Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Modern Medicine and Global Health

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-195-7 (Print)

    978-1-83558-196-4 (Online)

    Published Date



    Mohammed JK Bashir, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman


  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240506

    An overview of the correlation between the stress response system and the respiratory system

    Since the stress response system was first discovered by Walter. B. Canno, stress is often viewed as an essential target in many applicational and basic research of neuroscience. Various proceeding research discovered many ways in which the stress system alters the physiological response of the body and upon the various effects, there is emergent evidence showing a potential correlation between the respiratory control system and the stress response system as stress- related hormones, such as ACTH and norepinephrine, are found to be irregular for people who suffered respiratory- related disorders and conditions. To seek an understanding of this opaque and complex relationship, this article will provide an overview of the two main stress response systems: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis) and the respiratory control system and reviews recent and past evidence of their biological intersections via stress hormones. Lastly, the paper will investigate and propose areas that are of potential study in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240507

    Progress and future prospects in diagnosis and treatment of ASD

    This paper discusses Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a combined developmental and neurological disorder that affects a person's conversation, behavioral, and human interaction ability. The article explores the diagnosis of ASD based on clinical observations of behavior and developmental history. It also looks at the potential internal and external causes of ASD, which include genetic abnormalities and exposure to chemicals in the environment. According to the paper's conclusion, early identification and intervention can help control symptoms and enhance the quality of life for persons with ASD, even though there is no known cure or medicine to treat the illness. The research can help identify new therapies and interventions to enable individuals with ASD and their families. Additionally, research can help raise awareness about ASD and help reduce the stigma surrounding it. Together, we can make a difference in the lives of those who have ASD and make sure they receive the care and support they require to live happy, meaningful lives.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240508

    Research progress in the treatment of acne

    Acne is widely distributed globally, especially prevalent among adolescents and adults, and is one of the most common skin diseases clinically. Research has found that acne is a common chronic skin disease involving the sebaceous gland unit, and its pathogenesis involves multiple factors such as genetics and metabolism, including infection of Propionibacterium acnes, overactivation of sebaceous glands, abnormal follicular keratinization, and enhanced inflammatory response. Currently, topical drug therapy, systemic drug therapy, phototherapy, and chemical peel therapy have gained consensus in the treatment of acne. This review discusses the various advancements in acne treatment, including the use of probiotics as an adjuvant therapy based on the gut-skin axis and the latest research progress in biologic antibody-based immunotherapy targeting the pathophysiology of acne.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240509

    Effects of sucralose on learning and memory in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    Sugar-substituted beverages, including those sweetened with sucralose, are popular as sugar-free alternatives. However, the impact of sucralose on learning and memory abilities remains inconclusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of sucralose, a commonly used sugar substitute, on the learning and memory abilities of Caenorhabditis elegans. Three different concentrations of sucralose were administered to C. elegans at the developmental stage to observe the effects on their non-associative and associative learning abilities. Non-associative learning was assessed through tap stimulus and odor chemotaxis assays, while associative learning was measured using a combination of high NaCl concentration and starvation-induced chemotaxis response. RT-qPCR analysis was employed to detect changes in the expression of 11 learning and memory-related genes in C. elegans exposed to sucralose, and homology analysis was conducted to compare these genes with their human counterparts. The results showed that C. elegans treated with a high concentration of sucralose exhibited significantly prolonged withdrawal reaction times, while those treated with a low concentration displayed reduced odor chemotaxis. Additionally, nematodes treated with different sucralose concentrations demonstrated impaired associative learning ability. RT-qPCR analysis revealed a significant down-regulation in the relative expression of all genes following high sucralose treatment, with the glutamate receptor signaling pathway being the most affected. Homology analysis indicated that 10 out of the 11 genes had homologs in humans. In conclusion, this study suggests that high concentrations of sucralose can diminish the learning and memory abilities of nematodes by extensively modulating learning and memory-related pathways, particularly affecting the glutamate receptor signaling pathway.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240513

    A comprehensive analysis assessing the impact of climate events on global citizens’ health: From the aspect of disease and public health

