Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Biological Engineering and Medical Science

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-219-0 (Print)

    978-1-83558-220-6 (Online)

    Published Date



    Alan Wang, University of Auckland


  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231007

    Brain-computer interface-based on deep learning in preventing depression

    Mood disorders exhibit variations in severity, symptoms, and treatment response, highlighting the need for personalized psychiatry. The integration of patient-specific biomarkers into treatment selection holds the potential to significantly advance this field. Machine learning is increasingly being embraced in healthcare, further emphasizing its role in this context. After training, the patient is the party, as they may analyze an individual patient rather than an entire group. In recent times, deep learning, which is a specialized domain within machine learning, has gained significant popularity owing to its capability to effectively leverage voluminous neurosurgical data and incorporate non-imaging biomarkers. The fundamental principle underlying deep learning revolves around the utilization of neural networks: there are multiple hidden layers, levels of abstraction increase, employed to acquire hierarchical representations of data. This is evidenced by the application of deep learning techniques. Although the results of deep learning algorithms are difficult to interpret, it holds great promise in the field of psychiatry, is widely regarded as one of the most promising approaches in the field of machine learning and is often criticized as a "black box" model.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231008

    Vemurafenib treatment for melanoma: Efficacy, toxicity, and resistance

    Melanoma is a malignant form of melanocytes, which has abnormal genetic alternation on the MAPK signalling pathway. Vemurafenib is a targeted therapy agent of melanoma, which is approved to target BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma in the US and EU. As an analogue of PLX4720, it has a promoted efficacy but maintain the selectivity to BRAF V600E kinase. Although vemurafenib has demonstrated its strong effects in clinical, potential toxicity of cutaneous lesions is a serious side effect problem in vemurafenib treatment. To avoid such serious adverse event, refrain from sun exposure and combination therapy with vemurafenib are suggested. Reactivation of the MAPK signalling pathway is the main acquired resistance of BRAF inhibitors, combinatorial therapies are suggested but with limited effects, new small molecules are undergoing development. DNA-based diagnostic test is a priority to determine gene types and detect BRAF mutations for patient stratification.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231009

    Research progress of biomedical polymer materials in bone tissue engineering

    Defects, defects and dysfunctions caused by disease, surgery or aging are among the most important threats to human health. Although organ transplantation and surgical reconstruction rehabilitation treatment measures have saved or prolonged a small number of lives, they still have shortcomings and limitations. Biomedical polymer materials have great potential in bone tissue engineering, and with the progress of material science, molecular biology, medicine and other fields, their application in bone tissue engineering is becoming more and more extensive. This paper introduces the types and polymer properties of biomedical polymer materials in bone tissue engineering, and introduces and prospects the current development of biomedical polymer materials in the field of bone tissue engineering.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231011

    Review of the effects of chronic stress on human insomnia

    While there are decent amounts of studies exploring the effects of chronic stress on sleep in animal models (e.g., rats), studies recruiting human subjects on this specific topic are rare in neuroscience and psychology. Thus, this paper aims to review the literature focusing on and mentioning chronic stress effects on human sleep, primarily based on experimental trials and clinical cases. Specifically, this review assesses the relationship between chronic stress (rather than acute stress and traumatic events) and insomnia in adult humans, the neurological and behavioral influence of chronic stress, and potential treatments for insomnia related to stress. The review was conducted using the PsycInfo database. Results from the reviewed literature show that chronic stress is associated with a decrease in neurogenesis and can be predicted by amygdala reactivity. Human subjects are likely to replicate results from rat models that show a decrease in REM sleep time under chronic stress and altered slow wave activities during sleep, and such deprivation of REM sleep can further alter hormonal levels in brain areas relating to stress and learning. Promisingly, there is evidence supporting the efficacy of cognitive and behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), conducted by professional therapists.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231012

    Research progress of high precision single base editing technology with a focus on prime editing

    Gene editing is a technique in genetic engineering that aims to change specific genes in the genome of a certain organism mainly by modifying specific genes, such as by adding or deleting them. It has a profound meaning in the treatment of human genetic ailments and in the modification of diseased genes in plants and animals, and is also one of the hottest research areas in the life sciences in recent years. This paper focuses on the development of CRISPR/Cas9-based single-base editing technologies after 2019, especially after the advent of lead editing. Researchers in various countries have applied it to rice and mice for experiments to ameliorate the accuracy of single-base editing and decrease off-target effects, and have tested the accuracy and conversion rate of prime editing (PE) by whole-genome sequencing and other methods, and have continued to innovate on this basis to pursue more efficient editing results. This paper summarizes the problems that still need to be solved for PE, so that it can serve as a reference in the future research process and better develop prime editor and gene editing.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231016

