Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Modern Medicine and Global Health

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-193-3 (Print)

    978-1-83558-194-0 (Online)

    Published Date



    Mohammed JK Bashir, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman


  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240380

    Mechanisms of action of tea polyphenols in the modulation of obesity through gut microbiota

    Obesity has become an increasingly serious global issue in recent years, leading to a myriad of health concerns for a growing population. Consequently, the quest for rational and safe methods to combat excess body fat has emerged as a mainstream demand among consumers. This paper focuses on tea polyphenols as the primary subject of investigation, employing gut microbiota as a mediator to explore and summarize existing research regarding the anti-obesity effects of tea polyphenols. Current reports suggest that the mechanisms by which tea polyphenols exhibit anti-obesity effects primarily encompass two aspects. Firstly, tea polyphenols can regulate the composition of the gut microbiota, primarily targeting the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. This regulation occurs both in their digested state and undigested form, with a greater emphasis on their undigested state. Tea polyphenols primarily function by reducing the abundance of Firmicutes while increasing that of Bacteroidetes, thereby enhancing gut microbiota diversity to exert anti-obesity effects. Secondly, the metabolites of tea polyphenols also play a role in modulating gut microbiota, with phenolic acid compounds being the key metabolites responsible for anti-obesity effects. Compared to the parent tea polyphenols, phenolic acid compounds exhibit higher bioavailability and biological activity.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240381

    Revitalizing thalidomide: Advancements in drug design and therapeutic strategies

    Thalidomide, a drug initially introduced in the late 1950s, stands as a poignant reminder of the complexities of drug discovery. Initially hailed for its sedative properties, its widespread use led to a tragic medical disaster, with thousands of infants born with severe congenital malformations. This catastrophe prompted global reforms in drug testing and approval processes. However, the story of thalidomide took a turn as subsequent research unveiled its potential therapeutic applications, particularly its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. This article delves into thalidomide’s transformative journey, from its tragic beginnings to its cautious reintroduction in medical therapeutics. The narrative underscores the balance between innovation, risk, and ethical responsibility in medicine. Furthermore, the article explores five cutting-edge technologies reshaping thalidomide’s therapeutic potential: molecular modifications and analogues, nanoparticle-based delivery systems, prodrug strategies, gene therapy integration, and enhanced formulations. Each technology offers unique avenues to enhance thalidomide’s efficacy, safety, and applicability. The advancements collectively signify the evolving landscape of pharmaceutical design, emphasizing the potential of tailored treatments that prioritize patient well-being. In conclusion, thalidomide’s journey from tragedy to therapeutic innovation serves as a testament to the resilience of medical science, highlighting the importance of continuous learning, adaptation, and responsible innovation in the realm of drug discovery.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240382

    Limitation and development of minimally invasive robots

    This paper mainly uses the method of literature review to sort out and analyze the research and application fields of minimally invasive robot technology,combined with experimental research and case analysis,to explore the development trend and future development direction of minimally invasive robot technology. The research of minimally invasive robot technology has been relatively mature,but its limitations still exist,such as the accuracy of surgical instruments,the control mode of robots,and the safety in surgery.The development of minimally invasive robot technology in the future needs to consider the factors of technology, law and ethics. At the same time, it is also necessary to continuously promote the development of minimally invasive robot technology in the laboratory and practice, so as to achieve better surgical results and serve more patients. In the future development, minimally invasive robot technology will become more and more mature and new application fields will emerge, but it is still necessary to actively explore unknown areas and continuously promote the development, optimization and application of minimally invasive robot technology. This study discusses and analyzes the development trend and future development direction of minimally invasive robot technology, and puts forward suggestions and prospects for the optimization and development of minimally invasive robot technology.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240387

    High-throughput screening technologies for drug discovery

    The development of high-throughput screening technologies has revolutionized the field of drug discovery by significantly improving the efficiency of compound library screening. Traditional screening methods, such as manual screening and biochemical assays, were time-consuming and limited in their ability to identify lead compounds. However, the advent of high-throughput screening technologies has overcome these limitations and provided researchers with a more efficient and effective approach. This review begins by examining the background, characteristics, and limitations of conventional screening methods. These methods often required large amounts of time, resources, and labor, making them impractical for large-scale compound screening. In recent years, some new technologies have emerged, including virtual screening, image analysis, prediction methods, and microarray-based screening. Each of these approaches has its own strengths and limitations, but collectively they have greatly enhanced the efficiency and accuracy of compound identification. These viewpoints highlight the successful application of these technologies in identifying lead compounds for various therapeutic targets. Finally, the review envisions the future development of high-throughput screening technologies. It emphasizes the need for continuous optimization and innovation to further improve the efficiency and effectiveness of compound identification. The ultimate goal is to shorten drug development timelines and provide high-quality lead compounds for the benefit of patients. In conclusion, the emergence of high-throughput screening technologies has significantly improved the efficiency of compound library screening and provided better lead compounds for drug discovery. Ongoing advancements in these technologies hold great promise for the future of pharmaceutical research and development.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240420

