Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Modern Medicine and Global Health

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-237-4 (Print)

    978-1-83558-238-1 (Online)

    Published Date



    Mohammed JK Bashir, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman


  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240503

    Correlation and related impact of migratory routes of seasonal birds in India and Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemic regions in India

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) which is also called epidemic encephalitis B, is able to cause severe inflammation in human body especially the central nervous system (CNS). Base on the fact that birds are able to transmit virus as same as pigs in the local regions in India, here will be more discussions and analyses about the correlation and related impact of migratory routes of seasonal birds in India and JE epidemic regions in India base on the case studies in the upcoming articles. Additionally, to figure out the solution of the problem of the continuously JE epidemic over the whole country. Throughout the process, a tight relation between wild birds and JEV was discovered from the previous researches, which also reflected the tendency of JE endemic in regions in India affected by the distribution of bird sanctuaries. Based on policies established for other epidemic prevention before in other countries, a few suggestions were listed to give a supportive reference for potential JE epidemics. This can either enhance the security of citizens living in the endemic area and raise the awareness to wildlife around them.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240585

    A discussion on the relationship between the five organs and proteinuria

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common kidney disease in recent years. In the early and middle stages of diabetic nephropathy, proteinuria is the main symptom, and it is speculated that proteinuria is caused by kidney essence deficiency. Proteinuria is widely recognized as an important indicator in the occurrence and development of various kidney diseases, and long-term proteinuria can cause serious harm to the body. Exploring the relationship between the five organs and proteinuria can help explore the mechanism of early proteinuria formation, propose effective predictive indicators, and facilitate timely clinical interventions to delay the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy. The etiology and pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy are complex, and single treatment methods often fail to achieve ideal therapeutic effects. Traditional Chinese medicine emphasizes a holistic approach and individualized treatment, which can be beneficial in combination with modern Western medicine treatments. Research on the correlation between the five organs and proteinuria can further promote the integration of traditional Chinese and Western medicine in research and application, fully leveraging their advantages, and enhancing the efficacy of diabetic nephropathy treatment. The purpose of this article is to further strengthen the understanding of the relationship between the five organs and proteinuria, and provide theoretical basis and reference for the prevention and treatment of related conditions.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240645

    Bacteria mediated cancer treatment (BMCT) and quorum sensing system in BMCT

    Many treatments against cancer already exist. For example, radiation therapy, chemical therapy and immunotherapy, combined the physical surgery, these treatments do make a remarkable effect in inhibiting the growth of the tumor and thus prolonging the patient’s life. However, most of the treatments mentioned above would simultaneously damage normal cells and cause trauma or pain to the patients. In recent years, researchers have turned their attention to the remarkable natural abilities of certain bacteria such as Salmonella and E. coli, in suppressing malignant cells and solid tumors. Bacteria-mediated cancer treatment (BMCT) has emerged as a promising approach that offers the potential for reduced patient trauma and enhanced precision in targeting cancerous tissues. Furthermore, the integration of quorum sensing systems, initially utilized in the fermentation process holds promise in augmenting the navigational capabilities of bacteria. This advance opens the door to the development of highly location-sensitive bio-agents capable of delivering substantial quantities of specific therapeutic proteins directly to tumor sites. This review aims to comprehensively examine existing BMCT methodologies and explore the quorum sensing pathways that have been identified. Additionally, it contemplates the feasibility of synergizing these two systems to offer a novel perspective on cancer treatment.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240594

    The study on the relationship between dementia and air pollution

    Dementia is a multifaceted neurological condition distinguished by a reduction in cognitive abilities, impairment of memory function, and worsening in overall functional capacity. In recent times, there has been an increasing level of apprehension regarding the potential consequences of environmental elements, specifically air pollution, on the advancement and manifestation of dementia. The primary objective of this research article is to investigate the correlation between dementia and air pollution by a comprehensive analysis of epidemiological data. Additionally, this study will delve into probable processes that may underlie this association and then analyze the ramifications for public health. The results indicate that the presence of air pollution could potentially be a contributing factor to an elevated susceptibility to dementia and a deterioration in cognitive function among those afflicted. Gaining a comprehensive understanding of this correlation is of utmost importance in order to formulate efficacious preventive measures and policies aimed at mitigating the adverse effects of air pollution on dementia.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240668

