Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Modern Medicine and Global Health

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-323-4 (Print)

    978-1-83558-324-1 (Online)

    Published Date



    Mohammed JK Bashir, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman


  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240389

    Diacylglycerol oil on metabolic syndrome: A Review

    The metabolic syndrome is a trait of metabolic disorders that results from the increasing prevalence of obesity. Clinical manifestations include insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, etc. Populations with high morbidity tend to be middle-aged and elder adults. With the advent of an ageing society, the incidence of metabolic syndrome will be higher. Since diacylglycerol (DAG) oil was first introduced in 1999, it has received extensive attention. DAG oils and related products have been distributed in markets in Japan, Europe, and the United States since 2001. This paper will review the effects of the new dietary oil, DAG, on the metabolic syndrome. It is hoped that DAG oil has the ability to replace traditional triacylglycerol (TAG) oil and control the morbidity of metabolic syndrome. This review article collected recent studies, and the results proved that dietary DAG is effective for reducing postprandial blood lipids and blood glucose, managing weight, and ameliorating insulin sensitivity.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240423

    The treatment of myopia and future development

    Myopia is a relatively common disease at present, especially in the adolescent population is very high, and its prevalence increases with the passage of time, usually myopia will cause retinal detachment, glaucoma, etc., which may seriously lead to vision loss and blindness. Existing treatments include monocular lenses, contact lenses and refractive surgery, as well as the drugs atropine and pirrenzil. Studies have shown that most myopia treatments have little effect, are relatively short term, and have significant side effects. This article mainly summarizes the treatment methods of myopia, combined with the latest findings of clinical research, and put forward the possible future treatment methods.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240534

    The effect of Omega-3 fatty acid– fish oil and seed oil–on the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are known to reduce cognitive degeneration and potentially prevent Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Unfortunately, while preventive measures like dietary therapy exist, there are few approved clinical healing therapies for AD. This study aims to investigate the effects of seed oil and fish oil separately in preventing Alzheimer’s disease. We conducted a systematic literature search to find experimental trials based on animal models and human observational studies examining the relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and oil supplements rich in n-3 PUFA. The study uses meta-analysis, t-tests, and regression analysis to determine the significance of each type of oil in regulating Alzheimer’s disease’s development. The results suggest that seed oil may help prevent AD by slowing cognitive deterioration, whereas fish oil may not. Overall, omega-3 fatty acids may serve as potential dietary supplements for improving memory and preventing Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240543

    The mechanism and efficiency of mRNA-based dendritic cell immunotherapy

    In the recent years, the mentions of immunotherapy has become more and more frequent. What emerged along with it are the various types of immunotherapies. This essay includes an introduction to cancer and tumor with the definition, epidemiology, etiology, statistics such as curability regarding types, gender, and race and typical treatments of cancer along with how the immune system functions when targeting tumor cells and how they could potentially disfunction when deceived by tumor cells for example through immune editing. Then, leading on to the main topic to this recent and innovative treatment— immunotherapy. This essay emphasizes on two different types of immunotherapy which are dendritic cell therapy, and messenger RNA vaccine discussing their mechanism as separate treatments. Afterwards, I’ll proceed to discuss the combination of the two which is known as dendritic cell based mRNA vaccine which is a form of mRNA vaccine and it’s own mechanism, advantages, efficiency and current limitations in the conclusion.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240589

    Proposed total synthesis of the potential antidiabetic compound 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methybut-2-enyl)-isobenzofuran-(13H)-one

    Insulin analogs are currently the most often prescribed medications for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, because of the inherent flaws of the medications and the restrictions of the administration methods, there is no comprehensive plan for managing diabetes. As a result, it’s crucial to research comprehensive treatment plans based on the available medications and the traits of T2DM. Natural products play as key role in drug discovery. Although many articles have been published on the antidiabetic potential of natural products, few natural product-based molecules have been approved for the treatment of T2DM. It has been established that the compound 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methybut-2-enyl)-isobenzofuran-(13H)-one from Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint (N. glandulifera) possesses antidiabetic activity, but little attention has been dedicated to its total synthesis. Herein, we attempt to reveal a new total synthesis of 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methybut-2-enyl)-isobenzofuran-(13H)-one. The synthesis is simple, with few steps, and has potential for industrialization.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240736

