Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computing Innovation and Applied Physics (CONF-CIAP 2023)

    Conference Date






    978-1-915371-53-9 (Print)

    978-1-915371-54-6 (Online)

    Published Date



    Marwan Omar, Illinois Institute of Technology

    Roman Bauer, University of Surrey


  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-25 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/5/20230253

    Analysis of SARS transmission based on SIR model and SEIRP model

    People's lives are still greatly impacted by the novel coronavirus outbreak, which has no effective treatment; however, the SARS virus two decades ago quickly disappeared. The study aims to find out how the SARS virus spreads, and also compares the SARS virus to the novel coronavirus. In the whole study, the author used the SIR model and the SEIRP model. It also combines specific cases of specific cities. Finally, through analysis, it is found that the epidemic of COVID-19 can be defeated by mass immunization and improving medical treatment. And how to prevent the spread of novel coronavirus.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/4/20220500

    The Relationship between Zinc and Human Health and How to Supplement Zinc Scientifically

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in the human body. In recent years, Human society as a whole is increasingly aware of the nutritional role that zinc plays in human health.This paper mainly discusses the relationship between zinc and human health and how to supplement zinc scientifically and lists the various effects of zinc on human metabolism. In this paper, the trace element zinc was studied through literature analysis, case analysis, data analysis, and review methods. The research data mainly came from various types of zinc literature and newspapers and magazines. This paper finds that zinc is extremely important element for human growth and development, it can resist and eliminate pathogens in the body. Meanwhile, the relationship between zinc and the metabolism of our human body is very close. Only by obtaining enough zinc, can the cells in our various organs and tissues maintain a relatively high metabolic rate.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-30 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/13/20240717

    Deciphering dark matter: A computational analysis of stellar velocity distributions

    This study examines the dark matter density in the Galaxy by fitting recent data on stellar rotational velocities. We employ a model including the disk, the bulge, and the dark matter halo. The disk’s density is parameterized using a modified Bessel function, and the bulge is modeled using both the De Vaucouleurs and Exponential Sphere functions to better fit large and small radii respectively. The dark halo is modeled using the generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile, with slope parameters for standard NFW and Moore profiles, and an Isothermal profile for comparison. The fit of the model parameters is established using local Dark Matter density and total Dark Matter mass as boundary conditions, with circular velocities derived via a Newtonian approach. The least chi-square (χ 2 ) method is used for rotation curve fitting. Results demonstrate successful fitting of rotational velocity data and significant influence of the DH at large radial distances from the Galactic center.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240615

    Sequence and structure statistics of the nanobody database and molecular dynamics simulation analysis of the nanobody VHH

    Antibodies are immunoglobulins produced in vivo by immune cells stimulated by exogenous molecules, and nano-antibodies are a class of molecules that are similar to conventional antibodies but smaller in size. Originally discovered as an antibody in camelidsand cartilaginous fishes, they are called heavy chain antibodies due to the lack of light and heavy chain constant regions in the CH1 region except for the retained heavy chain, and their binding region to the antigen consists of the heavy chain variable region only, making them the smallest antibodies available with complete antibody functional properties. In this experiment, we analyzed the commonalities and differences of the nanobodies by extracting all their amino acid sequences, performed protein modeling of the relevant nanobodies of coronaviruses among them, and then analyzed the data of RMSD and RMSF by using molecular dynamics simulation, and finally predicted and analyzed the protein conformation and the structures of VHH at all levels.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231086

    The Influence of stress factors on anxiety and depression: The mediating role of neural responses to errors and rewards

    This paper examines how stress impacts depression and anxiety through neural responses to mistakes and rewards. Currently, mental health problems, specifically anxiety and depression, are on the rise. This paper presents a study on how stress affects depression and anxiety. To begin with, this paper describes two neural responses: Error-Related Negative Wave (ERN) and Reward Positive (RewP). ERN could be a significant biomarker of anxiety symptoms. RewP, however, is linked to depression. Based on previous studies, this paper posits that depressed patients exhibit lower RewP amplitude indicative of reduced sensitivity to rewards. Moreover, this paper combines previous studies to demonstrate that stress could impact the amplitude of ERN and RewP. To be more precise, stress could amplify the magnitude of ERN, indicating that people's neural response to errors is heightened, thereby resulting in higher levels of anxiety. However, stress may reduce the magnitude of RewP, indicating a decrease in reward sensitivity and potentially increasing the susceptibility to depression. In summary, this article offers insights on how to articulate the connections among stress, anxiety, depression, and related factors. Furthermore, this article introduces a novel perspective on approaches to treating and preventing anxiety and depression.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-13 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/8/20240351