    Assessing risk factors for diabetes in women: A logistic regression analysis

    The prevalence of diabetes has become an increasingly pressing health challenge, with women emerging as a particularly affected demographic. As global studies underscore, the incidence of diabetes has been growing at an alarming rate, leading to substantial health consequences and creating economic burdens for healthcare systems. To address this, the research turned to an in-depth analysis using logistic regression. The data, sourced from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, encompasses findings from 769 individuals updated as of 2022. This comprehensive dataset incorporates diverse variables, from Pregnancies and Glucose levels to more specific markers like the Diabetes Pedigree Function. Intriguingly, the analysis revealed a dominant age group between 20 and 40 in the dataset. In terms of correlations, variables such as Glucose, BMI, Age, and Pregnancies displayed strong positive associations with the presence of diabetes. These findings not only corroborate existing medical knowledge but also shed light on potential risk determinants previously underemphasized. However, it’s essential to approach these findings with caution, acknowledging the limitations inherent in the dataset’s scope. Despite these constraints, the significance of this research remains profound. By emphasizing both familiar and overlooked factors, this study paves the way for more targeted and effective early interventions, ultimately aiming to improve the prognosis and quality of life for diabetic patients.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240670

    Deep learning-based image classification of MRI brain image

    This article reviews the latest research on MRI brain image classification techniques based on deep learning. Firstly, MRI brain image classification and traditional machine learning methods applied to MRI image classification were briefly introduced. Then, a review was conducted on existing MRI brain image classification methods based on deep learning. The article reviews past and recent related research and provides a detailed introduction to the application of deep learning methods in MRI brain image classification. This includes some traditional machine learning methods and research achievements in deep neural networks (DNN), convolutional neural networks (CNN), and transfer learning. The most commonly used deep learning architecture for image classification is CNN. Research has shown that deep learning methods have high accuracy and performance in MRI brain image classification and can automatically extract image features for effective classification. Therefore, deep learning methods provide doctors with more comprehensive information, help them make more accurate diagnoses and formulate treatment plans, and have broad prospects for application in MRI brain image classification. In the future, the further development of deep learning technology will achieve better auxiliary effects on diagnosis, treatment, and scientific research related to the brain.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240671

    Research progress of wearable temperature sensor based on electronic skin

    The rapid development of science and technology has led to an increasing demand for new sensors, among which wearable temperature sensors based on electronic skin have played a particularly important role in artificial limbs and intelligent robots. This paper introduces the physical structure and working principle of wearable temperature sensor based on electronic skin. In this part, it focuses on two models of electrical signal changes caused by temperature changes. At the same time, the circuit structure and signal transmission and signal processing mode are also mentioned. This paper also introduces the characteristics of the material used in order to achieve direct contact with the human body. Some researchers’ work is also introduced, including accurate and linear reflection of temperature changes, fast response, durable use, and resistance to external interference, etc. The researchers’ research on the realization of the above functions is mentioned in the paper. Finally, the practical application and future prospect of this type of temperature sensor are introduced. In addition, some more mature technologies for the preparation of such wearable temperature sensors based on electronic skin are also described in this paper.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240674

    Regulatory effects and clinical application of panax-based compound formula on chronic diseases

    Hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are common chronic diseases today and can lead to severe complications. Panax-based compound formula, as a comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine formulation, incorporates various components such as Panax, exerting multiple pharmacological effects, including nourishing the kidney qi, strengthening the heart, vasodilation, and increasing blood flow. Through the study of multiple cases, including patients with hypotension, heart disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, as well as early and long-term hypertension, preliminary evidence has been provided, indicating the potential positive effects of this compound in different types of hypertensive and diabetic patients. It demonstrates clear antiarrhythmic effects and effectively reduces blood pressure, improves heart failure, and alleviates hyperlipidemia. However, further research and clinical trials are required to verify its long-term therapeutic effects and safety. It is crucial to develop personalized treatment plans when using this compound formula.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240676

