pace as an example, threats for seabirds and their overlap with highly-risked areas in terms of an oil spill are reviewed. The results showed that while Bohai Bay is one of the most important sites for seabirds and waterbirds on the eastern China coast, oil spills and habitat loss are affecting the population of the birds. We concluded that sea birds in Bohai are at severe risks of oil spill and habitat loss, oil spill risks are especially high for autumn migrants, residents and winter birds, while habitat loss harms less ocean-dependent species. Accordingly, more focused and oriented efforts should be done in establishing conservation areas among Bohai Strait and the north side of the Shandong Peninsula and the western Bohai coast where overlap between bird diversity hotspots and potential exposure to habitat loss and oil spill occurs. And a general insight into how are given species affected by the two factors is given. This study enhances our understanding of seabird’s vulnerabilities, what has been neglected, and what should be more well-noticed in future conservational endeavors.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230312

    Migratory processes and habits of wildebeest and zebra on the Serengeti savannah of east Africa

    Every year during the June migration season, many animals in the Serengeti Savannah of East Africa begin to migrate southward. Whenever the climate alternates between wet and dry, herds of hornbills and zebras make a spectacular migration from the Serengeti Savanna in Tanzania northwest to the Masai Mara Savanna in Kenya. This paper looks at the genetic differences between zebras and antelopes from a biological perspective. This study is about the migratory habits and processes of hornbills and zebras in the Serengeti Savanna of East Africa. Zebras and horses are closely related, but over the course of a long period of evolution and genetic variation, zebras gradually diverged from the genus Equus to form a unique zebra subgenus. It is a species under the genus Equus. It is hoped that this study will give scholars a different understanding of the two animals and call on people to start the importance of protecting wild animals.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230313

    Impact of transportation infrastructure on amphibians

    In recent decades, the alarming rate of amphibian disappearance has become a pressing environmental issue. The primary cause of this decline and extinction is habitat destruction, posing a significant threat to global biological diversity. This destruction is often the result of habitat fragmentation, wherein contiguous habitats are split into smaller, increasingly isolated patches. Transportation infrastructure, particularly roads, is a significant contributor to the fragmentation. Roads have a huge impact on economic development and ecology, connecting urban areas, rural areas and countries while promoting global economic development. However, at the same time, the accelerated road construction creates barriers, leading to increased wildlife death, habitat degradation and act as a contributor of species extinction. Amphibians are notably liable to road impact because of their unique behavior traits. The relationship between habitat fragmentation, accessible habitat, and populations is complex and multifaceted, with different species responding differently. Therefore, it is crucial to continue the exploration to counteract the problems of habitat fragmentation, the decline in amphibian abundance and biodiversity caused by the development of transportation infrastructure.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230315

    Comparison different stages of treatment mechanism and significance of mitral regurgitation in human and canine heart

    Both humans and dogs have a high incidence of mitral regurgitation with increasing age. Nowadays, because of the improvement of life quality, people pay more attention to the health of themselves and their pets and pursue a higher and better life. This paper mainly introduces the comparison of mitral regurgitation between human and canine. MR Can be divided into acute bicuspid insufficiency and chronic mitral insufficiency according to the progression of the disease. Acute mitral insufficiency: mild cases can only slight labor dyspnea, severe cases can quickly develop acute left heart failure, even acute pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock. Chronic mitral insufficiency. The degree of clinical symptoms experienced by patients with chronic mitral insufficiency is influenced by the degree of mitral regurgitation, the rate at which the condition progresses, the amount of left atrial and pulmonary venous pressure, and other factors, the level of pulmonary artery pressure, and the combination of other membrane damage and coronary artery disease. Heart structure, routine interventions, diagnosis, treatment, and MR Phases were analyzed. Through comparative analysis, this paper can better let people understand and pay attention to the disease of mitral regurgitation in dogs.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230321

    Impact of food additives in ultra-processed food on human health

    With the development of food processing, public concern was aroused by safety issues regarding the application of artificial additives. Ultra-ultra-processed food is made through a process by adding additives such as antioxidants, preservatives, and coloring agents to modify the properties of the food product and cater to customer demands. This essay focuses on food chemistry to research how additives present in ultra-processed food affect health. Moreover, common food additives used in food processing and their potential threats will be discussed. The fact is that many cases have proved that sodium benzoate, vitamin C, vitamin E, Yellow No.5, and Yellow No.6 do have an impact on human health. Other types of additives such as those present in nature do not have a significant relationship with cancer molarity and health problems. There need further studies on the relationship between synthesized additives and carcinogenicity. The purpose of studying chemical additives is to understand the chemical properties behind food additives will inform people of the actual harmful ingredients in ultra-processed food and avoid large dose intake.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230295

    1-MHC as a target for cancer treatments

    Class-1 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules plays an important role in the immune system by exposing antigens to T cells for identification and destruction. Cancer cells often evade the immune system by downregulating MHC expression, avoiding detection from immune cells. Therefore, Class-1 MHC molecules are potential targets for cancer treatments. Recent studies have shown that increasing MHC expression in cancer cells can enhance T cell recognition and enhance the efficacy of immunotherapies, such as checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell transfer therapies. In addition, some therapeutic approaches are aimed at directly targeting Class-1 MHC molecules. This paper summarizes the mechanism of MHC expression, the current status of cancer treatments, relevant research status of class-1 MHC as a target in cancer therapy, and how this technique can be improved. These findings highlight the potential of Class-1 MHC as a promising target for cancer treatment, and further research is needed to fully exploit this target for the benefit of cancer patients.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230134

    Fermentation and bio-functions of sake and Chinese rice wine: Implications for 'healthy-alcoholic industry'

