Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Geoscience and Earth Ecology

    Conference Date

    2024-05-31

    Website

    https://www.icegee.org/

    Notes

     

    ISBN

    978-1-83558-445-3 (Print)

    978-1-83558-446-0 (Online)

    Published Date

    2024-06-21

    Editors

    Alan Wang, University of Auckland

Articles

  • Open Access | Article 2024-06-21 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/37/20240204

    Enhancing salinity tolerance in Salix linearistipularis through advanced plant tissue culture techniques

    Salinity is a major environmental challenge that hampers agricultural sustainability by affecting vast expanses of arable land globally, including significant portions of the Songnen Plain, which hosts substantial areas of saline-sodic soil detrimental to most plant life. This study focuses on Salix linearistipularis, a naturally salt-tolerant woody plant endemic to the region, to explore its potential in ecological restoration and soil improvement. Through extensive laboratory experiments, we employed various plant tissue culture methods to ascertain the most effective techniques for regenerating Salix linearistipularis, thereby facilitating its use in combating soil salinization. The research utilized several culture media and hormonal treatments to determine optimal conditions for seed germination, callus induction, and subsequent plant regeneration. Key findings indicate that specific combinations of growth hormones significantly enhance the rate of callus formation and adventitious bud differentiation, essential for the plant’s survival and growth in saline conditions. Furthermore, the study demonstrates the potential for these methods to produce genetically stable plants capable of thriving in hostile environments. The findings provide a valuable foundation for future applications in ecological restoration projects aimed at mitigating soil salinity issues.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-06-21 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/37/20240173

    A literature review about the impact of solar radiation, greenhouse gases and oceans on the earth's climate system

    The effects of three major components on the climate system—solar radiation, greenhouse gases, and oceans—are thoroughly summarized in this work. It looks at how solar radiation affects Earth’s climate, how greenhouse gases cause global warming, and how the oceans affect heat absorption and carbon sinking. In order to reduce and adapt to climate change, the study underlines the interdependence of these issues and the necessity of coordinated approaches. This study seeks to further a comprehensive understanding of the climate system and support evidence-based decision-making for a resilient future by combining existing knowledge and research. Finally, the paper concluded that the oceans, greenhouse gases, and solar radiation are the three main elements that have a big impact on Earth’s climate system. Comprehending their effects and interplay is essential to grasping climate change and formulating efficacious approaches for mitigation and adaptation. The effects of these variables have been thoroughly summarized in this work, emphasizing the necessity of integrated strategies to deal with the problems caused by climate change. This publication contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the climate system and lays the groundwork for evidence-based decision-making and group action toward a resilient future by combining current knowledge and research.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-06-21 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/37/20240208

    Common incidents and prevention of urban water supply pipeline accidents

    With rapid urbanization, urban water supply pipeline accidents have become increasingly prevalent. Understanding their common occurrences and prevention strategies is crucial for ensuring water safety. This study aims to explore the underlying causes of such incidents, ranging from ageing infrastructure to design flaws and construction issues. By analyzing existing preventive measures and international best practices, this research seeks to contribute to the development of effective strategies for mitigating urban water supply pipeline accidents. This thesis focuses on urban water supply pipeline accidents, addressing both common incidents and preventive measures. It begins by highlighting the unique challenges of fires in high-rise buildings, including their rapid spread and the difficulties in evacuating occupants. The paper then emphasizes the importance of innovative fire-resistant materials, classifying them into various types such as phenolic, sprayed, calcium silicate, and lightweight composite materials. Each type is explored in detail, discussing their properties and potential applications. Finally, the paper outlines the practical use of these materials in fire engineering, emphasizing their role in enhancing the safety and resilience of urban infrastructure. Overall, this thesis contributes valuable insights to understanding and mitigating the risks associated with urban water supply pipeline accidents, promoting disaster prevention and management efforts.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-06-21 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/37/20240202