    The interplay between Sleep, neuroplasticity, and health: Insights from a multi-level analysis

    The World Health Organization estimates that 27% of people worldwide experience sleep disturbances, so concerns about sleep deprivation's broader consequences on society's health are voiced as the problem gets worse. The detrimental effects of sleep deprivation on attention, memory, and neuroplasticity have been the subject of several research. This study examines the complex interplay between sleep and neuroplasticity at both macro and micro levels, focusing on the mechanisms of sleep in aspects of attention and memory. Sleep deprivation can significantly impair the brain's capacity to regenerate energy and oxygen, which will manifest as cognitive processing that is slowed down, distractions, and a discernible decline in memory function. In addition, sleep deprivation raises the risk of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, may interfere with mood stability, and intensify stress and anxiety. At the same time, the study also emphasizes how important environmental factors like exercise and diet are in affecting sleep patterns and neuroplasticity. These discoveries not only give sleep and neurological research a fresh angle and biological foundation, but they also offer up new options for therapeutic care. Additionally, it offers a theoretical framework based on neurobiology as well as helpful advice for creating public policy.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240677

    The application of gene editing in treating cancer

    Current gene editing technology mainly involves inserting, replacing or deleting DNA sequences to change the genetic material of an organism, and its most common aspects are using this technology to mass-produce some drugs, such as insulin, or using gene editing to change some nutrients in plants to help others. This article use a literature review and, expects to give an extensive outline of the utilizations of quality altering in medication, with a specific spotlight on its utilization in cancer disease treatment. The paper finds that gene editing technology has emerged as a powerful tool in the field of medicine, revolutionizing the treatment of diseases, including cancer and some systemic diseases. There are many different diseases in the world that currently have no cure, because medicine needs to go through many stages before it can be brought to market and given to people, but through gene editing technology can greatly help alleviate or even reverse these diseases. Other than that, this research deepens our understanding of biology, thereby contributing to the future connection between biotechnology development and medicine, and helping more patients with difficult and complex diseases.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240690

    Investigation of the causes of adolescent lumbar and shoulder-neck diseases and related mitigation approaches

    With the rapid development of global economy and information technology, people’s lifestyle has undergone great changes, and the prevalence of neck and shoulder pain and low back pain has also increased, and the age of onset is trending younger, which seriously affect their study and life, resulting in greater family burden. The survey shows that in recent years, the incidence of pain has increased year by year due to the high learning pressure of teenagers, playing mobile phones and computers for a long time. Teenagers’ long-term incorrect sitting position, sleeping position, improper pen use and other bad living habits, mental and psychological factors may eventually induce the pain through affecting biomechanical imbalance. The author has discussed the etiology, intervention and also the prevention of general neck and shoulder pain and low back pain in order to provide more theoretical basis for the management of this pain in the future and better guide the clinic.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240700

    MRI and CT for scanning human bodies

    Prostate-Specific antigen (PSA) is one of the most popular biomarkers for prostate carcinoma (PCA) at present. PSA indicates initial cancer and recurrence following therapy, but does not distinguish clearly from local or remote lesions. Molecular and functional scans, which can give a thorough and complete picture of PCR amplification, are a more robust instrument for detecting and assessing the progression of cancer at the stage as well as at subsequent stages. In this paper, PET or CT, MRI are useful for diagnosing, staging and regrading of PCA, as well as their application to prognostic, therapeutic and therapeutic evaluation. Novel imaging techniques, including novel radiotracers and PET/MRI, are also presented in this paper. Looking forward, the evolution of imaging techniques holds promise for improved PCA management. Continued innovation in radiotracers and hybrid imaging technologies such as PET/MRI could revolutionize early detection, accurate staging, and effective treatment, paving the way for precision oncology in prostate cancer.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240708

    Progress in the application of gene editing technology in cancer treatments—taking CRISPR as an example