    Correlation between water pollution and the incidence of common cancers ⸺ Wuyingshan community as an example

    The reasons for the significant decrease in cancer incidence in the past decade among residents of Wuyingshan Community, Tianqiao District, Jinan City, Shandong Province, where the author lives, are certainly comprehensive and multifaceted. Due to time and energy constraints, this paper takes the perspective of the creation of a National Sanitary City in Jinan and the widespread use of tap water purification equipment by residents in the Wuyingshan Community, and uses the sample sampling method and comparative research method to indirectly prove the relationship between water pollution and the incidence of common cancers among residents in the Wuyingshan Community by investigating the effects of the quality of residents’ drinking water on residents’ tumors. The results of the study show that there is a positive correlation between water pollution and the incidence of common cancers, and that the creation of the National Sanitary City and its continuous management of water pollution effectively reduce the incidence of common cancers in the community, and that the residents contribute to the further purification of tap water; on the other hand, residents who do not pay attention to the quality of drinking water are prone to the occurrence of common cancers. In order to sustainably reduce the level of urban water pollution and maintain drinking water quality that meets internationally accepted health standards, this paper makes several recommendations from the dimensions of water quality legislation, production and living needs, water quality monitoring, and sewage treatment.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240421

    A study on the association between dietary habits and scientific fat loss

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight has emerged as a significant public health concern on a global scale, as societies continue to progress. Consequently, the use of scientific methods for reducing body fat has become a crucial approach in mitigating associated health concerns. The dietary habits of individuals play a crucial role in weight control and have a substantial influence on the efficacy of scientific approaches to fat reduction. This study endeavors to examine the correlation between eating habits and scientific fat loss by conducting a comprehensive literature review and data analysis. Specifically, it desires to explore the interplay between food frequency, dietary surroundings, and dietary psychology, and their impact on the efficacy of scientific fat loss methods. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between dietary environment and scientific fat loss. The objective is to establish a scientific foundation and offer direction for the creation of effective and evidence-based strategies for fat reduction. By implementing more robust interventions and educational programs focused on dietary habits, it is possible to foster the cultivation of wholesome eating practices, diminish the prevalence of obesity, and enhance the general well-being of the populace.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240429

    Application of photocured hydrogels in the treatment of bone defect diseases

    Photocured hydrogels are materials with great potential, offering a novel approach in the treatment of bone defects. They exhibit excellent biocompatibility, tunable degradation characteristics, and the ability to incorporate cells and growth factors. This paper explores the mechanisms and advantages of photocured hydrogel applications in the treatment of bone defects, focusing on bone formation promotion, drug-loading and antimicrobial properties, and enhancement of vascularization in the surrounding tissues. Research indicates that photocured hydrogels can serve as scaffolds, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering materials, promoting bone cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, inhibiting bone resorption and osteolysis, fostering vascularization, and providing drug-loading antimicrobial effects. Nevertheless, the application of photocured hydrogels in the treatment of bone defect diseases faces challenges, such as long-term stability and interface adaptability. Further research and development are required to overcome these challenges, facilitating the widespread clinical use of photocured hydrogels and improving the treatment outcomes and quality of life for patients with bone defects.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240431

    An evaluation of chemotherapy, surgery and immunotherapy’s effectiveness in tackling pancreatic cancer

    Statistics show that among malignant tumors, pancreatic cancer has the poorest prognosis. Cancer has a low likelihood of survival, and early cancer diagnosis is challenging. The major therapies currently used include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, although the outcomes are not optimal. Treatments for pancreatic cancer using immunotherapy now appear more promising because to developments in molecular biology. The primary pancreatic cancer treatments will be analyzed and evaluated in this study, and it will be concluded that immunotherapy is the most promising course of action. The usage of patient range, toxicity, and other side effects are some of the difficulties, although it is still in the research and development stage.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240432

    The impact of antibiotics on the environment and human body

    Antibiotics, as a typical new pollutant in environmental media, have important implications for the treatment of water sources, soil, livestock, and humans. This article summarizes the effects of antibiotics on sewage, water sources, soil, water circulation, and plankton in the water, as well as the underlying reasons, by analyzing and summarizing other papers. It also provides analysis and solutions for antibiotics. Not only that, this article also reviews the reasons for the excessive use of antibiotics in clinical treatment and the impact of antibiotic resistance on clinical treatment. It also reviews the emergence and treatment of antibiotic resistance in the human body. Through the above plan, this article summarizes the impact of antibiotics on the environment and the human body.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240437