    The effect of carbohydrate intake on sleep quality and exercise performance

    Carbohydrates are essential nutrients within the context of our daily dietary intake, serving a crucial function in the provision of energy for human metabolism, as well as exerting a significant influence on athletic performance and the subsequent process of recuperation. Carbohydrates, being a primary source of energy for the human body, hold significant significance in our daily existence. Carbohydrates serve multiple functions, including the reduction of body protein consumption, possession of detoxifying qualities, and potential contribution to an extended lifespan through acceptable ingestion. The appropriate consumption of carbohydrates significantly influences the overall health and quality of life of those without any specific health conditions. The dietary intake of an athlete plays a pivotal role in determining their performance on the field. Carbohydrates provide a primary energy source within the dietary regimen of athletes, playing a pivotal role in fueling explosive power, endurance, and other critical determinants of athletic success. The significance of carbs in relation to sleep should not be overlooked. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of carbohydrate consumption on both exercise performance and sleep quality. Additionally, this study will undertake a more extensive examination and analysis by include both athletes and individuals from the general population.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240767

    Exploration and determination of lung cancer targets using multi-omics approaches

    Multi-omics analysis is a relatively new approach which sets of data are combined for analysis. It integrates the genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from diseased individuals and is capable of comparing the different changes in levels of each identified molecules with the assist of charts and graphs by information technologies, ultimately proposing potential biomarkers and correlations that are possible targets for cancer drugs. Lung cancer, nowadays is the most common cancer being diagnosed worldwide. Thus, lung cancer, amongst the remaining cancer, should not be overlooked. The pathogenesis and treatment of lung cancer is an urgent problem in the medical field that needs to be researched thoroughly. By integrating this new approach to the most common cancer, we try to find more possibilities for targeted drug development. We analyzed the data from the existing database to find out whether the control group and the disease group were up-regulated or down-regulated to analyze some targets, contributing to the development of targeted drugs.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240789

    The influence of COVID-19 on the health sector

    Healthcare, as a fundamental component of human well-being, plays a pivotal role in shaping overall quality of life. This research investigates the extensive ramifications of the COVID-19 epidemic on the healthcare sector, encompassing the challenges and opportunities that have emerged in its wake. This study investigates the implications for hospital infrastructure through a comprehensive analysis of pertinent literature. The findings reveal significant deficiencies in essential resources such as ventilators and personal protective equipment (PPE). The evident manifestation of the psychological burden experienced by healthcare personnel highlights the imperative of allocating additional resources to support them. The advent of the pandemic has given rise to telemedicine and other digital alternatives, leading to a significant transformation in the field of healthcare delivery. Lockdowns, mask mandates, and other public health interventions are crucial in mitigating the transmission of the pathogen. Despite facing significant challenges, the ongoing pandemic has accelerated advancements in the field of medicine. This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge regarding effective strategies for addressing future pandemics and underscores the imperative of establishing a healthcare system that is adaptable and responsive. In the era following the COVID-19 pandemic, it is imperative to proactively tackle challenges and explore untapped opportunities in the healthcare sector by continuous research and assertive endeavors.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240811

    Application of rehabilitation in gastrointestinal dysfunction in patients with hepatitis B

    The secondary dysfunction of hepatitis B is usually gastrointestinal dysfunction, motor dysfunction, sensory disorders, sleep disorders, and further aggravation may even lead to liver failure. Among them, gastrointestinal dysfunction is the main symptom that troubles patients and is not conducive to prognosis. In this paper, the application of traditional Chinese and Western medicine rehabilitation in hepatitis B gastrointestinal dysfunction and related treatment mechanisms were reviewed. After studying related articles, it was found that: Traditional Chinese medicine rehabilitation pays attention to the overall function of patients, emphasizes the coordination of heart and rest, and focuses on traditional Chinese medicine regulation, body exercises, massage techniques, acupuncture, acupoint application and other methods; Modern medical rehabilitation attaches importance to the ability of patients to return to society, and mainly adopts physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy and other methods. Among them, traditional Chinese medicine has various rehabilitation methods for gastrointestinal dysfunction of hepatitis B, and most of the current research focuses on traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Modern medicine for rehabilitating this dysfunction, clinical research, and basic research are temporarily lacking. The rehabilitation method of integrated Chinese and Western medicine is more advantageous for the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction of hepatitis B. This article will provide new ideas for the rehabilitation of patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction of hepatitis B.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240821

    Transfer learning-enabled classification of drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with a worldwide prevalence of 760.5 per 100,000 inhabitants. Environment factors and genetic predispositions can influence an individual’s risk of developing AD. Recent research provided insights into the genetic mechanisms of AD, but a comprehensive database of drug-like molecules that can exacerbate or reduce AD risk remains unavailable. Here, we use machine learning to create a similarity map that reveals new putative drugs structurally similar to existing compounds known to be targeting pathways relevant in AD. We trained an autoencoder on a large drug database of over 14,000 drugs, with features derived from several modalities including molecular fingerprints. We then computed similarity scores based on these reduced dimensions. We show that our model is able to identify new compounds structurally similar to existing drugs linked to AD. We conclude that our model holds the potential to elucidate new compounds based on structural similarity and can be used to identify new drugs that affect critical pathways in AD.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240823