    Analysis of the impact of volcanic ash on the environment and human

    Volcanic eruptions are one of the natural phenomena on Earth that have the capacity to affect the global climate, local ecosystems and human societies. Among the various ejecta, volcanic ash is particularly noteworthy because of its multifaceted impacts on the environment and human beings. This paper focuses on the impacts of volcanic ash on climate, water quality, soil and plants, wildlife, and human health using the research methodology of a literature review, and also discusses preventive and curative measures against volcanic ash as well as the application of volcanic ash in order to minimize the adverse consequences. Through comprehensive analysis and synthesis of relevant literature, the impacts of volcanic ash on various fields and coping strategies are summarized in this paper, aiming to provide references for research and practical endeavors related to volcanic ash.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-06-21 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/37/20240180

    Enhancing drug analysis through advanced mass spectrometry techniques and quantitative modeling

    The integration of advanced mass spectrometry (MS) techniques with quantitative modeling has revolutionized the field of drug analysis, offering unprecedented accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in the detection and quantification of pharmaceutical compounds and their metabolites. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) and Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS) have emerged as pivotal tools, capable of distinguishing isobaric species and providing detailed structural information, respectively. Ambient ionization techniques such as Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI) and Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) have further simplified sample preparation, enabling rapid, direct analyses under ambient conditions. This review discusses the significant strides made in enhancing drug analysis through these innovations, alongside the application of calibration curves and mathematical models for quantitation and pharmacokinetic modeling. Additionally, it addresses the challenges inherent in quantitative MS, including matrix effects, analyte stability, and the need for improved sensitivity and specificity. Through a comprehensive overview, this article underscores the transformative impact of these advancements on drug analysis, paving the way for more accurate and efficient pharmaceutical research and diagnostics.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-06-21 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/37/20240193

    A comparative study on the efficacy of conventional and green chelating agents for soil heavy metal remediation

    Soil heavy metal contamination poses significant risks to ecological balance, vegetation, agricultural productivity, and human health due to the toxicity, persistence, and resistance to degradation of heavy metal ions. Chelation presents a widely employed method for heavy metal ion removal. While conventional chelating agents exhibit high removal efficiencies, they are associated with ecological hazards. In contrast, green chelating agents have gained prominence for their environmentally friendly attributes. This paper meticulously examines the heavy metal removal efficiencies, mechanisms, application advantages and limitations, as well as optimal pH ranges of both the traditional chelating agent Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and the green chelating agents Tetrasodium glutamate diacetate (GLDA), Methylglycine diacetic acid (MGDA), and [S, S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS). A comprehensive comparison reveals that EDDS exhibits superior performance followed by MGDA, GLDA, and EDTA, with MGDA displaying the broadest pH range spanning from 2 to 13.5. EDDS emerges as the most biodegradable option. Moreover, in terms of elimination rates, both MGDA and EDDS demonstrate comparable efficacy to EDTA. In conclusion, the green chelating agents scrutinized herein hold promise to potentially supplant conventional EDTA in large-scale practical applications.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-06-21 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/37/20240197

    Current studies of cerebral infarction

    Cerebral infarction, also known as stroke, is a serious medical condition resulting from the interruption of blood flow to the brain, either due to blockage or rupture of blood vessels. This interruption leads to localized ischemia and oxygen deprivation in the brain tissue, causing hypoxic-ischemic cell death and subsequent damage to brain function. Cerebral infarction is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, particularly among the elderly, but recent research suggests that younger individuals are also increasingly affected. According to reports from the World Health Organization, cardiovascular diseases, including cerebral infarction, account for millions of deaths annually, posing a significant public health threat. The incidence of cerebral infarction among the younger generation is particularly noteworthy, with a significant proportion of patients aged 15-49 suffering from this condition. This trend underscores the need for greater awareness and prevention efforts across all age groups to address this global health challenge.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-06-21 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/37/20240205