    Relation between Internet Gaming Addiction and mental issues in Chinese young adults

    The rising dependency on video games is increasingly posing substantial social and therapeutic challenges and can be diagnosed as a disease. Extensive research in the past has explored the relationship between game addiction and various mental problems, but there is limited research in this area in China’s cultural environment. This study explored the impact of depression, aggression, and perceived stress on Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) among young adults in China with Spearman analysis and multiple linear regression. This paper hopes to contribute to solving the increasingly common IGD (Internet gaming addiction). Findings revealed a positive correlation between depression, aggression, and IGD, with both depression and aggression serving as significant predictors. Yet, there wasn’t a significant correlation between perceived stress and IGD. The model elucidates 20.5% of the variance in gaming dependency, underscoring the multifaceted nature of IGD and hinting at the presence of a myriad of other contributing determinants. These results underscore the importance of considering mental health in identifying and addressing IGD, while also highlighting the need for further research, particularly regarding cultural differences in stress coping mechanisms and deciding the causal relationship between mental issues and IGD.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240619

    Review of the association between non-coding RNAs and environmental exposure

    Disease development is a consequence of the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetics can regulate gene expression without altering DNA sequence. There are different types of epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs. Research has shown epigenetic regulation plays an essential role in environmental exposure and disease development. The role of DNA methylation and histone modification is well characterized so far. While the importance of non-coding RNA in disease development has gained more attention recently, the elucidation of the exposure-non coding RNA-disease pathway is still under much investigation. This review aims to provide a general review of ncRNA functions, focusing on research progress highlighting the association between a variety of exposure and non-coding RNAs and the hope of demonstrating how non-coding RNA can serve as biomarkers for preventive and therapeutic goals upon environmental exposure.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/10/20230301

    Analysis of quantum gates in quantum circuits

    Although classical computing has brought great convenience to mankind’s lives, classical computing is facing some problems. Combining computer science, information theory, and quantum mechanics, quantum information has been developed in many fields. Quantum gates can operate quantum bits, the carrier of quantum information, while quantum circuits are composed of quantum gates and quantum bits, showing the logic of operations. This study summarizes the fundamental concepts of quantum informatics: qubits, quantum circuits, and quantum gates where it is proved that single-bit quantum gates and CNOT gates are universal quantum gates. In addition, this research also demonstrates the current progress of quantum gates in the examination of fidelity of quantum gates, improvement of fidelity of quantum gates, and teleportation of quantum gates. Meanwhile, according to the current development status, the limits and prospects of quantum information are discussed. These results shed light on helping readers understand the basic concepts of quantum information, thus understand the future applications and developments in quantum information.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230906

    The pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and relevant treatments

    The prevalence rates of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) continue to rise globally making it an urgent health concern warranting comprehensive examination closely scrutinizing pathophysiology causes symptoms management techniques as well as anticipated methods addressing how best to prevent or cure resulting complications. We know that T2DM is characterized by defective insulin secretion and tissues not responding adequately to treatment- a condition exclusively termed Insulin Resistance - which could influence both genetic predisposition or environmental factors like obesity or sedentary lifestyles. Increased morbidity indicators ranging from myocardial infarction peripheral vascular disease and stroke alike make timely diagnosis imperative. Lifestyle modifications offer optimal intervention possibilities for both preventing onset or long-standing concerns. A concentration on bolstering insulin sensitivity while halting progressive pancreatic β cell failure that common among T2DM patients is to enhance comprehensive and effective treatment plans. From the diversity of T2DM established in terms of its symptoms points to the need for targeted preventive procedures designed towards reducing cases in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/25/20240795

    Study on phase transition critical phenomena in group movement based on eigen microstate theory

    Group motion exists widely in nature. Physicists use abstract models, such as the Vicsek model, to simplify group motion to obtain universal laws. However, the order parameters and phase transition types that describe the characteristics of the Vicsek model system are still controversial. For example, how to characterize the order parameters and types of phase transitions that characterize the system. This paper starts with the eigen microstate method and studies the Vicsek model. First, the continuous phase transition in the system is deeply studied through scaling analysis, and two critical exponents about the noise are obtained. Second, considering the density effect, similar to the noise study, three eigen microstates in the Vicsek model are revealed through scaling analysis, showing discontinuous and continuous phase transitions. Moreover, it is proved that in the actual infinite system, continuous phase transition and discontinuous phase transition still exist. Finally, the experimental data under different noises and densities are obtained through a large number of numerical simulations, and the phase diagram of the Vicsek model is depicted.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/18/20230256

