Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Modern Medicine and Global Health

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-321-0 (Print)

    978-1-83558-322-7 (Online)

    Published Date



    Mohammed JK Bashir, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman


  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240644

    Syphilis and advancements in its treatment

    Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Pallidum and its subspecies is a spirochete microaerophilic virus that sensitive to oxygen and temperature. T. pallidum is responsible for causing syphilis through sexual exposure and vertical transmission from pregnant women to their fetuses. The invasiveness and immunoevasiveness of syphilis is caused by its lack of outer membrane immune targets and with fewer surface transmembrane protein. These features explain why syphilis causes millions of people suffered from this disease and the incidence is still increasing. For the four stages of syphilis, there are different symptoms and courses of treatment approach should be taken. The administration of penicillin has reached a level of maturity and clarity in its therapeutic application. An alternative way of treatment involves the utilization of DNA vaccine. The more refined DNA vaccine technic suggests potential utility of the DNA vaccine in T.pallidum treatment. Furthermore, this review explores the current study on vaccine mRNA which holds substantial promise as a valuable avenue for syphilis treatment. T.pallidum, syphilis, transmission .

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240737

    Identification of the transcriptomic alterations of resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma

    Although immunotherapeutics like immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy have greatly improved survival rates, death rates of melanoma still remain high. One of the reasons for this is that the solid tumor microenvironment creates obstacles for the effectiveness of anti-PD1 immunotherapy in patients. Therefore, it is crucial to identify potential biomarkers that could be used in combination therapy with anti-PD1 to modify the tumor microenvironment and enhance response to treatment. In this study, we examined clinical and tumor transcriptional sequencing data from 91 patients who received anti-PD1/anti-CTLA4 therapy. Through both bulk RNA sequencing analysis and single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq), we discovered that 8 key pathways were upregulated in patients who responded well to the therapy. Interestingly, these pathways were found in myeloid and T cell populations, indicating their significant role in response to anti-PD1/anti-CTLA4 therapy. Among these pathways, genes such as IRF1, IRF2, C1, and C3 emerged as potential biomarkers that could potentially enhance the effectiveness of ICIs therapy. Further clinical research is required to validate the impact of these genes. The novelty of this study lies in the combination of bulk RNA sequencing and single RNA sequencing methods, which allowed us to uncover distinct differences in the transcriptomic landscape of solid tumors, particularly melanoma.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240739

    Changes in intrinsic excitability of hippocampal pyramidal cells in Parkinson’s disease model

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common fatal neurodegenerative disease in the world, and it reduces patients’ quality of life by causing movement disorders (e.g., tremors, muscle stiffness, and impaired balance) and non-motor disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, and dementia). Previous research has mostly concentrated on dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc) that are dying off, which restricts therapeutic options and renders the search for disease-modifying therapies fruitless. In order to make a breakthrough, pathological changes in other brain areas deserve more attention. Previous PD studies reported atrophy in the hippocampus, an indispensable part of spatial and temporal memory formation. To answer the question of the cellular mechanism of hippocampus atrophy, this paper intends to research previously uncharted hippocampal intrinsic plasticity alterations. After analysing intercellular recordings of pyramidal neurons gathered from normal mice and genetically engineered PD mice, this paper demonstrates disparities in the intrinsic factors not noted in the previous research, such as peaks and afterhyperpolarization. These findings represent a progressive advancement in our comprehension of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, indicating potential therapeutic targets for Parkinson’s disease treatment via SK channels, BK channels, and sodium channels.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240779

    Unveiling the evolutionary significance: Atavism’s transition from ancestral traits to a fundamental biological phenomenon

    This essay delves into the nuanced concept of atavism, tracing its evolution from the abrupt manifestation of ancestral traits in wild populations to a pivotal element in contemporary biology. Explored through recent studies such as the Atavism Theory of Cancer, Single-Cell Atavism of Cnidocytes, and Atavism in the Developmental Polarity of Chicken Limb, this research reveals atavism’s journey from speculative fiction to empirical reality. By scrutinizing cancer as a series of atavistic changes, experimental atavism at the single-cell level, and the atavism observed in avian limb development, the essay proposes that atavism offers fresh perspectives on evolution, adaptation, and the dynamic reuse of gene reservoirs. This study underscores atavism’s transition into a tangible and crucial component of ecological and developmental biology, providing insights that traverse disciplinary boundaries and deepen our comprehension of the natural world.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240782