    The challenge posed by shifting climatic conditions has emerged as one of the most critical issues of our time, carrying significant implications for human well-being. This research seeks to investigate climate events’ impact on individual health on a global scale. In order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the intricate relationship between climate events and the health of global citizens, we analyze a diverse array of data sources, encompassing epidemiological studies, climate records, and health indicators. This study examines the direct and indirect effects of climate events, such as heat waves and extreme weather occurrences drawing upon authoritative epidemiological research. Furthermore, it explores the secondary repercussions of climate-induced disruptions, including alterations in the trend of cardiovascular diseases, which have been observed to heighten the overall health burden. The primary objective of this study is to advance our comprehension of the intricate interplay between climate change and global public health. The findings will underscore the pressing necessity to address climate-changing events as a paramount public health concern, emphasizing the importance of comprehensive, evidence-based policies that safeguard human well-being amidst an increasingly volatile climate. By combining empirical evidence with a broader understanding of social and environmental determinants of health, we aspire to assist decision-makers in implementing proactive measures to protect and promote the health of populations worldwide in the face of a changing climate.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240517

    Evaluation of gefitinib based on indicators of targeted drugs

    In the context where lung cancer poses a serious threat to human health, gefitinib, as a small molecule drug targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), has attracted widespread attention for its application in the treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Based on commonly utilized synthetic routes, an investigation into various resources led to the proposal of new suggestions for the synthesis of gefitinib. These suggestions have the potential to make the synthesis of gefitinib more efficient, straightforward, and compliant with the principles of green chemistry. Gefitinib shows therapeutic effects in certain specific cases of autoimmune diseases, but whether it can serve as a treatment drug still requires further clinical studies. Resistance to gefitinib is associated with genetic mutations. Such mutations weaken the binding ability of gefitinib to EGFR, ultimately leading to enhanced survival capabilities of mutated NSCLC cells. As treatment progresses, the emergence of resistance presents challenges in therapy. It is hoped that alternative means can be employed to improve treatment efficacy, prolong overall survival (OS), and mitigate the side effects associated with the use of gefitinib.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240527

    The current clinical applications of invasive brain-computer interfaces

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is an emerging and swiftly expanding advanced technology. It links the brain to external devices, creates a brain-computer interface connection pathway, and ultimately realises information exchange and control. Meanwhile, as modern medicine continues to explore the composition and operation of the brain, the clinical applications of BCI have become more widespread. In particular, in the diagnosis, screening, treatment, and rehabilitation of neurological diseases and motor impairments, BCI is becoming more and more significant. This paper first explains the implementation and present state of BCI and provides a systematic evaluation of invasive BCIs, including the concepts of current invasive treatment techniques. The paper then review the current clinical applications of invasive BCIs technology, discuss its technical applications and benefits through case studies, and provide a comprehensive assessment of its risks. The prospects of invasive BCIs and their growing trend in the medical field are also reviewed.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240528

    Analysis of the influence factors of coffee on human life

    Coffee, as one of the world's most widely consumed beverages, has long held a prominent place in both daily enjoyment and scientific scrutiny. This study aims to comprehensively explore the multifaceted impact of coffee on the human body, with a particular emphasis on its influence on attention, the prevention of chronic diseases, and the potential associated risks. This article conducts a thorough analysis of coffee's primary constituents, encompassing caffeine and antioxidant compounds, and conducts an exhaustive review of pertinent research studies. The research findings unequivocally highlight that moderate coffee consumption can substantially enhance attention and significantly mitigate the risk of chronic diseases. However, it is imperative to acknowledge that excessive coffee intake may precipitate issues such as insomnia and gastrointestinal discomfort. Thus, this study underscores, with utmost clarity, the pivotal significance of temperate coffee consumption, laying a robust foundation for future investigations into the intricate interplay between coffee and human health.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240529

    A tumor specific Bayesian framework reveals novel molecular subtypes in colorectal cancer