    Review on the application of renewable energy in green chemistry

    Green chemistry, often referred to as environmentally friendly chemistry, or clean chemistry, aims to minimize or eliminate the utilization of harmful compounds and promote the development of chemicals and process designs that are environmentally sustainable. Renewable energy is a significant area of study within the realm of green chemistry. Given the phenomenon of global warming and the growing energy requirements, there is an increasingly pressing need for environmental consciousness and the promotion of sustainable development. This study will explore the application of renewable energy in green chemistry, along with the associated technologies for production and utilization. To effectively address the requirements of sustainable human development, it is crucial to prioritize the rational utilization of resources, maintain ecological equilibrium, and ensure environmental preservation. This will enable the achievement of a harmonious and coordinated relationship between mankind and the natural world.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-06-21 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/37/20240194

    Efficacy of American physical therapy clinical practice guidelines in treating lower back pain among track and field athletes

    Lower back pain has a significant impact on track and field athletes, affecting their performance and quality of life. This study explores the application of the American Physical Therapy Clinical Practice Guidelines (APTA Guidelines) in the management of lower back pain at this level. The physical therapy in the United States, which has a history of over 75 years, includes unarmed therapy, coordination, muscle endurance training, hip mobility therapy, stretching exercises, lower limb nerve mobility surgery, traction... It provides a solid framework for the treatment of lower back pain. In this paper, we explore these treatment methods in the context of track and field competitions and evaluate their effectiveness in meeting the specific needs of athletes. In addition, we also verified the research status of the incidence of low back pain in track and field athletes, identified its causes, and proposed an effective treatment scheme using massage, acupuncture and moxibustion treatment, therapeutic sports and other methods. The results indicate that the use of APTA guidelines can significantly alleviate athlete’s lower back pain, helping them better perform and recover. This study helps to further discuss how to improve clinical practice to manage specific injuries.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-06-21 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/37/20240174

    Research on the impact of optimizing the use of grassland resources on promoting the development of animal husbandry on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    The Qinghai Tibet Plateau, located in central Asia, is the highest plateau region in the world with an average altitude of over 4000 meters. Due to its unique geographical location and high altitude characteristics, the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is sometimes vividly referred to as the “Roof of the World”, and thus has been given the nickname “Third Pole”. The Qinghai Tibet Plateau provides a good foundation for the development of animal husbandry, but at the same time, due to the harsh climate conditions and degradation of grassland resources on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the development of animal husbandry is also facing a series of challenges. In order to increase the content of forage on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and enrich its grassland resources. This article uses literature research method to conduct environmental analysis on animal husbandry in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and other countries such as the United States. Comparative research method is used to analyze the differences in the development of animal husbandry in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and other countries such as the United States. Interdisciplinary research method is used to propose solutions for the development of animal husbandry in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (mainly for grassland development). That is, by selecting suitable grass species, establishing a “grazing light complementary” photovoltaic power station, and implementing grassland protection monitoring technology. Finally, the conclusions and shortcomings of the research were obtained

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-25 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/5/20230253

    Analysis of SARS transmission based on SIR model and SEIRP model

    People's lives are still greatly impacted by the novel coronavirus outbreak, which has no effective treatment; however, the SARS virus two decades ago quickly disappeared. The study aims to find out how the SARS virus spreads, and also compares the SARS virus to the novel coronavirus. In the whole study, the author used the SIR model and the SEIRP model. It also combines specific cases of specific cities. Finally, through analysis, it is found that the epidemic of COVID-19 can be defeated by mass immunization and improving medical treatment. And how to prevent the spread of novel coronavirus.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-04-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/4/20220500

    The Relationship between Zinc and Human Health and How to Supplement Zinc Scientifically

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in the human body. In recent years, Human society as a whole is increasingly aware of the nutritional role that zinc plays in human health.This paper mainly discusses the relationship between zinc and human health and how to supplement zinc scientifically and lists the various effects of zinc on human metabolism. In this paper, the trace element zinc was studied through literature analysis, case analysis, data analysis, and review methods. The research data mainly came from various types of zinc literature and newspapers and magazines. This paper finds that zinc is extremely important element for human growth and development, it can resist and eliminate pathogens in the body. Meanwhile, the relationship between zinc and the metabolism of our human body is very close. Only by obtaining enough zinc, can the cells in our various organs and tissues maintain a relatively high metabolic rate.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-30 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/13/20240717