    An overview of remedial treatment for sudden hearing loss

    In the acute phase of sudden hearing loss, in patients for whom two weeks of standardized treatment is ineffective or unsatisfactory, or patients for whom the condition has accumulated for more than three weeks, remedial treatment for about 1 week-1 month can be actively pursued to provide an opportunity for hearing recovery. The mainstay of remedial therapy is intratympanic and retro auricular hormone injections. If the disease has progressed beyond 6 weeks and there is still no significant improvement with local hormone injections, the overall efficacy of the treatment can be improved by a combination of Chinese and Western medicine, such as hyperbaric oxygen chambers, acupuncture, and massage (tui na). However, remedial treatments combining Chinese and Western medicine have not been standardized, and attention should be paid to the diagnosis and treatment during the remedial period.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240836

    Research progress on acupuncture therapy for spastic hemiplegia after ischemic stroke

    Spastic hemiplegia is a common clinical condition in patients with ischemic stroke, which has a significant impact on their motor function and quality of life. A large number of clinical studies have shown that acupuncture has significant advantages in treating spastic hemiplegia after stroke, and it is worth further promoting and applying in clinical practice due to its simple operation, high safety, and mild side effects. The commonly used clinical methods for acupuncture therapy of spastic hemiplegia after ischemic stroke include filiform needle therapy, electroacupuncture therapy, fire needle therapy, warm needle therapy, and other different acupuncture methods and acupoint selection methods, which can promote the recovery of limb motor function in patients. However, there is currently no clear international standardized treatment plan for acupuncture therapy. In the future, we should strengthen the rigor of clinical practice and research, and strive to contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of stroke patients.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240839

    Studies of SUD and MDD’s effect on decision-making based on the drift diffusion model

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Substance Use Disorder (SUD) have been major medical concerns across the globe in the past century. These mental disorders are posited to arise from cognitive dysfunctions in the brain and have a critical influence on decision-making and emotional regulation in patients. Therefore, in-depth investigation into decision-making, a crucial composition of the cognitive system, can help uncover the fundamental mechanism of MDD and SUD and their relationship. By reviewing and contrasting decision-making studies of MDD and SUD through Drift Diffusion Models, this paper found that MDD and SUD reflect similar defects and impacts within the decision-making system. To conclude, though MDD and SUD are often seen as two completely unrelated and even contrasting mental conditions, this result suggests that they might be two sides of the same coin.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240843

    Review of the theoretical basis of the heart-brain correlation

    Despite rapid advancements in modern medicine, the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases have achieved significant progress. However, issues such as high incidence, recurrence rates, and poor prognosis still profoundly threaten human life and quality of living. The correlation between the heart and brain in anatomy and function, supported by neurological regulation and pathological foundations, validates the association between them. Traditional medicine, characterized by holistic concepts and differential treatment, presents the therapeutic principle of treating different diseases similarly, offering new insights into the clinical treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This paper aims to summarize the theoretical basis of the heart-brain correlation from functional, material, neurologic, and pathological perspectives, aiming to provide more evidence for the theory of “treating the brain and heart simultaneously.”

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240853

    Cocoa butter and replacement in compound coatings and effect on the coating’s rheological profile

    Cocoa butter is a crucial component in chocolate and compound coatings, significantly influencing their physicochemical properties, which, in turn, affect the viscosity and cooling rate of the coatings. This impact is vital in the formulation and storage of coatings, affecting their flow behavior, texture, and stability. Research has shown that the inclusion of coconut oil as a cocoa butter substitute in chocolate results in a reduction in the chocolate’s viscosity. This is attributed to the lower viscosity of coconut oil, primarily due to its lauric acid content. This experiment utilized the Brookfield viscometer to measure the viscosity of chocolate. Three representative types of chocolate were selected: milk chocolate, white chocolate, and dark chocolate, all containing the same ingredient: coconut oil. The analysis of the measurement results allows the determination of the viscosity characteristics of chocolate, providing insights into which type of chocolate exhibits the most significant improvement in viscosity due to the presence of coconut oil. Experimental results indicate that milk chocolate with the addition of 4.5% coconut oil exhibits optimal physical characteristics, including gloss, texture, and overall acceptance by participants. In contrast, dark chocolate with coconut oil has higher viscosity and slower cooling rates, requiring more time to complete the coating or product preparation, which may affect production efficiency. White chocolate with coconut oil typically falls between milk chocolate and dark chocolate in terms of viscosity. This study delves deep into the impact of cocoa butter substitutes on various chocolate coatings, offering valuable insights into the application of coconut oil as a cocoa butter alternative in chocolate production.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240867