    Advances of CRISPR/Cas9 in cancer research and treatment

    Cancer is a disease that is very difficult to cure and a lot of people in the world die because of cancer. In the past, the treatments of cancer could only depend on radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery of removing tumors. But these ways have some weaknesses such as harming the health of the body and relapse of cancer. Whereas recently, completely curing cancer has become possible through the advances of gene-editing technologies. Due to its great effectiveness, simplicity of usage, and other advantages, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is a widely used gene editing technique today. But there are still many challenges that are applied to the body. For example, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has an off-target effect and there are no suitable carriers to deliver it to the area of the body. The resolution of these problems may be made possible by future developments in the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The use, restrictions, and potential uses of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in the treatment of cancer are examined in this research. In addition, this paper compares other treatments of cancer to summarize the advantages and disadvantages of different methods.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231018

    Research on the effect of attentional bias on Non-suicidal Self-injury

    Non-suicidal Self-injury means that an individual intentionally and repeatedly changes or injures his or her body tissues without a clear intention to commit suicide. It is a non-lethal or less lethal destructive behavior aimed at self-injury. Self-injury is a major hidden danger to public mental health. Based on the recent research results of NSSI, this paper summarizes the relationship between NSSI and attention bias and emotion regulation. On this basis, an attempt is made to construct a model of how attention bias affects patients' NSSI by influencing their emotional information and putting forward research prospects. People are biased in processing and responding to negative emotional content, and this attention bias will increase the difficulty of emotional regulation in NSSI patients. Patients with NSSI usually have more difficulty controlling negative emotions. For NSSI patients, NSSI behavior is a common way to regulate emotions. NSSI can temporarily relieve negative emotions, and this result strengthens the association between negative emotions and NSSI. Future studies may pay more attention to brain abnormalities in NSSI patients.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231019

    Exploring the role of sleep stages in memory consolidation and cognitive function

    The biological process of sleep is crucial for maintaining both physical and mental health. There are two separate stages of sleep, which are rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. They have distinct characteristics and functions that contribute to memory consolidation or cognitive function. The role of each sleep stage in memory consolidation and cognitive function is crucial for optimizing sleep and promoting cognitive performance. This paper reviews the different sleep stages and their contribution to memory consolidation and cognitive function. The findings suggest that NREM sleep aids in transferring information from short-term to long-term memory, also plays an important role in consolidating declarative and procedural memories, and REM sleep is involved in emotional regulation and the integration of emotional information with existing memories. These conclusions highlight the significant role of sleep in memory consolidation and cognitive function.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231020

    Research on the progress of neurorehabilitation

    With the intensification of global aging problems, the incidence of central nervous system diseases such as stroke is getting higher and higher. At the same time, the number of disabled people has also increased. Amputation and neurological diseases are important causes of disability, and neurorehabilitation is an important method for restoring the nervous function and autonomous movement ability of the disabled. At present, neurorehabilitation methods commonly used in clinical treatment mainly include: wearing prosthetic limbs, functional electrical stimulation (FES) therapy, rehabilitation robots, and so on. The prosthetic limb refers to an artificial device used to replace the function of a lost limb. Many advanced technologies are being used to improve the motion control of prosthetics to achieve natural movement. FES is a technique that can improve physiological function or treat diseases by stimulating nerves or tissues through current, and has become one of the important means to promote nerve regeneration and restore motor function. Rehabilitation robots are the equipment that uses mechanical devices and advanced control technology to assist rehabilitation treatment and functional recovery. This article mainly discusses the current research progresses of prosthetic limbs, EFS and rehabilitation robots, so as to promote the development of neurorehabilitation.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231021

    Exploring the utilization of polylactic acid-based materials in medicine: Contemporary innovations and trends

    A biocompatible, non-toxic substance is polylactic acid (PLA), which is also biodegradable. This material has been studied for decades and has been commercially used in some fields. The potential of defined PLA for different medical applications, including drug delivery systems, wound healing, bone implants, and vascular grafts, was described in this paper. Various methods of characterization and modification of PLA have been investigated to optimize its properties for specific applications. Typically, additional polymers are introduced into PLA to enhance its functional properties. The key feature of PLA is its capacity for degradation in the human body without introducing harmful byproducts. Adjustments to PLA composition can control degradation rates, influencing drug delivery or the persistence of implants. By applying a cold plasma treatment in order to alter the PLA-based polymer's surface, the capacity of the material to transport drugs may be changed. The change of parameters in coaxial electrospinning can produce different PLA-based products for different use. However, certain challenges remain, such as improving the adhesion of PLA and production of low-price PLA.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231022