    Deciphering dark matter: A computational analysis of stellar velocity distributions

    This study examines the dark matter density in the Galaxy by fitting recent data on stellar rotational velocities. We employ a model including the disk, the bulge, and the dark matter halo. The disk’s density is parameterized using a modified Bessel function, and the bulge is modeled using both the De Vaucouleurs and Exponential Sphere functions to better fit large and small radii respectively. The dark halo is modeled using the generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile, with slope parameters for standard NFW and Moore profiles, and an Isothermal profile for comparison. The fit of the model parameters is established using local Dark Matter density and total Dark Matter mass as boundary conditions, with circular velocities derived via a Newtonian approach. The least chi-square (χ 2 ) method is used for rotation curve fitting. Results demonstrate successful fitting of rotational velocity data and significant influence of the DH at large radial distances from the Galactic center.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240615

    Sequence and structure statistics of the nanobody database and molecular dynamics simulation analysis of the nanobody VHH

    Antibodies are immunoglobulins produced in vivo by immune cells stimulated by exogenous molecules, and nano-antibodies are a class of molecules that are similar to conventional antibodies but smaller in size. Originally discovered as an antibody in camelidsand cartilaginous fishes, they are called heavy chain antibodies due to the lack of light and heavy chain constant regions in the CH1 region except for the retained heavy chain, and their binding region to the antigen consists of the heavy chain variable region only, making them the smallest antibodies available with complete antibody functional properties. In this experiment, we analyzed the commonalities and differences of the nanobodies by extracting all their amino acid sequences, performed protein modeling of the relevant nanobodies of coronaviruses among them, and then analyzed the data of RMSD and RMSF by using molecular dynamics simulation, and finally predicted and analyzed the protein conformation and the structures of VHH at all levels.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231086

    The Influence of stress factors on anxiety and depression: The mediating role of neural responses to errors and rewards

    This paper examines how stress impacts depression and anxiety through neural responses to mistakes and rewards. Currently, mental health problems, specifically anxiety and depression, are on the rise. This paper presents a study on how stress affects depression and anxiety. To begin with, this paper describes two neural responses: Error-Related Negative Wave (ERN) and Reward Positive (RewP). ERN could be a significant biomarker of anxiety symptoms. RewP, however, is linked to depression. Based on previous studies, this paper posits that depressed patients exhibit lower RewP amplitude indicative of reduced sensitivity to rewards. Moreover, this paper combines previous studies to demonstrate that stress could impact the amplitude of ERN and RewP. To be more precise, stress could amplify the magnitude of ERN, indicating that people's neural response to errors is heightened, thereby resulting in higher levels of anxiety. However, stress may reduce the magnitude of RewP, indicating a decrease in reward sensitivity and potentially increasing the susceptibility to depression. In summary, this article offers insights on how to articulate the connections among stress, anxiety, depression, and related factors. Furthermore, this article introduces a novel perspective on approaches to treating and preventing anxiety and depression.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-13 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/8/20240351

    Relation between Internet Gaming Addiction and mental issues in Chinese young adults

    The rising dependency on video games is increasingly posing substantial social and therapeutic challenges and can be diagnosed as a disease. Extensive research in the past has explored the relationship between game addiction and various mental problems, but there is limited research in this area in China’s cultural environment. This study explored the impact of depression, aggression, and perceived stress on Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) among young adults in China with Spearman analysis and multiple linear regression. This paper hopes to contribute to solving the increasingly common IGD (Internet gaming addiction). Findings revealed a positive correlation between depression, aggression, and IGD, with both depression and aggression serving as significant predictors. Yet, there wasn’t a significant correlation between perceived stress and IGD. The model elucidates 20.5% of the variance in gaming dependency, underscoring the multifaceted nature of IGD and hinting at the presence of a myriad of other contributing determinants. These results underscore the importance of considering mental health in identifying and addressing IGD, while also highlighting the need for further research, particularly regarding cultural differences in stress coping mechanisms and deciding the causal relationship between mental issues and IGD.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240619