    Traditional low-alcoholic beverages were promoted to be healthy drinks with multiple bio-functions. Research into Japanese sake and Chinese rice wine (CRW) in terms of the preparation process, bacteria diversity, authentic quality control and bio functions is of significance. Japanese sake and CRW are representative alcoholic beverages which were proven to bring health benefits. For instance, sake was found to contain bio-functional components of CRW were found to obtain antioxidant activities. In this article, the production mechanisms and their bioactive components in Japanese sake and CRW were discussed. Red yeast rice is made by fermenting the rice with Monascus. However, commercial lovastatin (a structure that similar to monacolin K) is recently reported to be illegally added to common red yeast rice to meet drug quality standards, herein, there are many safety issues of rice wine, and it is especially important to dress the authentication assessment of the CRW. A new era of CRW as a low-alcoholic healthy beverage is coming. Prospects for the future development of CRW, with an emphasis on the absorption of the successful regulation experience from Japanese sake productions which are with high reputations worldwide, are presented.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230253

    Extraction technology and influencing factors of cold brew coffee

    Coffee especially cold brew coffee is widely popular around the world, so people have conducted deep research on how to make a cup of coffee. This paper studies the types of coffee beans, the chemical composition of coffee beans, the roasting degree of coffee beans and the extraction technology. Among them, there are a lot of biochemistry reactions such as Maillard and Caramel reaction. Moreover the extraction technology focuses on the cold extraction technology, which is compared with the hot extraction technology in the content of flavor substances. In addition, the flavoring substances are matched with their aroma to compare the flavor differences between hot brew and cold brew coffee. Finally, the adjustable influencing factors in the cold extraction technology were studied and summarized to provide theoretical reference and practical guidance for the flavor improvement and industrial production of cold brew coffee. Furthermore, there will emerge other problems of coffee producing which will be issues to solve in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230305

    The effects of seaweed oligosaccharides on humanity

    Seaweed oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates derived from various types of seaweed. They are widely studied due to their numerous potential health benefits for humans. There are several reasons why studying seaweed oligosaccharides is important. Firstly, seaweed is a renewable and sustainable resource, and it can be harvested without damaging the environment. Additionally, seaweed contains high health value and high levels of minerals, vitamins, and other bioactive compounds, which makes it a valuable source of nutrition. They can also help to modulate the immune system, improve gut health, and lower cholesterol levels. Research suggests that seaweed oligosaccharides may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of various diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and cancer. They have also been discovered to have a number of applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. In conclusion, studying seaweed oligosaccharides is important because they offer numerous potential health benefits for humans and have a wide range of applications in various industries.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230174

    The effect of COVID-19 on mental health condition of people and treatment in China

    COVID-19 is a virus-borne infectious disease that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome and was first found in Wuhan, China. It was widely spread all over the world and caused a huge number of deaths. Beyond that, the COVID-19 epidemic has also had a huge impact on the mental state of the population. People's mental state may become more negative. These negative mental conditions would likely trigger some unpleasant behavior. Thus, it is necessary to pay more attention to the mental effect of the pandemic. The aim of this article is to introduce the symptoms of each mental disorder separately, suggest some possible consequences when these symptoms occur, and discuss the possible factors that will influence these disorders. Then, this research will indicate some treatments and suggestions.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230202

    The effect of home nursing intervention on cognitive function of patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders in the elderly. The disease has a long course and brings a heavy burden to individuals, families and society, and there is no clinical cure for it. Currently, in families, family members often act as caregivers to take care of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Past studies have examined the care patterns, roles, strategies, and influence of family caregivers on Alzheimer's patients. However, there is little literature review to understand the care mode, effect and influence of family caregivers on Alzheimer's patients. Therefore, this study sorted out and recognized the impact and the role of current family caregivers' interventions on Alzheimer's patients. A range of intervention strategies and models employed in family care are included as well. It was shown that family caregivers can effectively alleviate the cognitive decline of Alzheimer's patients through cognitive-related intervention models and can help them return to normal life.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230214

    Research on the types of environmental-friendly vegetables

    Food production is an important factor in causing environmental pollution, and the processing of food contamination information data, classification, and ultimately rating of the degree of food contamination is an important way to recognize food contamination. Rating the environmental friendliness of food can help people to choose more environmentally friendly food in their daily life and allow companies, scholars, and research organizations to recognize which food can be reduced by technological advances. This study focuses on the contamination rating of foods that are most referenced to help scholars and people understand the environmental contamination capabilities of different foods. This study focuses on the different foods in the Kaggle data, and their contamination aspects of the data were processed. The study began with the classification of foods. This study uses data from Kaggle on various environmental pollutants of food. It uses the linear regression model in the R Studio to select the most suitable pollution objects for evaluation. Finally, this study scored different foods according to different contamination aspects and obtained the following results: 1) detailed food scoring graphs, 2) animal-based food has a greater total contamination capacity than plant-based food.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230272

    Effects of oil pollution on birds

    As a non-renewable energy source, oil has an unshakable position in the development of human beings. Still, no one has noticed that the oil buried deep in the ground is also inextricably linked to the birds flying in the air. This article focuses on how oil, except diet, has been linked to bird deaths. The first research direction is to study the feather structure and function of birds. It is concluded that oil will damage the functionality of feathers and make the feathers of birds unable to function. The second research direction is about the inversely proportional relationship between the flight speed of birds and oil and the directly proportional relationship between energy consumption and oil. It is concluded that oil will affect the speed and energy consumption of birds and make birds more vulnerable to predation by natural enemies. The third research direction is the analysis of the damage degree of oil to birds' eggs and young. Based on these studies, it is possible to find out feasible methods that can effectively reduce the harm of oil extraction operations to birds without affecting normal human activities. Let birds have a way to reproduce healthily and safely without hindering human development.

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