    Current research and discussion of combined treatment programs integrated sensory training for autism spectrum disorder

    Autism spectrum disorder is a complex psychiatric developmental disorder that poses a significant threat to early childhood development. It is characterized by a wide range of symptoms, including impaired social interaction and communication, repetitive behavior, sleep disturbances, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. The debilitating nature of these symptoms can have a profound impact on the patient's social skills and quality of life, making it essential to explore effective rehabilitation therapies for ASD. Thankfully, there are numerous treatment options available for ASD patients, including pharmacological treatment, behavioral training, motor interventions, and alternative Chinese medicine. Among these options, sensory training in motor interventions has been widely accepted in clinical practice as an effective and safe intervention for ASD patients. This paper delves into the various rehabilitation treatment options available for patients with ASD, particularly in conjunction with sensorimotor training. It compares the advantages and disadvantages of different rehabilitation treatment methods and their clinical effectiveness, providing a valuable reference for choosing medical treatment options for patients with ASD. By exploring the most effective rehabilitation treatments available, we can ensure that ASD patients receive the best possible care and support to improve their quality of life.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231023

    Combination of radiotherapy and immunotherapy for drug-resistant TNBC

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a specific subtype, the most lethal and with the worst prognosis, and is prone to develop drug resistance during advanced chemotherapy. The combined application of radiotherapy and immunotherapy has gradually entered the public eye. The PD-L1 / PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors can enhance the local effect of radiotherapy and relieve the immunosuppressive effect in tumor patients, and the up-regulation of PD-L1 expression caused by radiotherapy also helps the checkpoint inhibitors to play a stronger effect. More patients with TNBC can gain a higher benefit from this.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231024

    Research on the relationship between episodic memory and sleep in human

    This paper reviews and analyzes the important "memory" aspect of brain science, mainly through reading and summarizing the existing literature to explain the relationship between episodic memory and sleep. A large amount of literature on Google scholar shows that sleep plays an important role in consolidating episodic memories, and gives experiments and evidence to support this idea. The study found that slow-wave sleep is an important period for memory consolidation, and that different stages of sleep also play a part in the memory consolidation process. Various experiments have demonstrated the important link between sleep and episodic memory storage, which means that memory quality is closely related to sleep. This paper also contains two hypotheses for the process of memory Consolidation: the "Active System Consolidation Hypothesis" and the "Synaptic Homeostasis Hypothesis". In the course of research, we haven't seen much literature supporting the existence of episodic memory in animals, but they do have memories that look a lot like episodic memory, which most scientists call "episodic-like memory."

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231026

    CRISPR-based genomic modification method in the treatment of hematological diseases

    Mutations in hematopoietic stem cells are the main cause of most blood diseases. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which is the main treatment for hematopoietic stem cell disorders ,brings many negative effects according to the clinical cases, such as high toxic side effects, limited donor source, high recurrence rate, and high treatment cost .CRISPR/Cas acts as an immune system in prokaryote that grants them an ability to resist invasion by exogenous mobile genetic elements (MGE), which is a new generation of gene editing technology after the appearance of TALEN and ZFN. The immune system functions in three steps: adaptation, expression, and interference. It enables genomic modification by unwinding the double strands of DNA and inducing DNA repair processes such as homologydirected repair (HDR) and/or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). So, this paper discusses the utilization of Crispr system in the treatment of β-hemoglobinopathy, Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) , Hemophilia and summarizes the current limitations of this technology, such as the editing efficiency, potential immunogenicity of editing tools and off-target effects , while it still remains promising as to its future prospects for research. This technology is very likely to replace traditional therapies and achieve a complete cure for the blood disease.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231028

    Application of CRISPR/Cas system in rice

    Rice, as an essential food in human life, is in increasing demand for food in today's society with such a large population. CRISPR, as the most popular gene editing system at present, has the characteristics of precision, low cost, and simple operation, so it is able to modify the genes of rice to a large extent in order to control its traits and cultivate excellent varieties. In order to better address the demand for food in society, this article conducts gene editing on rice from the perspective of using the CRISPR/Cas system. It provides a brief introduction to the relevant genes and control methods for controlling rice yield in current scientific research achievements, as well as a specific explanation of the relevant genes and control methods for stress resistance such as salt tolerance, cold resistance, and disease resistance. At the same time, in addition to the summary of the current research status, suggestions and prospects are also put forward for the shortcomings of the CRISPR/Cas system in the application of rice and other plants so far.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231029