    Role of dopamine in regulating microglia inflammatory responses through TLR4-NFκb pathway

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that affects a significant portion of the population. One of its distinguishing features is the gradual loss of dopaminergic cells in a specific region of the brain known as the substantia nigra. In recent years, researchers have uncovered that neuroinflammation facilitates the developmental process of PD. Specifically, studies have shown that the activation of microglia, the brain’s immune cells, is closely linked to the levels of dopamine secreted by neurons. However, the influence of dopamine on activated microglia in PD has not been fully explored. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of dopamine on activated microglia. To establish an activated microglia model, we used BV-2 cell lines and treated them with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a concentration of 200 ng/ml. Two separate groups were then exposed to dopamine at concentrations of 2 μM and 10 μM, respectively, to simulate dopamine treatment in the brain. To assess the effects of dopamine, we performed real-time PCR to measure the relative mRNA levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, conducted immunofluorescent staining to observe and analyze the cell morphology, carried out a phagocytosis assay to assess the cell’s phagocytic ability, and conducted western blotting to identify the specific pathway through which dopamine affects microglia activation. Our findings revealed that dopamine can modulate the activation state of microglia and reduce the cell’s inflammatory responses via the TLR4-NFκB pathway. This suggests that dopamine has the potential to alleviate neuroinflammation in PD, opening up new avenues for future treatments and therapies.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240787

    Gene expression controlled by stem cells and its relationship with cancer

    The stem cell is one type of cell that has a strong ability to differentiate and self-renew. It plays a vital role in the cell cycle and gene regulation. Also, due to its unique ability to self-regenerate, stem cells have the potential to produce medicines. In this article, it will talk about stem cells controlling the gene expression mechanism and focus on recent research that has revealed a relationship between stem cells and tumor cells, indicating a potential way to treat cancer, and cancer stem cell theory showing the similarity between the stem cell and the cancer cell at the starting point which gives birth to the tumor such theory gives a new understanding towards the existence of cancer. Another important subject about stem cell is mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which is one type of stem cell that is focused and well-studied due to its owning of enormous clinical application potential.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240790

    Application of CRISPR-Cas technology in food safety

    Food safety has become one of the most important public health issues in the world. Safety, nutrition, and food security are all interdependent. Unsafe food contributes to a cycle of illness and starvation that disproportionately affects young children, the elderly, and the ill. Therefore, it is essential to develop tests that are quick, efficient, and reliable. The CRISPR/Cas system is a bacterial acquired immune system that attacks invading DNA, plasmids, and phages. Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas offers new opportunities for plant breeding. Compared to animal cells, plant cells have rigid cell walls, making it challenging to deliver genome editing tools into plant cells. When using plants for industrial purposes, transgene insertion into the genome should be avoided. Therefore, delivery of Cas-gRNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) into plant cells is preferred. This review proposed a novel RNP delivery strategy in rice and introduced a technology: whisker technology (commonly used for plant DNA delivery) to deliver RNPs into rice. This review also discussed ultrasound-assisted whisker technology via RNP management, combined with marker gene delivery, to identify genome editing events in rice decay cells in the absence of any other events, albeit at a lower frequency. Therefore, utilizing whiskers to generate RNP-based genome editing lineages in plants may be an attractive strategy.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240796

    Vaccine innovations and potential targets of breast cancer

    Breast cancer is a concerning worldwide disease that is fatal. Although treatments had been developed over the past, prevention was still on the road of discovery. There are still no vaccines that have been approved for treatment or prevention by the year 2023. In this review, the feasibility of two types of vaccines and potential targets was assessed, with links to future paths of breast cancer vaccine investigations. Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine and a tissue-specific self-protein -Lactalbumin vaccination are two types of potential vaccines facing towards breast cancer with different pathogenesis of overexpression in HER2 or the -Lactalbumin. Sufficient research had been done on the mRNA vaccines showing HER2 as a potential target that shows the most positive result in vaccine clinical trials. Research on -Lactalbumin were less compared to mRNA vaccines, but the results showed that -Lactalbumin was immunogenic enough to induce effective tumor immunity in healthy adult women.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240798