    Comparative study on treatment strategies for insomnia

    Insomnia is a common sleep disorder that affects the typical quality of life of people. Different treatment strategies are required for insomnia caused by specific factors, such as environment and genetics. Currently, the two main categories of insomnia treatments are cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) and pharmacotherapy. However, each treatment has distinctive limitations. CBT-I lacks accessibility and certified facilitators, while pharmacotherapy is more prone to result in negative side effects, addiction, and physiological tolerance. To get over these limitations, it is necessary to come up with new alternative therapies to deal with insomnia effectively. This review is intended to summarize the different causes of insomnia and the latest existing treatments for insomnia. Based on previous studies, this study provides new ideas for future insomnia treatments.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240444

    HER2 targeted structure prediction and analysis based on artificial intelligence

    HER2 is a crucial marker in cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. Accurate structure prediction and analysis of HER2 are vital for understanding its function and designing effective therapies. Our study proposes an end-to-end and artificial intelligence approach that uses deep learning frameworks to predict and analyze HER2’s structure. Using top-notch machine learning algorithms, we trained a model on a comprehensive dataset of HER2 sequences and structures. The model showed impressive accuracy in forecasting HER2’s tertiary structure, helping identify potential functional areas and critical interaction points. Moreover, our analysis provided new insights into HER2’s structural changes and stability, revealing potential regulation mechanisms for targeted therapies. We used advanced bioinformatics tools to validate our predictions and ensure their reliability. This research marks a significant step in understanding HER2’s molecular structure and lays a solid groundwork for personalized cancer treatments. By harnessing artificial intelligence, our study offers a promising path for precise medicine and targeted treatments for HER2-overexpressing cancers.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240453

    Progress in the study of the effects of medical nutrition therapy on adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and their offspring

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) belongs to a particular type of diabetes mellitus. Not only are patients with GDM at a more significant risk of converting to diabetes mellitus later in life, but GDM can also have both short-term and long-term effects on the health of the mother and child, such as congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortions, macrosomia, preterm labor, excessive amniotic fluid, and many other adverse outcomes. Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) interventions for patients with GDM can be extremely beneficial to the pregnancy outcomes of GDM patients and their offspring by helping them to act on their individual and clear health goals and adopt healthy behaviors. The article starts from the effect of MNT on the pregnancy outcome of GDM patients and their offspring, reviews the latest research progress on the adverse pregnancy outcome of GDM patients and their offspring, and analyzes the problems and importance of medical nutrition therapy for GDM patients with the aim of better promoting the outcome of GDM patients’ mothers and infants, and reaching the long-term effect of MNT.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240455

    The occurrence and development of autism from the perspective of perceptual ecology

    This paper discusses three theoretical models to explain the occurrence and development of autism disorders. The psychological model regards developmental disorders or psychopathological disorders of autistic patients as the manifestation of impaired mental activities, the neurobiological model mainly considers specific brain structure damage and its effect on behavioral dysfunction in autism. The ecological model doesn’t directly study the mind or brain, instead it tries to explain the behavior of autistic people by studying their interactions with the environment. This paper will mainly focus on the ecological model of autism, autism is a process in human’s life development, people who is suffer from autism, the influences of this disease will along with the entire lifetime, autism is not caused by a moment, but is a life through process. Compared with psychological model and neurobiological model, the ecological model view of autism based on perceptual ecology theory highlights the interaction between individuals and the environment, which indicates that autism can also effect by environment, outside components can consider as triggers of autism as well.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240457

    The application of antisense oligonucleotides in disease treatment

    Scientific research in recent years has made every endeavor to combat against various untreatable diseases in neurodegenerative or genetic diseases under the guidance of constantly updated underlying gene-associated pathological mechanisms. However, substantial therapeutic challenges still remain and many original causes of diseases are under great debate. Problems of drugs for neurological disorders involve high resistance to drug molecules by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and only work efficiently in certain populations of patients, which is also a side effect of genetic malady. The introduction of Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) brings a new era for these diseases and meets the requirement. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proven ten oligonucleotide drugs until 2020. This article reviews some of their clinical trials with mechanisms, up-to-date attempts in inventing new ASO therapy, continuous safety and efficacy in preclinical and clinical trials of proven ASO, and great potential usage for RNA virus therapy.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240458

    Vaccine development against Helicobacter pylori

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) colonizes and persists in the gastric mucosa. It was the Class I carcinogenic factor, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer attributed 92% of stomach cancers to Hp, and according to data, nearly 50% of people in China are infected with Helicobacter pylori. At present, antibiotics are mainly used in clinical treatment, but with the increase of Hp resistance, antibiotics will lose their effect. The development of Hp vaccine has become a new way to prevent and control Hp infection. Components such as flagella, urease, virulence factors and outer membrane proteins involved in the process of Hp infection, colonization and reproduction, and have also become candidate antigens in the development of Hp vaccine. Specifically, study have suggested that flagellin vaccine can decrease infection rate. In the meantime, recombinant Hp antigens and dmLT were efficient for protection from the Hp infection. This article summarizes the progress of Hp vaccine research and development, hoping to provide reference for related research.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240464