    We applied a tumor-specific Bayesian framework to investigate the drivers and signaling mechanisms behind various subtypes of Colorectal Cancer (CRC), a highly aggressive cancer known to have diverse origins. Our approach aims to identify the cancer drivers that contribute to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) within individual tumors. By inferring the target differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with these drivers, we effectively group patients into distinct molecular subtypes. We employed the tumor-specific causal inference (TCI) model to establish causal associations between somatic genome alterations (SGAs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) inside each colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor. Through the process of generalization, we have successfully discovered three distinct mechanism-oriented subtypes of colorectal cancer (CRC) by examining the most statistically significant SGAs and their corresponding target DEGs throughout the CRC cohort. Notably, this subtyping approach stands independently from the previously reported transcriptomic-based molecular subtyping of CRC. Additionally, our analysis successfully grouped patients based on significant prognostic outcomes, outperforming the previously reported subtyping. This research provides valuable insights into understanding the underlying drivers and molecular complexities associated with different CRC subtypes.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240530

    Current materials used in artificial vascular tissue engineering

    A commonly employed approach in the field of vascular tissue regeneration involves the utilization of artificial vascular tissue implants. These implants are designed to replicate the natural architecture of blood vessels through the use of artificial scaffolds, followed by cell growth induced onto these scaffolds, which are subsequently introduced into the body to replace damaged blood tissue. One of the primary obstacles encountered in implementing this technique pertains to the selection of materials that most nearly mimic the characteristics of naturally occurring tissue. Specifically, the aim is to develop an artificial device that closely emulates the biological functionality while eliciting minimal immunological reaction. A wide range of materials for constructing scaffolds has been extensively documented, encompassing natural, synthetic, and composite materials, as well as decellularized extracellular matrix. This study aims to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature in the field of vascular tissue engineering, utilizing methods of literature review and analysis. The examination will focus on evaluating the strengths, flaws, and availability of the available resources in this area of research.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240537

    Predictive value of Caprini score, D-dimer, and PLT for venous thromboembolism in high-altitude

    Objective: This study aimed to identify early warning indicators for predicting venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Tibetan patients with respiratory system diseases at the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit of People’s Hospital in Lhasa City by analyzing relevant clinical data. Methods: From September 2021 to August 2023, Tibetan patients with respiratory system diseases treated in the hospital’s Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Department were categorized into non-VTE and VTE groups based on VTE occurrence. We compared baseline and admission 24-hour examination data between the groups and performed logistic regression analysis to identify VTE-associated indicators. These relevant indicators underwent COX regression analysis and inter-indicator correlation analysis. Results: The study included 717 Tibetan patients with respiratory system diseases, with 582 in the non-VTE group and 135 in the VTE group. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in age, pulse, respiration, white blood cell count, hematocrit, platelet count, prothrombin time, D-dimer, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, Caprini score, and D-dimer-to-platelet ratio (D-DI/PLT) (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis identified white blood cell count, hematocrit, prothrombin time, Caprini score, and D-DI/PLT as significantly associated with VTE occurrence. COX curve analysis indicated that Caprini score and D-DI/PLT could predict VTE without correlation between them. Conclusion: Caprini score and D-DI/PLT can serve as predictors of VTE in Tibetan patients with respiratory system diseases. Particularly, D-DI/PLT, easily obtainable, can guide clinical stratified treatment in these patients.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240538

    A comprehensive journey through AIDS: History, development, and treatment

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease that attacks the human immune system. From its first discovery to modern investigations about this disease and the viruses that cause it, AIDS went through the process of being viewed as deadly and mysterious to controllable and preventable. By studying the mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and discovering the route of transmission of AIDS, the danger of this disease is gradually controlled by pills and therapies. The HIV life cycle has been uncoded and people found ways to target the specific steps to hinder HIV replication. Antiretroviral therapies are invented and gradually perfected to control the infection of AIDS. Nevertheless, a specific cure and any form of vaccine for AIDS has still not been found by humans. Several modern cases exhibited possible solutions to HIV infection while bringing more controversies and investigations. This review summarized the history and development of AIDS studies and its treatment, to possible future methods that could completely cure this disease.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240539