    The assessment of the social and economic impacts of public health interventions based on the statistical learning

    This study explores the social and economic impacts of public health interventions against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence of the pandemic has highlighted the critical importance of effective public health measures in safeguarding society’s well-being. With a focus on statistical learning techniques, this research examines the effects of interventions such as vaccination programs, tobacco regulations, and obesity reduction initiatives. Through a comprehensive literature review and data analysis of childhood vaccination programs in the United States, the study reveals significant benefits in terms of disease prevention, improved health outcomes, and reduced healthcare costs. The case study of San Francisco further demonstrates the success of vaccination campaigns in controlling preventable diseases. Based on these findings, policy recommendations are provided, emphasizing the integration of multiple intervention approaches, the prioritization of vulnerable populations, and the implementation of awareness campaigns and educational programs.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231031

    The application of small molecule drug in clinical trial

    In the most recent century, small molecule drugs have become prominent in treating different illnesses and diseases. These small molecule drugs, ranging between 0.1 and 1 kDa in size, have been specifically chemically synthesized not to trigger immune responses. In addition to their nonimmunogenic nature, small molecules tend to possess a low molecular weight and a well-defined structure. They are process-independent, stable, and completely characterizable.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231032

    Research on the gene therapy and prevention of lung cancer

    In recent years, there have been significant advancements in molecular biology, gene therapy technology, and high-tech testing techniques. As our understanding of the pathogenesis of lung cancer continues to deepen, it has become evident that gene therapy plays a crucial role in its treatment. This article provides an overview of tumor cell development, various gene therapy techniques including suicide gene therapy, silent gene therapy, cancer suppressor genetic therapy, and antibody genetic therapy. Additionally, it analyzes the application value, treatment technology, and safety concerns associated with gene therapy. The discussion also covers the safety issues and current application status of viral and nonviral vectors in gene therapy, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different vector types. Furthermore, the article summarizes the future directions for designing and improving gene delivery vectors, along with their clinical application prospects. Ultimately, this article offers insights into the significance and treatment approaches for early prevention of lung cancer.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231034

    Review of the applicability of the DASH diet for patients with chronic kidney disease and chronic liver disease

    Hypertension is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and the DASH diet effectively lowers blood pressure. However, individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Chronic Liver Disease (CLD) need adaptations in potassium and sodium/water intake to adhere to the DASH diet. This literature review examines the applicability of the DASH diet for patients with CKD and CLD by analyzing findings from a comprehensive search of relevant academic databases. The review explores various sources, including clinical studies, research articles, and expert recommendations, to assess the effectiveness and suitability of the DASH diet in managing the dietary needs of individuals with CKD and CLD. The review reveals that the DASH diet, with its emphasis on reduced sodium intake and increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins, shows promising results in managing blood pressure and improving overall cardiovascular health in individuals with early stage CKD and CLD. Furthermore, the review concludes that individuals with advanced CKD and CLD should exercise caution when considering the DASH diet, as modifications are necessary to accommodate their specific conditions. For patients with advanced CKD, careful management of potassium intake is essential to prevent hyperkalemia; while individuals with late-stage CLD should monitor both sodium and water intake to avoid dilutional hyponatremia. Additionally, the review also emphasized the importance of individualized dietary modifications and consultations with healthcare professionals for optimizing the benefits of the DASH diet, especially for those patients with later stages of CKD and CLD.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/23/20231035

    Review of ER stress and unfolded protein response

    The cell is the fundamental unit of life, and all of the organelles within it perform essential tasks. Cells must meet their typical requirements for survival and development in order to contribute to the functioning of living things. Protein folding in the rough ER, the major organelle for the synthesis, folding, and modification of secreted and transmembrane proteins, is essential for their proper function in the cytoplasm. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) occurs when the protein-folding capacity of this organelle is disrupted due to various external causes or intracellular events, resulting to a buildup of misfolded or unfolded proteins. Concerns in this area are possible. Some illnesses, cell death, and metabolic abnormalities are examples. The cell's stress response mechanism is the unfolded protein response (UPR). Reduced translation, degradation of unfolded proteins to reduce damage, and increased production of cell-mate proteins all aid in the folding of nascent proteins. This research uses a literature review approach to learn about the ER, an experiment on ER Stress, the reaction mechanism of unfolded protein response (UPR), diseases induced by ER Stress, and the significance of UPR in these illnesses.

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