Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Modern Medicine and Global Health

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-197-1 (Print)

    978-1-83558-198-8 (Online)

    Published Date



    Mohammed JK Bashir, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman


  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240619

    Review of the association between non-coding RNAs and environmental exposure

    Disease development is a consequence of the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetics can regulate gene expression without altering DNA sequence. There are different types of epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs. Research has shown epigenetic regulation plays an essential role in environmental exposure and disease development. The role of DNA methylation and histone modification is well characterized so far. While the importance of non-coding RNA in disease development has gained more attention recently, the elucidation of the exposure-non coding RNA-disease pathway is still under much investigation. This review aims to provide a general review of ncRNA functions, focusing on research progress highlighting the association between a variety of exposure and non-coding RNAs and the hope of demonstrating how non-coding RNA can serve as biomarkers for preventive and therapeutic goals upon environmental exposure.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240622

    Analysis of the clinical display effect of imaging techniques on the staging of gliomas

    Glioma is a primary intracranial malignant tumor, which is difficult to be cured and has the characteristics of easy recurrence and high mortality rate, therefore, it is of great clinical significance to accurately grade glioma before operation. Since biopsy of gliomas is relatively difficult and its accuracy cannot be guaranteed, imaging examination has become an important means of clinical grading of gliomas. This paper, through the literature analysis method, reviews the previous studies of applying imaging methods to grade gliomas in China and abroad and summarizes the main techniques of MRI and CT and their grading effects. Finally, this paper finds that MRI and CT can be used to grade gliomas alone, but both have limitations, while the combined application of MRI and CT has high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis and grading of gliomas, which makes up for their respective shortcomings, and is worthy of wide application.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240623

    Predicting the risk of stroke based on machine learning

    Stroke, the second largest leading cause of death among all chronic diseases, is affecting about 101 million people in the world currently. It is estimated that this number of stroke cases will increase by 2.25 by the year 2050. Considering the large number of potential patients with stroke, a mathematical model is designed to predict one’s risk of having a stroke in the future based on one’s basic health data using machinery methods. Using the algorithm of Logistic Regression, the model reaches an accuracy of 92.28% when predicting whether one has a stroke, the model also validates that hypertension is the leading cause of the incidence of stroke by finding out the highest correlation value among all the feature variables. People who would like to know their probability of having a stroke can use the model, then they can have some precautionary measures to lower the likelihood of happening of stroke based on the prediction given, which helps save the medical costs and overuse of medical resources. Governments can enact policies and allocate medical resources based on the predictions made by the model.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240624

    The synthetic routes of sorafenib and its applications on hepatocellular carcinoma

    Cancer stands as the second leading cause of global mortality, with a staggering one in five individuals worldwide facing a cancer diagnosis in their lifetime. Addressing cancer prevention has emerged as a significant issue in the field of public health in the 21st century. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) - the primary liver cancer type - not only ranks as one of the top five most frequent cancers globally, but also distressingly represents the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Notably, it claims the top spot in cancer-related mortality worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma is characterized by its high incidence, swift progression, recurrent nature, proclivity for metastasis, and distressingly high mortality rate. A significant proportion of cases trace a three-step path, hepatitis B infection leading to cirrhosis culminating in hepatocellular carcinoma. Sorafenib, a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor, offers promise in combatting this formidable adversary. It works by inhibiting key targets like vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3), platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFR-β), and RAF family kinases, which contributes to its healing effects. This article delves into the synthetic pathway of sorafenib, elucidating its impactful role in cancer treatment, and expounds on its advantageous attributes.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240702

    Application of deep learning in medical imaging segmentation

    The increasing demand for segmentation of lesions in medical images necessitates research on automatic segmentation. Manual segmentation is inefficient due to training time and energy constraints. Deep learning-based image segmentation technology can improve efficiency and aid in diagnosing conditions. This technology provides accurate and detailed data support for clinical medicine, making it a crucial field in medical image processing. This essay introduces image segmentation and its classification, and explains the differences between two segmentation methods, semantic segmentation and instance segmentation and their respective application fields. Additionally, it introduces several well-known deep neural networks for segmenting medical images using deep learning. Regarding the models, this article introduces the structure and characteristics of each model as well as their respective advantages and disadvantages. This essay also introduces examples of deep learning using different deep neural network models to segment specific medical images, including image segmentation based on FCN for the heart and U-Net for the kidneys.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240625

    Application of sunitinib in cancer treatment and analysis of its synthetic route

    Sunitinib, also known as the free base of sunitinib malate, is an innovative oral agent used in the treatment of tumors. It functions by inhibiting various members of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, which possess a split kinase structural domain. These members include vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) 1, 2, and 3, platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR) α and β, stem cell factor receptors, FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, and BCR/ABL fusion genes. This paper briefly introduces the research background, pharmacological activity and toxicity of sunitinib, sorting out the incidence and pathogenesis of the diseases it is targeted to treat, and its regulatory mechanism in treating the diseases, etc., summarising several synthetic routes of sunitinib researched by the previous researchers, and at the same time analysing and evaluating the synthetic routes and suggesting the synthetic routes, summing up and proposing the outlook of its subsequent research contents and directions, providing references and help to the research on sunitinib afterward.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240626