    The background of CRISPR’s development lies in the long-standing need for precise gene editing tools, which culminated in the revolutionary CRISPR-Cas9 system in 2012. This technology has had profound impacts on biology, medicine, and biotechnology, offering versatile applications in gene therapy, agriculture, and research across eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and archaea. In the context of cancer research, CRISPR has shown promise in understanding cancer biology, identifying therapeutic targets, enhancing immunotherapy, and potentially enabling early cancer diagnosis and personalized treatment. However, challenges remain, including the need to enhance precision, address ethical concerns, and conduct rigorous clinical trials. This article examines CRISPR’s advancements in cancer treatment and concludes that, when compared to other gene editing methods, it offers benefits like robust targeting, easy operation, and efficient editing. Based on these benefits, the application prospect of CRISPR in enhancing personalized medicine, drug development, and cancer treatment is also discussed in this article. This article highlights the need for addressing precision and safety issues and the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration and stringent regulation in realizing the full potential of CRISPR in cancer treatment. In conclusion, CRISPR offers promising avenues for improving cancer treatment by enabling precise gene editing and personalized therapies. Despite the challenges, continuous advancements in technology and research, along with stricter regulation, will ensure the safe and effective use of CRISPR in cancer, providing hope for cancer patients and shaping the future of oncology research.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240710

    Potential application of Saccharina japonica and its extracts in cosmetology

    Saccharina japonica (S. japonica), a type of brown algae widely consumed in east Asia due to its enormous health benefits, has now been greeted with great expectation in the field of cosmetics. Although many cosmetological functions of S. japonica extracts have been reported, there is still a lack of comprehensive review on the potential application of S. japonica and its extract in cosmetology. This article aims to sum up the cosmetological functions of S. japonica extracts, including anti-inflammation, skin whitening, anti-oxidation, and anti-bacterial activities. Moreover, the production of bioactive chemicals from S. japonica is explored, hoping to provide new insights into cosmetic manufacturing. Study exploration was conducted using online databases (PubMed) using the keywords Saccharina japonica, Laminaria japonica, kelp, cosmetics, anti-inflammation, skin whitening, anti-oxidation, anti-bacterial, etc., focusing on established pre-clinical trials proving relative bioactivities.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240709

    Cohort analysis for the present mutation of NPM1 in bone marrow cancer

    DNA is the most important code for deciphering human genetic information. It finally determines proteins through the central dogma. Therefore, gene mutations can cause various diseases. Cancer is one of the most difficult-to-cure diseases caused by mutations. Acute myeloid leukemia is one of the subtypes of bone marrow cancer, this essay will predominantly focus on the study of the mutation gene NPM1 (nucleophosmin 1). In order to understand the differences between the mutated gene NPM1 and other mutated genes, a cohort study analysis of NPM1 is needed. This research helps better understanding of cancer and the variation of NPM1 compared to the others. By researching and analyzing direct clinical data, this essay will contribute to the understanding of cancer and help turn a scientific blank message into a more simple and understandable manner. However, the limitation of this study is insufficient or even missing data. With the development of research and the improvement of data, future studies will be more accurate and effective, providing a more effective reference for exploring targeted therapy of acute myeloid leukemia.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240712

    Antiviral research and detecting viral nucleic acids based on the CRISPR-Cas technology

    Viruses constructed from nucleic acids, either deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA), are encased in a protein covering and require a living cell to reproduce. Symptoms of viral infections can range from asymptomatic to severe illness, and their impact has become increasingly apparent in recent years. For instance, globally, the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic alone has resulted in millions of infections and millions of fatalities. Consequently, the development of effective tools for antiviral resistance is an urgent need. Early detection of viral infections can be achieved through nucleic acid detection, while gene editing techniques offer a promising solution for treating and counteracting the harmful effects of viruses, thereby minimizing economic and property loss. The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and associated (CRISPR-associated, Cas) protein system (CRISPR-Cas) is an emerging gene editing tool that has demonstrated remarkable accuracy and efficiency with its rapidly expanding applications. This review delves into the principles and applications of Cas12a, Cas13, and other systems in nucleic acid detection, highlighting the significant contributions of Cas9, Cas12a, Cas13, and other systems in establishing resistance against DNA and/or RNA viral infections, and outlines the strengths and limitations of the CRISPR-Cas system in current applications. Precautions and suggestions for the system’s safe application are also presented, with an optimistic outlook for its prospects.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240713