    Current common prodrug delivery methods and biochemical property

    Prodrugs are pivotal in overcoming drug delivery and absorption challenges. These bioreversible derivatives are strategically designed to address medicines’ poor bioavailability and administration constraints. Prodrugs offer versatile solutions for various delivery methods, including oral, dermal, nasal, and central nervous system (CNS) routes and tumor targeting. This literature review aims to summarize several prodrugs delivery methods. The report also focuses on the common concepts of prodrug design. The utilization of prodrugs also includes innovative strategies, such as receptor-mediated internalization and responsive drug release, demonstrating promising outcomes for cancer therapy. The application of prodrug methods is comprehensive. Prodrugs emerged as a universal approach to improve drug administration and absorption, with their applications spanning diverse medical contexts. By tailoring prodrugs to specific delivery routes and addressing unique challenges, researchers open avenues for more effective and targeted therapies. Further exploration and optimization of prodrug strategies hold the potential to revolutionize drug delivery in clinical settings. Although prodrugs have many advantages, there are still many possible future improvements. Many diseases or target organs still need help applying prodrugs even though the current drug design needs this technology for administration. Future research should focus on the lack of chemical stability, including considering the balance between aqueous solubility and lipophilicity. Also, the elimination of the formation of degradation by-products or the design of acceptable metabolism pathways is another aspect that should be considered.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240799

    A comprehensive review of effects of linguistic distance in bilingual aphasia

    This literature review synthesizes three seminal studies on cross-linguistic treatment effects in bilingual aphasia. The first study delves into the interplay between language proficiency and linguistic distance in treatment outcomes, revealing nuanced findings. The second study provides new insights into the role of language characteristics and typology in bilingual aphasia, shedding light on language processing and recovery patterns. The third study offers a meta-analytic perspective, emphasizing the impact of language similarity on linguistic competence in aphasic individuals. By integrating these studies, this review aims to present a comprehensive understanding of the complex relationship between linguistic factors and treatment efficacy in bilingual aphasia.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240802

    Current research progress of whole genome sequencing in practical

    Gene sequencing, a vital technique nowadays, detects patients’ diseases and helping with diagnosis. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is one member of this family, which mainly functions in analysing participant’s gene sequences in clinical diagnosis for the purpose of indicating therapeutic interventions. This essay compares WGS and other sequencing methods, such as whole exome sequencing (WES), which comprises both positive and negative sides of this sequencing test for evaluation. And point out the help of WGS in certain diseases. This paper serves as a synopsis of some WGS-related themes as well as potential directions in the future for technical advancement.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240803

    Transmissibility of phosphorylated α-synuclein in the brain of Parkinson’s Disease model mice

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease. The pathogenesis of PD is the misfolding and accumulation of the alpha-synuclein protein leading to degeneration and death of dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia nigra. This study focuses on the transmissibility of phosphorylated α-synuclein in the brain of PD model mice. In this study, DAT-IRES-Cre+/-/LSL-SNCA-GFP+/- mice was used as a model, and experimental techniques including frozen section of mouse brain, immunohistochemical staining, and confocal microscopy were used to investigate the transmission of α-synuclein as well as Lewy bodies, which are abnormal aggregates of α-synuclein, in the mouse brain. We conclude that phosphorylated α-synuclein (pSyn) can propagate from the dorsal striatum to the Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta (SNc) through the dopaminergic pathway, resulting in the formation of Lewy bodies in dopaminergic neurons in the SNc, causing neuronal death and thus leading to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240804

    Unlocking the diagnostic potential: N-Glycan profiling for distinguishing breast cancer patients from healthy individuals