    The mechanism of lapatinib and its application in breast cancer

    This paper aims to study the synthetic route, mechanism of action and application of lapatinib in breast cancer. As a common malignant tumor, breast cancer poses a serious threat to the life and health of patients. As an effective targeted drug, lapatinib is significant in treating breast cancer. Its pharmacological effects can block the growth and metastasis of tumor cells by inhibiting specific signaling pathways and affect cancer cells’ metabolism and drug efficacy. Its molecular mechanism is mainly through targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to inhibit the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. Studies on lapatinib’s drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics also described its metabolism and therapeutic effect in vivo. Secondly, the pathophysiology of breast cancer was summarized, including the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and molecular biological characteristics of breast cancer. The therapeutic effect, application, efficacy evaluation, and adverse reaction management of lapatinib were analyzed for the application of lapatinib in the treatment of breast cancer. Moreover, the existing lapatinib synthetic routes were described. Lapatinib has a substantial treatment influence and may effectively decrease harmful reactions when used to treat breast cancer. Nevertheless, additional study is required to ascertain its optimal application and possible mechanism of action in breast cancer treatment.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240627

    Flavonoids and the gut microbiota: A promising frontier for colorectal cancer prevention and intervention

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a formidable global health challenge, with increasing incidence rates and significant mortality. Flavonoids, known for their antioxidant properties, a class of polyphenolic compounds found in various dietary sources, exert multifaceted effects on gut microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, inflammation mitigation, and gut barrier enhancement. Moreover, they demonstrate promise in countering DNA damage induced by microbial toxins and modulating metabolic processes. Animal studies and clinical trials revealed changes in gut microbiota composition in CRC. However, the translational application of flavonoids to treat CRC through modifying gut microbiota requires further research. This review paper delves into the intricate relationship between flavonoids, and gut microbiota, with a particular focus on their potential in CRC prevention. This paper discusses the complex mechanisms through which flavonoids influence CRC development and highlights their potential in shaping dietary strategies for cancer prevention. In the midst of the rising CRC burden, flavonoids offer a hopeful link between dietary choices and improved health outcomes, paving the way for a healthier, cancer-free future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240632

    The waist injuries and treatment methods of rowers

    Rowing is one of the world’s competitive sports, and it is an extremely energy intensive aerobic sport. This sport requires very strict physical fitness for athletes. Therefore, rowers need to withstand extreme load training and ultra-high intensity endurance training, whether in daily training or in actual competitions. Rowers must possess good physical fitness and functional abilities, as well as flexibility and agility. However, the prolonged physical wear and tear experienced by rowing athletes during training and competition can easily lead to sports injuries. Due to the influence of many factors, emphasis has been placed on rowing physical fitness training. In the specific operation process, it is necessary to closely combine the characteristics of rowing and the actual physical condition of athletes and develop a scientific and reasonable plan for rowing and injury treatment. Therefore, this article first starts from the investigation of physical injuries and types of injuries among different athletes and finds that the proportion of waist injuries is the highest. At the same time, it elaborates on the basic reasons for waist injuries, and finally provides rehabilitation treatment plans, allowing rowing athletes to make more progress and development.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240633

    Causes and preventive measures of knee injuries in table tennis players

    Table tennis, as the national sport of China, is widely practiced throughout the country and takes a leading position in the international arena. With the rapid development of table tennis, many excellent athletes have emerged. Since athletes are under high load in training for a long time, sports injuries are almost unavoidable, especially knee injuries, which have the greatest impact on athletes. Therefore, correctly recognizing the causes of knee injuries and mastering the corresponding preventive measures is an important topic. In this paper, we take the literature method and mathematical statistics method as the main research method, combine the knowledge of sports training science and sports physiology to introduce the parts and degree of knee injuries, analyze the causes of knee injuries according to the characteristics of table tennis, and put forward relevant suggestions, so as to help athletes effectively avoid knee injuries, improve the level of competitiveness, and contribute to the development of China’s table tennis industry.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240641

    Pancreatic diseases, treatments, and emerging therapeutic strategies: A comprehensive overview