    Design of a new sweptback wing for a future supersonic aircraft—Research on lift drag characteristics and aerodynamic analysis

    In recent years, with the gradual development of the aviation industry, how to make supersonic aircraft truly used in military air defense has become a global problem. In this paper, the wing design of supersonic aircraft is studied, a swept back symmetrical wing suitable for supersonic reconnaissance aircraft is designed with reasonable aspect ratio, span length, sweep angle, thrust weight ratio and wing load. On the basis of the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft analyzed, the inboard electron, outboard electron, flasheron, leading edge flap and all moving tip are designed to ensure the controllability in the flight line and to maintain the balance and stability of the aircraft. The qualitative analysis of the flight performance of the wing is also performed. This paper provides a possibility for the design of supersonic aircraft in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-02-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/2/20220178

    The State-of-art Theorem and Detection Paradigms of Black Holes

    The black hole has been a mystery and a source of detection motivation for the human race ever since our quest of the discovery and research of other space. In general, the black hole can be defined as a special time-space structure where the gravity is strong enough to trap the photons, i.e., the light will be unable to penetrate or escape from it. In this paper, the current theorem and state-of-art detection paradigms are discussed in detail. Primarily, the categories of the black holes are demonstrated. The four different types of black holes all present their unique features. the quest for black hole exploration has never ceased. It has achieved stunning breakthrough with the first ever photo taken of the black hole by NASA in 2019. The future analysis of black hole excavation and research has been brought a bright future, as technology and outer space exploration plans continue to evolve. These results shed light on guiding further exploration of cosmology as well as the astrophysics.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/26/20241001

    Application of BIM in project management in China

    As a nation that is quickly developing, China’s construction industry faces a variety of issues. Despite the size and technical complexity of some Chinese projects, the old paper documents and two-dimensional drawing techniques are no longer adequate to meet demand. China’s construction sector has enormous potential. Therefore, effective digital technology and the best project management are crucial for the growth of China’s construction business. Throughout the whole life cycle of a construction project, including all phases of planning, design, building, operation, and maintenance, Building Information Modelling (BIM) can be used. This study intends to investigate the use of BIM in project management in China with a particular emphasis on how BIM impacts project design, construction, and operation. By analysing the successful cases of BIM in China’s project management, the prospect and development of BIM in China’s construction industry are discussed. In the whole process of project management, BIM improves quality, efficiency, sustainability and maintainability through various applications. It is intended to provide China’s construction industry with a tool to promote the modernization and long-term growth of the industry.

  • Open Access | Article 2022-05-13 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/1/2022001

    A Case Study of Clinical Effect of Water Cupping Combined with Ultrasound Drug Penetration in the Treatment of Acute Lumbar Disc Herniation

    A patient with acute lumbar disc herniation (LDH) was admitted to the outpatient department of our hospital, who, having lifted heavy objects, suffered tingling pain in the lumbosacral region accompanied by limited movement, especially limited flexion, and radiating pain from the outside of right lower extremity to the right ankle. The patient was given a 30-minute ultrasound drug penetration once a day. After the treatment, the water cupping was applied to acupuncture points such as Large Intestine Point (大肠腧), Life Gate (命门), Lumbar Yang Pass (腰阳关), etc. for 10 minutes once every other day. A course contained three days and there was a one-day break between two courses. The patient's lumbosacral pain was relieved and there was no radiating pain in the lower extremities after the treatment of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. This method provides a simple, low-cost, easy-to-operate, safe, and effective Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatment for clinical patients with acute LDH.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-09 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/7/20230104

    Analysis on the relationship between short-term variability and the weakening AMOC

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a vital component of the global climate system, playing a crucial role in transporting heat and salinity from the equator to the North Atlantic, which in turn keeps Europe significantly warmer than other regions at the same latitude. Despite the fact that long-term observations and models have demonstrated an AMOC slowdown in response to global warming since the industrial revolution, detecting this slowdown in the brief observational record has proven to be challenging. In this study, the author investigates the relationship between short-term variability and the weakening AMOC by analyzing satellite remote sensing data of sea surface salinity collected over a decade. As a consequence of global warming, the weakened AMOC transports less heat and salt from the equator to sub-polar regions, causing heat and salt anomalies. This evidence further corroborates the slowing of the AMOC in response to human-caused warming and emphasizes the variability on a scale of half a decade caused by the deceleration.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/12/20230421