    Brain-computer interface for the treatment of mental illness

    A brain-computer interface is a direct communication channel between the brain and external devices. Its signals come from the central nervous system, and its transmission is independent of the peripheral nervous and muscular systems. Brain-computer interface commonly used to assist, enhance, and repair human-motor sensations. Through the classification and recognition of Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, the monitoring and rehabilitation of some neurological and psychological diseases can be realized. Brain-computer interfaces are currently in their infancy and are being explored. Non-invasive brain-computer interfaces refer to brain-computer interfaces that are performed in the cerebral cortex. Semi-invasive brain-computer interfaces are what the chip penetrates the cerebral cortex but does not penetrate the gray matter in the brain. An immersive brain-computer interface is when the chip penetrates the gray matter of the brain. At present, Brain-computer interfaces with chips implanted in the head are mainly located in the brain. Brain-computer interfaces located in the cerebellum, brainstem and other parts have not made significant breakthroughs. The brain-computer interface first collects signals transmitted by the brain, then sequences and encodes them . Finally, transfer them to the computer. The computer controls the robotic arm through the acquired signals and finally completes the instructions. This article focuses on invasive and semi-invasive brain-computer interfaces, using case studies, combinatorial studies, and other methods. This research can help patients live better, improve patients' quality of life, and promote future research in bioelectronics and organic electronics.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240540

    The evolution and application of mechanical instruments in brain-computer interface technology

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are innovative systems that facilitate direct communication between the human brain and external devices. Leveraging advances in neuroscience and engineering, BCIs can decode neural activity, allowing users to control computers, prosthetics, or even communicate thoughts without the need for peripheral motor activity. While primarily developed for assisting individuals with motor or communication disabilities, the potential applications span from gaming to advanced robotics. Despite rapid progress, challenges remain in achieving high-resolution decoding and ensuring long-term stability. As the field advances, ethical considerations about privacy, security, and human augmentation also emerge. This paper aims to provide an in-depth exploration of the field of BCI technology. The first part illustrates the remarkable evolution undergone by BCI, from electroencephalography (EEG) to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The next part mainly describes the principle of BCI and the devices that are used for processing the interface. The following part highlights the challenge faced by BCI and how ethics and security should be deliberated.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240541

    Research on the correlation between toxic aggregation in brain and cell-cell fusion caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection

    Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, much research has been done to understand SARS-CoV-2's and COVID-19, the disease it cause. The pathway that the virus relies on to infect cells is through binding of the viral protein to the ACE2 receptor on the surface of host cells. After replication, the virus most often exits the cell by lysosomal exocytosis, which releases the virus into the extracellular space, and the cycle repeats. However, cell-cell fusion caused by SARS-CoV-2 can promote viral spread by fusing neighboring cells to form syncytia, leading to the infection of neighboring cells. One of the major concerns regarding SARS-CoV-2 is the neuroinvasive potential the virus exhibits. Cell-cell fusion is observed in neuronal cells as well, potentially compromising the overall integrity of neuronal activities. Thus, in this research proposal, cell-cell fusion and its impact on brains will be investigated by assaying its influence on protein aggregations in brains. The proposal plans to apply both brain organoids and animal models for assessment. Hypothetically, once cell-cell fusion and formation of protein is observed in brain tissue samples, more information can be revealed towards comprehending the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 activities during infection.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240544

    A comprehensive analysis of various risk factors influencing hypertension development

    This study delivers a nuanced and in-depth exploration of multiple risk factors implicated in the onset of hypertension, a pervasive cardiovascular ailment afflicting a staggering number of individuals across the globe. Harnessing an exhaustive, meticulously curated dataset, the research adopts a synergistic, multi-faceted methodology that encompasses both logistic regression models and cutting-edge visual analytics, such as boxplots. Through logistic regression, key predictors—namely chest pain type, maximum heart rate, and particular outcomes from thallium stress tests—emerge as critical determinants in the development of hypertension. To substantiate these statistical inferences, the study leverages a series of illuminating boxplots, offering an intuitive and empirically rigorous portrayal of the stark disparities in these variables between hypertensive and non-hypertensive cohorts. This harmonized, dual-pronged strategy not only quantitatively assesses the impact of each risk factor but also brings credibility to these numerical revelations through its adept use of visual analytics. The robust integration of these analytical approaches bolsters the study’s overall reliability, thereby furnishing invaluable, actionable insights for both clinical practitioners and health policymakers.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240547