    The pancreas is one of the key organs in the human body, it will lead to some diseases. This passage will introduce the location, the function and some basic information about the pancreas. Pancreatitis can have some bad effects; it triggers the immune system's defense mechanism. The cause of pancreatitis can be excessive drinking and smoking. Pancreatitis is associated with blurred vision and other symptoms. Pancreatic cancer is the most dangerous cancers in the world, and scientists don't know what causes it, but they have some theories about why. Including genetic mutations and other causes. Pancreatic cancer has some methods that can inhibit it, including operation, radiation therapy. Chemotherapy and targeted therapy are also very common methods. Total pancreatectomy, pancreaticoduodenectomy are very common. Also important is the metastasis of pancreatic cancer, which makes patients sicker, and FOLFIRINOX and immunotherapy are the main treatments. The mRNA vaccine is currently in the research and development stage, and it is relatively useful to synthesize the vaccine using uridine mRNA-liposome nanoparticle technology and combine with drug treatment. However, many technologies are not perfect at present, such as early inspection technology and surgery, and I hope that scientists can find better solutions in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240642

    The vaccine of the type one diabetes

    At present, the main patients of T1D (type one diabetes) are adolescents and many complications will occur, which is very harmful to the health of adolescents. This article mainly discusses the development and research progress of T1D vaccine. Current potential vaccines include antigen isolation vaccines, APL, monopeptide vaccines and adjuvant vaccines. Among them, autoantigen IA2-based antigen-specific vaccine Hsp65-6IA2P2 protein vaccine and B9-23 APL-based vaccine can effectively minimize the natural diabetes prevalence in NOD mice, DiaPep277 vaccine is based on heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), which was displayed to maintain C peptide levels in phase I experiments, but phase II trials are not very successful, and are currently entering phase III experiments. The widely used adjuvant alum was combined with the adjuvant vaccine “Diamyd” by GAD65. Diamyd therapy has been successful in adults and has been carried out in phase II studies on kids and teens, with phase III trials currently underway in Europe and the United States.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240646

    Analysis of treatment methods for Parkinson's disease

    This research mainly introduces the symptoms and harms of Parkinson's disease, as well as the mainstream treatment methods in the past five years and potential treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) in the future. First of all, it talks about a biological treatment of PD. Levodopa and dopamine, which is currently the main drug used to relieve PD motor symptoms. It helps patients reduce motor symptoms as much as possible by supplementing the lack of dopamine in the brain. Secondly, it talks about MAO-B inhibitors, like medicine rasagiline and selegiline. These drugs increase dopamine availability by inhibiting dopamine metabolism, thereby reducing the symptoms of PD while reducing potential drug side effects. In addition, this research introduces two potential treatments for PD that are under development: nanomedicine and deep brain stimulation (DBS). The application of nanomedicine in PD treatment such as how it can improve the lives of PD patients through innovative methods in drug delivery, early diagnosis and nerve repair and some potential problems of nanomedicine during PD treatment, and how deep brain stimulation, a surgical treatment, can significantly reduce the symptoms of PD by implanting electrodes and stimulating specific brain areas, thereby improving patients' quality of life.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240647

    Application of tactile sensing in human-computer interaction in robot-assisted surgery and medical fields

    Robot-assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery (RMIS) is a revolutionary breakthrough in the field of surgery in 21st-century clinical medicine, and in recent years it has become the standard of care in Western medicine. It makes highly accurate medical operations possible based on the advantages of traditional minimally invasive surgery, such as reducing patient trauma and accelerating post-operative healing. However, the most advanced robotic-assisted surgical systems available on the market, as exemplified by the da Vinci system, are still not equipped with tactile receptors. In recent years, scientists and engineers have come up with different techniques and ideas, including various forms of tactile sensors, to improve the quality of the process. In this paper, the sensor devices that can be used for RMIS are classified into six different types based on their structural characteristics, and typical examples of them are listed. For some of the sensing structures that are only in the theoretical stage, inferences and explanations are given based on references. And the application directions are summarized as ‘tactile diagnosis’ and ‘operator sensing’. Research in the last decade in both areas of sensing technology is summarized and outlined respectively.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240649

    Early diagnosis and prognosis of MINOCA by CMR

    Cardiovascular disease is a prevalent health concern in contemporary society. Numerous studies have indicated that certain individuals with myocardial infarction may not obtain symptoms of coronary obstruction in coronary angiography. As a result, there is a growing interest in exploring the evaluation of myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA). This article focuses on the application of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the diagnosis and prognosis of MINOCA. In conjunction with the pathological characteristics of MINOCA and the imaging principles underlying CMR technology, this article investigates the role of CMR in the clinical practice of MINOCA. CMR is a valuable technique employed for studying multiple aspects of the heart, including morphology, function, organization and perfusion. By applying diverse parameters and sequences, this non-invasive imaging method emerges as an essential tool for clinical diagnosis and prognosis of various cardiovascular diseases. MINOCA is characterized by insufficient blood supply to the coronary arteries or direct myocardium dysfunction with non-ST-segment elevation and normal or less than 50% stenosis in angiography. The aetiology of MINOCA encompasses a wide range of factors, while the application of CMR shows ability to enhance the diagnostic sensitivity of MINOCA, enabling better identification of the underlying cause of the symptoms and facilitating a personalized prognosis for patients.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240650