    Analysis of the stokes problem in a regular bounded open set

    The Stokes equation describes the flow velocity of a steady state fluid in relation to the pressure and the external source. The corresponding variational formulation of the Stokes equation is studied in the paper. In more detail, we delve into the analysis of the equivalence relations pertaining to the variational formulations of the Stokes equations. We found that the variational formulation of the Stokes equation can be approximated by a type of variational formulation with a coefficient but without the constraint on the divergence. Then we did a analysis on the approximation by the finite element method to the the variational formulation without the constraint on the divergence, and we find that we should use preconditioning techniques before using the iteration. More precisely, we give an error analysis of this numerical computation method through rigorous proofs, and from this we deduce the need to use preprocessing techniques to avoid long computation times.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240506

    An overview of the correlation between the stress response system and the respiratory system

    Since the stress response system was first discovered by Walter. B. Canno, stress is often viewed as an essential target in many applicational and basic research of neuroscience. Various proceeding research discovered many ways in which the stress system alters the physiological response of the body and upon the various effects, there is emergent evidence showing a potential correlation between the respiratory control system and the stress response system as stress- related hormones, such as ACTH and norepinephrine, are found to be irregular for people who suffered respiratory- related disorders and conditions. To seek an understanding of this opaque and complex relationship, this article will provide an overview of the two main stress response systems: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis) and the respiratory control system and reviews recent and past evidence of their biological intersections via stress hormones. Lastly, the paper will investigate and propose areas that are of potential study in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/3/20220152

    AlphaFold2-based structure prediction and target study of PD-L1 protein

    PD-L1 is an immune protein in human body that can play an important role in cancer immunotherapy. By binding to antibodies, the binding activity of PD-L1 and PD-1 is blocked, which in turn inhibits cancer cells. Thus the structure of PD-L1 is very important in studying the binding of antibodies to it. However, experimental methods to solve the structures of PD- L1 and numerous complexes are expensive and consuming. Thus, it is essential to exploit computational methods to help biologists figure out the structures and the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we explore whether AlphaFold2 is able to accurately predict the structure of PD-L1 and whether we can use AlphaFold2 to capture the binding sites of PD-L1 when binding to different antibodies. Our results show that AlphaFold2 has high confident scores and accuracy in predicting the structure of PD-L1 and the binding sites with atezolizumab and durvalumab. For the interaction between PD-L1 and the antibodies, AlphaFold2 can capture most of the hydrogen bonds as well as the salt bridges. Our work suggests that AlphaFold2 can not only be used as a tool to predict the structure of proteins, but also serves as a useful tool for antibody discovery, e.g. providing high-quality predicted structures for downstreaming docking, which brings new hope for drug discovery.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/19/20230458

    License plate Chinese character recognition based on ViT model

    Transformer applications have been widely used in the computer vision field. Many related literatures show that the advantages of the model such as increased receptive field and globality are gradually emerging in image processing. However, with the popularity of the transformer, whether it can compete with the convolutional neural network (CNN) in terms of performance is still questionable and remains to be further studied. This paper will use the most basic structural model in the visual transformer (ViT) to classify and identify Chinese characters that are frequently used in the field of transportation and logistics and compare them with two classical CNN models. The results demonstrate that the performance of the transformer is obviously better than that of the traditional CNN structure, and the final accuracy of character recognition is higher than that of CNN, up to 98.66 %. It fully shows the infinite potential and excellent performance of the transformer in the area of computer vision and has high reliability and generalization ability.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230107

    Two-step synthesis and oxidizing power assessment of novel pyrylium

    Photoredox catalysis is a relatively new concept, and it involves the absorption of light for more productive use of lower energy radiation and to catalyze selective reactions. Traditionally, catalysts used for oxidation or reduction reactions were metal catalysts, such as iridium. However, these metal catalysts are not environmentally friendly and are expensive, prompting the use of organic catalysts. Pyrylium salt, an organic catalyst, can be used as a catalyst. However, the oxidizing ability of basic pyrylium is not that good and can still be improved. In this project, a pyrylium salt with substituents that include fluorine and chlorine (halogens) was synthesized to boost its oxidizing ability in an alcohol oxidation reaction due to its electron-withdrawing groups. Despite unsuccessful oxidation, there is still much research to prove that it can substitute for metal catalysts.

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