    Prediction of species invasion based on GIS

    Along with the deepening of economic globalization, the expansion of human activities, and the development of transportation networks, the phenomenon of species invasion has become increasingly common in human life, which not only affects the balance and stability of the original ecological environment but also has an impact on human normal life. Therefore, it is necessary to timely prevent and control species invasion, in which the timely prediction and analysis of species invasion is particularly important in species invasion prevention and control management. Based on GIS has strong integration and presentation capabilities for geographic information, this article selects GIS as a medium to explain the general methods of species invasion prediction and analysis, specifically divided into two parts: prediction of colonization possibility of invasive species and prediction of the potential geographical distribution. Through the organization and explanation in this article, the importance of GIS in geographic data presentation is clarified, as well as how to use the method of ecological niche modeling to process and analyze geographic information data, and the specific steps of using GIS technology and data to analyze species invasion. Through these steps, timely prevention and control of invasive species can be achieved, thereby protecting the environment, and maintaining a normal human life, which is necessary for people today and in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240548

    The ecological impact of white pollution from offshore fisheries and aquaculture on coastal areas

    Based on the rapid development of offshore fisheries and aquaculture in recent years, this paper focuses on the increasingly serious pollution and destruction of the ecological environment, especially the serious problem of white pollution represented by microplastics. The author of this article focuses on the study of microplastic white pollution and analyzes and studies the surface sediments of aquaculture waters in Zhoushan Islands, Zhejiang, and Maowei Sea, Guangxi, as well as typical tidal flats around them. Compare by collecting data on surface sediments, microplastics on tidal flats, and microplastic types in nearby tidal flats from two locations. The microplastics in the two regions are divided into fragments, fibers, foams, and films based on their appearance and shape. The proportion of fibers is the highest, and the particle size of microplastics is mainly below 1mm. The color of microplastics is mainly lighter, with the highest amount of white. The chemical components of microplastics include polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, and polyamide. The research results are helpful for routine marine biological surveys and can serve as a basis for evaluating marine debris, especially microplastics

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240549

    A review of exercise training for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis

    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a chronic degenerative osteoarthritis that accompanies joint pain, joint deformities, and functional impairments. It is common in middle-aged, elderly, and female populations, and it has a serious impact on the daily activities and living standards of patients with the aging of our country's society, the number of patients with knee osteoarthritis continues to increase, and it will become a serious joint disease that poses a threat to the health of the middle-aged and elderly population. Due to its low economic cost, relatively simple treatment methods, and strong analgesic effects, exercise therapy has been recommended as the first-line treatment method for KOA in numerous domestic and foreign diagnostic and treatment guidelines. The methods of sports training for KOA mainly include strength training, aerobic exercise, water exercise, traditional health care exercise and other single treatment methods, as well as combination therapy of sports therapy and acupuncture and moxibustion. However, exercise therapy has not yet been widely used in China. Therefore, this article summarizes the research progress and existing literature evidence related to exercise training for KOA, with the aim of providing reference for the treatment of KOA through exercise training.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/16/20240550

    Review of mutant p53 protein and the p53 targeting therapy in cancer treatment

    Cancer in humans is a disease that has been difficult to treat due to properties it is able to obtain after being introduced to an organism and has been one of the most prominent points of research in drug development. Since cancers can take on a multitude of forms, a popular strategy employed to find therapies for it is by identifying common features among cancers. A well-known alteration in half of all human cancers is TP53 mutations, of which there are more than 500. This literary review first discusses the additional capabilities cancer cells obtain, then a discussion of the various functions of p53 and the mutations it can take on. The central focus of this review will be an elucidation of the major approaches attempted in the development of cancer treatment through p53: viruses, targeting gain-of-function mutant p53, structural reactivation of mutant p53 to restore wild type activity, the depletion of mutant p53, and targeting mutant p53 through synthetic lethal inhibitors. Through exploring the different therapies, it is a universal goal to elicit one single treatment for mutant p53 that can impact the greatest amount of p53 mutations while retaining the ability to suppress or even prevent and inhibit cancer.

Copyright © 2023 EWA Publishing. Unless Otherwise Stated