    Vibration-based wearable haptic feedback device and its applications

    Vibrotactile feedback technology can convey a variety of information by adjusting the duration, frequency and intensity of vibration, thereby improving user perception, enhancing user experience, providing reminders and notifications, realising accessible applications and meeting the needs of diverse application scenarios. This paper first describes the principle of vibrotactile feedback, and explains in depth how the human tactile sensory system can simulate different tactile sensations. Next, the article explores wearable device materials that can help with better vibration perception and more comfortable motion fit, as well as the evolution and improvement of different types of haptic feedback devices. Finally, application scenarios of vibro-haptic feedback devices in healthcare and education are presented, such as exercising patients’ muscles and helping students learn better through immersive learning through vibro-haptic feedback device models. The research in this paper has an important reference value for the future research and application of human-computer interaction sensors, and we believe that vibrotactile feedback devices will be more widely used and promoted in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240652

    Breast cancer survival data prediction using machine learning model

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting women, exerting a significant impact on individuals, families, and societies globally. With its multifaceted nature, breast cancer research and awareness efforts have gained substantial momentum, leading to transformative breakthroughs in understanding its causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Survival analysis is a pivotal statistical tool in understanding the dynamic and often complex trajectory of breast cancer. As a disease that evolves, breast cancer research benefits immensely from survival analysis, which provides insights into patient outcomes, treatment efficacy, and the influence of various factors on survival. In this paper, Haberman’s Survival Dataset is used to analyze the data on breast cancer. The primary objective of this study is to establish the correlation between input and output variables, along with identifying significant features. The overarching aim of this research is to assess and compare the efficacy of various machine learning models in order to ascertain the optimal one.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240654

    An analysis of the application prospects of nano-targeted drug delivery systems in cancer therapy

    Cancer is an important cause of human death in the world today. Traditional cancer treatment methods have many defects, such as high damage to normal cells and the inability to efficiently remove tumor cells. In recent years, due to the EPR effect of nano-targeted drugs can stay in the tumor site for a long time, as well as their high specificity to cancer cells and better therapeutic ability than traditional drugs, more and more scholars believe that nano-targeted drug delivery system is a very promising research direction for cancer treatment. This article focuses on recent research in this field, focuses on targeting the tumor itself and various pathways by which T cells kill tumor cells, including promoting apoptosis, reversing polarization TAMs, Inducing iron death in cancer cells, Remodeling the tumor microenvironment and reprogramming metabolism. Through analysis of recent research, it was found that these methods have their own advantages and can be combined to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs. However, the more basic mechanism is still a blank, and more exploration is needed.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240655

    Application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in tumor targeted therapy

    Cancer has always been one of the major diseases affecting human health, which is characterized by genomic instability, high individual heterogeneity and inhibitory tumor microenvironment. Epidemiological studies have found that the standardized rates of various new malignant tumors have increased significantly in recent years, while the traditional therapeutic methods are easy to cause serious tissue damages, high recurrence rate and other postoperative complications. CRISPR/Cas9 system is a defense mechanism of archaea. It can recognize and integrate invasive DNA into its own genome through three steps: acquisition, expression and interference. When invaded by the same antigen, it can quickly recognize foreign DNA and specifically cut it, thus playing an immune defense role. This biological mechanism was originally mainly used for gene function identification. With the rapid development and interdisciplinary integration of immunology, genomics and clinical medicine, more and more studies have found that CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with targeted therapy can assist immunotherapy, gene therapy and target screening at the genetic and molecular levels, and has high editing efficiency, which has great prospects in the field of tumor treatment. Therefore, the objective of this review is to explore the application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in adoptive immune cell therapy, tumor gene therapy and targeted gene screening, so as to provide reference for its efficient application in tumor targeted therapy.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-04 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/17/20240656

    Research on the application of electroencephalogram-derived bispectral index in cardiac surgery

    Monitoring the depth of anesthesia during cardiac surgery is a complex and difficult task. Alongside the conventional standard and advanced monitoring instruments, the EEG bispectral index (BIS) has proven more effective in reducing intraoperative consciousness incidents. Additionally, it offers the benefits of diminishing the requirement for anesthetic drugs and detecting cerebral ischemia. Nevertheless, pertinent evidence indicates that BIS requires improvement in various clinical scenarios. This article provides a comprehensive introduction to the principles of BIS, deliberates on the pros and cons of its clinical application, and explores methods for enhancing its efficacy. BIS fits an optimal number by fitting the mixed information from the EEG. It is widely used in drug application, depth monitoring of anesthesia and evaluation of consciousness state, but low temperature, electronic interference, and systematic error will affect it, and the standardized use and application of new technology will help to enhance its efficacy.

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