    Applications in gene editing in cell totipotency

    Cell totipotency is that in multicellular organisms, each of cells contains all sets of genetic materials. Therefore, cells have the potential of developing into new individuals. According to tissue culture in plants, this has inspired biologists and they started conducting extensively in the field of cell totipotency for a long time. Moreover, scientists have made significant achievements in terms of the field in cell totipotency from embryonic cell division technology, nuclear transfer, induced pluripotent stem cells and so on. However, based on limitations in the development of technology, mechanisms of differentiation and dedifferentiation in animal cells are still unknown. The emergence of CRISPR technology in the twenty-first century has revolutionized an efficient method to research structures and functions in genes. Because of its durability and efficacy in genome editing, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently become one of the trendiest issues. What’s more, this kind of technology also had a huge breakthrough in many fields, and it has typically been used to genetically modify pluripotent stem cells, which are then differentiated into specific cell types and used for functional study and even clinical transplantation. This review aims to introduce the general applications of CRISPR and expound its potential breakthroughs and mechanisms in animal cell totipotency, which may guide future research efforts in this area.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240714

    Wearable biosensors and their applications in healthcare

    The technologies used in medical care region could become more widely-discussed in the society. In the past, most biosensors were used in the manufacturing and engineering to increase the efficiency of production enable to meet the requirements of mass production, as the inventors expand the use of piezoelectric biosensors, their application in healthcare and virtual reality become important. Therefore, this paper collected and summarized the results of several previous research papers, explained the different working theories of many types of biosensors, and detailed discussed the specific biosensors used in these areas to look into this topic. The finding is that effectively use the piezoelectric materials (PZT) sensors could largely improve the medical level and the function of virtual reality. The wearable haptic feedback system can be used not only in these areas, but lots have not been explored. The medical level and other fields can all be improved even more in the future through the use of biosensors.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240715

    Development and application of implantable electrical neural electrodes

    Implantable nerve electrodes are a crucial neuro-engineering device that can play a pivotal role in the treatment of various neurological disorders. As the fundamental unit of the nervous system, neurons possess the capability to generate electrical signals, which serve as the primary means of information transmission. Implantable neural electrodes have the capacity to intercept and record these electrical signals, thereby providing invaluable insights into understanding nervous system functionality. Furthermore, these electrodes enable precise modulation of neural activity through targeted delivery of pulses to neurons. Surgical implantation of these electrodes within the nervous system allows for simulation or inhibition of neural signals with therapeutic objectives in mind. This article comprehensively reviews the significance and application of implantable neural electrodes in neuro-engineering while highlighting their immense potential in enhancing patients’ quality of life across diverse neurological conditions With further research and technological improvements, we can expect implantable neural electrodes to play an even greater role in improving the quality of life of patients, treating neurological diseases, and advancing neuroscience.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/27/20240716

    Optical biosensors based on microfluidic chip

    Microfluidic chips have the advantages of small sample size, low detection cost, and short detection time. Combined with optical sensors, electrochemical sensors, and microwave sensors, they can be used to construct sensitive, repeatable, and portable detection systems. Optical biosensors are powerful analytical instruments that can measure biomolecular interactions in real-time and unlabeled manner. The combination of affinity and kinetics can be measured through high sensitivity. many optical biosensors have microfluidic control, making them extremely sensitive. Combining the concept of microfluidic technology, this article briefly elucidates the various cutting-edge research fields of microfluidic technology combined with optical biosensors, such as optical detection methods suitable for microfluidic chips, microfluidic biological immunofluorescence detection, the application of microfluidic technology in optical detection methods. It also prospects the future development direction and the challenges as well as strategies for addressing the problems in the development of the new generation of biological microfluidic sensors were proposed.

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