    Chest sickness is now the most broadly perceived dangerous development, addressing 12.5% of all new yearly harmful development cases all over the planet. Around 13% (around 1 out of 8) of U.S. women will cultivate prominent chest illness all through their lives. In 2022, a normal 287,850 new occurrences of prominent chest illness should be examined in women in the U.S., close to 51,400 new examples of easy chest dangerous development. The exploration directed a review where N-glycans were gotten from the serum of bosom disease patients and solid people, and their general overflow contrasts were used for primer bosom malignant growth determination. Through Fractional Least Squares Discriminant Examination (PLS-DA), the creator had the option to successfully recognize bosom malignant growth patients from the sound populace, demonstrating the capability of N-glycan profiles in segregating between bosom disease and non-bosom disease people. This examination denotes a promising step towards the improvement of expected demonstrative and prognostic markers for bosom disease, giving likely biomarkers to beginning-phase bosom malignant growth patients. The discoveries of this study might hold critical pertinence in the field of bosom disease determination and treatment.” This exploration will utilize work area and trial. Past assessment found that the level of serum N-glycan A2G1(6)FB, a biantennary N-glycan containing focus fucose and bisecting GlcNAc developments was higher in chest-threatening development patients than in those without chest illness. Additionally, A2G1(6)FB was recognizable in chest dangerous development patients with starting stage and could be a precise marker. Hence, concurrent utilization of IgG blood tests and customary biomarkers could work on the exactness of bosom disease determination, recommending that IgG blood tests might be a solid biomarker for beginning phase bosom malignant growth patients.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240806

    Continuous ambulatory epilepsy detection system incorporating feature engineering

    Epilepsy is a prevailing disease that affects people from different age brackets and demographic backgrounds. It leads to uncontrollable onset of seizures and can result in severe neurological injuries. In this paper, we devised a novel seizure prediction system as a real-time early warning system for patients. By using real-time transmissible, portable, and wireless devices, we can acquire raw data from scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) without any pre-processing for the input. After pre-processing, the data is fed into selected prediction algorithms based on literature review and a combination of methodologies. After times of iteration, our result shows a promising performance, with an accuracy rate of 100% Bonn dataset. We further designed a hardware data acquisition apparatus (with our program built-in) to smooth and ameliorate the data acquisition process when eliminating overmuch electrodes, which may serve as a promising seizure onset detecting device in the new era.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240808

    Mechanisms and progress in the application of traditional acupuncture methods for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation

    This paper summarizes the operational methods of nine acupuncture techniques recorded in the “Ling Shu · Guan Zhen” and the mechanisms of special acupuncture techniques in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation over the past two decades. The techniques include the left and right crossing acupuncture method, local multi-needle acupuncture method, bone-piercing method, and tendon-piercing method. An overview of the types of lumbar disc herniation suitable for each acupuncture technique is provided, offering a theoretical reference for selecting appropriate acupuncture techniques in clinical treatment. However, current research lacks an exploration of the differential efficacy mechanisms among different acupuncture techniques for treating lumbar disc herniation. Issues such as the absence of standardized quantitative evaluation criteria, limited sample sizes, and a lack of long-term efficacy tracking still need improvement in future research.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240809

    Research progress on circular RNAs

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) as a new type of non-coding RNA are special circular molecules with covalently closed 3’ end and 5’ end. Although they were previously discovered as errors in RNA splicing process and drew little attention, their unique properties, powerful functions and as potential disease biomarker are being increasingly acknowledged by scientists. Recently, circRNAs have become a hotspot in scientific field. In this review, we describe the biogenesis, classification, biological characteristics, functions and association with human disease of circRNAs. The emergence of circRNAs will provide a new way to study the pathogenesis of human disease, such as nervous system disease, tumor and ageing.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240810

    The role of Wnt5a in aging-related diseases

    Wnt is a family of glycoproteins that are essential signalling molecules during development, but its overexpression in adulthood leads to ageing of the organism, and in particular, the expression of Wnt5a is an important factor in the development of diseases such as atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis and tendon ageing. In atherosclerosis, patients serum levels of Wnt5a is elevated and Wnt5a is linked to β-catenin-independent signaling pathways which is related to the expression of inflammatory genes and the advancement of inflammation. Osteoarthritis’ one character is the demolition of cartilage. In this disease, the expression model of Wnt5a will change from canonical to non-canonical, and this kind of model actives chondrocyte catabolism. Tendons can repair and regenerate themselves through tendon stem cells (TSPC). Tendon senescence is inextricably linked to the senescence of TSPC, overexpressing of Wnt5a affects tendon stem cells thus leads to tendon aging.The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of Wnt5a in the development of these diseases and suggest effective treatments for them.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240812