    The extracellular matrix in peritoneal metastatic carcinoma

    The peritoneum is a relatively common site for the metastasis of cancers that develop near the peritoneal cavity, such as gastric cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), ovarian cancer, and low-grade appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma (LAMN). Peritoneal metastasis (PM) results from direct implantation and growth or microvascular metastasis of cancer cells to the peritoneum and is often associated with a poor prognosis. The biological features of peritoneal metastatic tumours are significantly altered, and the tumour microenvironment (TME) is profoundly abnormal. The extracellular matrix (ECM), a highly dynamic part of the TME, exhibits unique biological properties and influences tumour cells (TCs) behaviour and invasion. In this review, I focus on the hallmarks of cancer; the biology of CRC, PM from CRC, LAMN and pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP, resulting from the intraperitoneal spread of LAMN); and the structural features of the cancer ECM and mucus and their roles in tumour growth, TCs invasion and drug resistance. The study of the ECM has led to a deeper understanding of peritoneal metastatic tumours and provides new insights for developing new biomarkers and targeted drugs.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240465

    TREM2 mediated Aβ clearance dysfunction in microglia cells by circadian disruption in Alzheimer's disease

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that the Trem2 gene is a risk factor associated with the onset of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The Trem2 gene is highly expressed on the surface membrane of microglia cells in the central neuron system (CNS), which mediates neuron inflammation and the clearance of axons and synapses. As a growing amount of evidence is connecting Circadian disruptions with increased levels of CNS inflammation, this review aims to find a connection between circadian disruption and amyloid-leading Alzheimer’s disease through Trem2 in Microglia cells. This review summarizes past research independently about the circadian disruption with microglia activation, microglia activation with Trem2, and Trem2-affected MG cells impacting the development of Alzheimer’s Disease. Further research may focus on specifying the importance of Trem2 microglia cells caused neuron inflammation in the development of Alzheimer's pathology, for whether the early A-beta plaquing is triggered by Trem2 microglia cells, or Trem2 is just contributing but not the causation of AD in its Mild Cognitive impairment (MCI) stage.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240466

    Verbal memory deficits in schizophrenia

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by multifactorial etiology, encompassing genetic and environmental risk factors, as well as structural brain abnormalities. The disorder manifests through a spectrum of symptoms, broadly categorized as positive, negative, and cognitive impairments. Among these cognitive deficits, verbal memory impairment stands out as a substantial and pivotal symptom of schizophrenia, significantly predicting future functional outcomes. This deficit primarily arises from a substantial decline in encoding ability coupled with a mild increase in forgetting rate. To assess the extent of this impairment, word list learning tasks are commonly employed. Research has established a clear association between verbal memory deficits and alterations in hippocampal volume, aberrant brain responses, and anomalies in spontaneous brain activity. Although targeted pharmacological interventions for verbal memory deficits are currently lacking, medications aimed at enhancing cognitive function, such as aripiprazole, present a viable interim option. Future research endeavors should focus on exploring the fundamental aspects of memory and brain structure and function, while incorporating advanced techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) into investigations of verbal memory deficits. Additionally, the development of animal models capable of simulating verbal memory deficits holds promise for advancing our understanding of this critical aspect of schizophrenia.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240467

    Microbiome and common viral infections in acute viral gastroenteritis patients

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a disease that exhibits a high death rate among children, particularly in underdeveloped nations. It is noteworthy that the majority of affected persons are children below the age of five1. The primary etiological factors contributing to AGE are viral and bacterial infections. This study employs a literature review methodology to investigate the variations in microbiome composition between individuals diagnosed with AGE and those who are considered to be in good health. This article also presents an overview of prevalent viral infections that contribute to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and provides strategies for its prevention. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of various perspectives and empirical evidence pertaining to the intricate interplay between gut microbiota and viral pathogens, as well as potential strategies for mitigating viral infections.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/15/20240469

    Research on consumers’ understanding and attitudes to food additives ⸺ Taking Shanghai as an example

    Nowadays, there are a variety of food additives on the market, and the use of food additives is becoming increasingly frequent. However, most consumers are not very familiar with some common food additives, and there is a common misconception about food additives, believing that they will definitely pose a threat to human health. According to previous studies, the legitimate and reasonable use of food additives does not affect health. Therefore, this study uses a questionnaire survey to study consumers' awareness and attitudes towards common food additives, taking Shanghai as an example. It can be concluded that consumers in Shanghai generally have a low level of understanding of food additives, so this paper analyzes the survey data and proposes some relevant suggestions to address this situation. For instance, the government can eliminate public misunderstandings through extensive publicity.

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