    Review of the association between non-coding RNAs and environmental exposure

    Disease development is a consequence of the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetics can regulate gene expression without altering DNA sequence. There are different types of epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs. Research has shown epigenetic regulation plays an essential role in environmental exposure and disease development. The role of DNA methylation and histone modification is well characterized so far. While the importance of non-coding RNA in disease development has gained more attention recently, the elucidation of the exposure-non coding RNA-disease pathway is still under much investigation. This review aims to provide a general review of ncRNA functions, focusing on research progress highlighting the association between a variety of exposure and non-coding RNAs and the hope of demonstrating how non-coding RNA can serve as biomarkers for preventive and therapeutic goals upon environmental exposure.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/10/20230301

    Analysis of quantum gates in quantum circuits

    Although classical computing has brought great convenience to mankind’s lives, classical computing is facing some problems. Combining computer science, information theory, and quantum mechanics, quantum information has been developed in many fields. Quantum gates can operate quantum bits, the carrier of quantum information, while quantum circuits are composed of quantum gates and quantum bits, showing the logic of operations. This study summarizes the fundamental concepts of quantum informatics: qubits, quantum circuits, and quantum gates where it is proved that single-bit quantum gates and CNOT gates are universal quantum gates. In addition, this research also demonstrates the current progress of quantum gates in the examination of fidelity of quantum gates, improvement of fidelity of quantum gates, and teleportation of quantum gates. Meanwhile, according to the current development status, the limits and prospects of quantum information are discussed. These results shed light on helping readers understand the basic concepts of quantum information, thus understand the future applications and developments in quantum information.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-05-28 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/37/20240153

    Projected impacts of global warming scenarios on marine ecosystems: Insights from the CMIP6 model

    Rising oceanic temperatures and increased heat content have triggered a decline in marine biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystem services. This study employs the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) to analyze variables within the Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) framework. Focusing on two contrasting Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) - SSP1-2.6 (low-warming scenario) and SSP5-8.5 (high-warming scenario) - we assess future impacts of climate-related factors on marine ecosystems across major oceanic regions. Under the high-warming SSP5-8.5 scenario, global ocean temperature rise, coupled with declining surface pH levels, nitrate concentrations, and plankton biomass/productivity, is evident. Regional reductions in plankton biomass/productivity, especially pronounced at higher latitudes, are observed in both SSP scenarios. Nutrient cycling emerges as a pivotal factor influencing plankton communities, particularly ammonium regulation in the Southern Ocean. This research emphasizes the urgent need to curb greenhouse gas emissions to mitigate global warming’s profound effects on marine ecosystems.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230906

    The pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and relevant treatments

    The prevalence rates of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) continue to rise globally making it an urgent health concern warranting comprehensive examination closely scrutinizing pathophysiology causes symptoms management techniques as well as anticipated methods addressing how best to prevent or cure resulting complications. We know that T2DM is characterized by defective insulin secretion and tissues not responding adequately to treatment- a condition exclusively termed Insulin Resistance - which could influence both genetic predisposition or environmental factors like obesity or sedentary lifestyles. Increased morbidity indicators ranging from myocardial infarction peripheral vascular disease and stroke alike make timely diagnosis imperative. Lifestyle modifications offer optimal intervention possibilities for both preventing onset or long-standing concerns. A concentration on bolstering insulin sensitivity while halting progressive pancreatic β cell failure that common among T2DM patients is to enhance comprehensive and effective treatment plans. From the diversity of T2DM established in terms of its symptoms points to the need for targeted preventive procedures designed towards reducing cases in the future.

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