    The impact of diabetes on postoperative infections in colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis

    Objective: This study aims to analyze and summarize the evidence concerning the relationship between diabetes and postoperative infections in colon cancer through a literature review. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted on Chinese databases, including CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, and the biomedical literature database, as well as the English database PubMed. The search covered the period from February 1, 2003, to February 28, 2023. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was employed to score the included literature, and funnel plots along with Egger’s regression test were used to analyze publication bias. Stata 12.0 was utilized for the analysis of the collected raw data. Results: Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, this study incorporated seven retrospective studies, with a total of 4607 cases in the infection group and 9102 cases in the non-infection group. The quality scores of the seven studies ranged between 7 and 8 points. Funnel plot and Egger’s regression test analyses revealed no significant publication bias in the included literature. A correlation was identified between diabetes and postoperative infections in colon cancer, implicating diabetes as a risk factor for such infections. Subgroup analysis indicated that nationality, surgical methods, and infection types had no significant impact on the meta-analysis results. Conclusion: The analysis revealed a significant correlation between diabetes and postoperative infections in colon cancer. Diabetes emerged as a risk factor for postoperative infections, with odds ratios (OR) of 3.82 (P>0.1) and 95% CI of 2.91-5.01. Controlling blood glucose levels was associated with a reduced risk of postoperative infections in colon cancer.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240813

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs for Alzheimer’s disease -- A systematic meta-analysis

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) poses a serious health concern especially for the aging population above the years of 65. An estimated 6 million Americans are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease, and there are at least 50 million Alzheimer’s patients in the world. AD affects the daily life of these patients, yet there is no permanent cure. Current treatments involve cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA-receptor agonists to help alleviate the symptoms. GLP-1 is a peptide often used in the treatment of diabetes. Since there are shared pathological features between diabetes and AD, such as insulin dysfunction and glucose metabolism dysregulation, GLP-1 may be a viable study for AD treatment. To perform a meta-analysis to investigate whether GLP-1 has a beneficiary effect on biological markers and cognitive outcome in AD patients. We searched the following electronic databases: EMBASE, MEDLINE, phycINFO, CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and We only utilized Randomized Control Trials (RCTs) and clinical trials. We also searched with the following Medical Search Headings: Alzheimer’s Disease, Alzheimer, Alzheimer’s, and GLP-1. We included 2 randomized, double-blind, and placebo controlled clinical trials into our meta-analysis. We extracted the baseline and outcomes from the clinical trials and evaluated its risks of bias. Biological markers were measured by amyloid beta (Aß) accumulation, and cognitive outcomes were measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale - Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) and Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE). For one study, the WMS-IV was used to measure cognitive outcome. The other study measured cognitive outcome with the MMSE. Biological markers were measured by Aß accumulation in one study and with [11C]PIB tracer in another. There was no significant difference between the placebo and experimental group after the treatment period.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-06 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/32/20240818

    A systematic review of transcranial magnetic and direct current stimulation application on the improvement of reading ability of developmental dyslexia

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), two non-invasive brain stimulation techniques (NIBS), are modulatory tools to probe into a possible causal and interaction relationship between brain structure and function. Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by significant and persistent difficulty in learning and reading-related skills. Previous studies have shown that TMS and tDCS play an important role in reading ability and neurocognitive plasticity, such as visuospatial working memory, attention, speech recognition, and motor perception. However, research on the effectiveness of TMS/tDCS in treating DD is still limited. The current study aimed to systematically review the broadly application of TMS/tDCS in the treatment of dyslexic children and adolescents as well as adults. Twelve studies involving 128 dyslexic subjects (199 children/adolescents and 29 adults) were included in this systematic review. Overall, TMS/tDCS appeared to be an effective technique for treating dyslexia. However, further future studies with larger sample sizes as well as more different languages are essential to demonstrate its potential for successful intervention in DD. This systematic review suggested that the combination of tDCS and cognitive training was effective. Moreover, the treatment with multiple sessions and coupled with behavioral training appeared to result in greater efficacy than stand-alone NIBS treatment.

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