    Inflammatory response and cell cycle pathways contribute to innate resistance to Anti-PD-1 therapy in glioblastoma

    Glioblastoma (GBM), as the most prevalent malignant primary brain tumor in adults, is characterized by limited treatment options and poor prognosis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized cancer therapy, prompting interest in their potential application in GBM treatment. This study identified potential targets for enhancing the efficacy of GBM immunotherapy by a statistical analysis of genomic and transcriptional data coupled with an exploration of the molecular mechanisms governing patient responses to immunotherapy. Our analysis revealed that the effectiveness of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in GBM is closely associated with the mutational burden of the tumor and the age at which treatment is initiated. In addition, we found that the gene set signature of cell cycle regulation is upregulated, while the immune response regulation pathways are enriched in the tumors from non-responsive patients. These findings underscore the potential effectiveness of targeting these pathways in the context of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, with the promise of enhancing patient outcomes in GBM.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240881

    Directions for the improvement of dendritic vaccines for HER2-positive breast cancer

    Breast cancer is the disease with the largest number of diagnoses at present, which seriously threatens the health of women all over the world. HER2 positive breast cancer is one of the subtypes, accounting for 25% -30% of breast cancer cases. Despite good progress in chemotherapy, radiation therapy, endocrine therapy and other areas, cancer recovery remains a huge challenge. The development of tumor therapeutic vaccines is a promising strategy. In recent years, more and more vaccines based on different carrier platforms have gradually been discovered. These vaccines stimulate the immune system of patients to produce specific immune responses, thereby reducing the recurrence and metastasis rate of cancer. However, in current clinical research evaluations, no type of vaccine has demonstrated significant therapeutic effects. This paper summarizes the mechanism and types of DC vaccine for HER2 positive breast cancer, analyzes its shortcomings according to relevant clinical trials, and proposes solutions in some aspects such as action target, delivery vector, combined immunity, etc, provides a reference for the development and improvement of therapeutic vaccine for breast cancer in the future. At present, many studies are addressing the problems with some vaccines, and there will be better therapeutic vaccines for breast tumors applied in clinical practice in the future, benefiting all humanity.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240882

    GBA-related diseases and the application in Tourette syndrome treatment

    This paper discusses the gut-brain axis (GBA) and how it takes part in various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette syndrome. The gut microbiota, inducing vital communications with the brain through the GBA, is not to be neglected in maintaining physiological balance, with the potential to become a source of new therapeutic opportunities for treating these diseases. Current studies show that methods such as personalized diets, oral bacteriotherapy, and multi-strain probiotics like SLAB51 and DEX have promising results in treating AD and ADHD through manipulation of the biotas. Based on the analysis of previous research, this paper finds how changes in gut microbiota amount in feces between healthy and TS mice, in particular the decrease in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and the increase in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. However, future studies and experiments are required to evaluate potential side effects of microbiome alterations in humans, and potential treatments for Tourette’s syndrome based on gut microbiota analysis. The GBA is a promising area for developing new therapeutic approaches for neurological diseases, and future research in this field holds great potential for advancements in the treatment of these disorders currently with no verified cures.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240885

    Gene sequencing technologies and their application in cancer research

    The continuous development of gene sequencing technology has made the next-generation sequencing technology and the third-generation sequencing technology gradually applied to scientific research, which has greatly improved the efficiency and accuracy of sequencing and reduced the cost. The incidence of tumors in the human population continues to rise, making tumors gradually become one of the most serious diseases that endanger health. In view of the close relationship between gene mutations and tumorigenesis, the progress of gene sequencing technology has a profound impact on clinical research on tumors. In this thesis, literature analysis was used to introduce several gene sequencing technologies and compare them from multiple perspectives. In addition, the causes of tumorigenesis and the role of sequencing technology in the clinical research of human tumors were investigated. This paper found that the third-generation sequencing technology was more efficient than the next-generation sequencing technology, but it was difficult to be widely used due to its lower accuracy. Sequencing technology is of great help to tumor clinical research.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-03-08 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/33/20240891

    Ethnic and Geographic Disparities in Helicobacter pylori Infection: Unraveling the Complexities of Gastric Cancer Prevalence

    This literature review delves into the complex relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer, focusing on ethnic and geographic disparities. It examines the varying prevalence of H. pylori across different regions and ethnic groups, the pathogenicity of different bacterial strains, and the influence of genetic, dietary, and socio-economic factors on gastric cancer incidence. The review identifies critical research gaps and underscores the need for an integrated approach to understand these disparities better and develop targeted prevention and treatment strategies.

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