Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Biological Engineering and Medical Science

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-215-2 (Print)

    978-1-83558-216-9 (Online)

    Published Date



    Alan Wang, University of Auckland


  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230799

    Forecasting the number of new crown infections in China based on machine learning methods

    Based on the current state and the evolution of the new crown epidemic in China, this pa-per uses machine learning models and historical data to predict the changes in the number of new crown infections in China in the next four months. First, analyzing the background and current situation of the new crown epidemic, and identified the research question by collecting relevant historical data, including indicators such as the number of infected people, the number of cured people, and the number of deaths. Second, employing ma-chine learning models and MIR model to predict the trend and scale of the number of new crown infections in China over the next four months. Finally, coming to a forecast conclu-sion: in the next four months, the number of new crown infections in China will drop very slightly (almost remain unchanged) every month, and the monthly infection rate will re-main at a low level. At the same time, discussing and summarizing the application value of the conclusions. The research results of this paper can provide useful references and guidance for government policymakers and the public, helping them better deal with the epidemic and formulate corresponding measures. In addition, the research methods and models in this paper also have a certain degree of versatility, which can provide a certain reference for other countries and regions to predict the trend and scale of the new crown epidemic.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230800

    Analysis on the diet of basketball athletes

    Food is essential for human survival. Dietary nutrients contribute significantly to our health. As a typical group that engage in a great deal of physical activity, athletes require a diet rich in the right kinds of nutrients in order to keep their bodies running at peak efficiency. Basketball is an intensely competitive sport. To achieve victory, both teams will engage in physical and technical confrontation. Contemporary basketball is distinguished by its intense rivalry. As basketball evolves and strives to reach a higher level, the physical requirements for athletes become increasingly stringent. Diet and nutrition are the foundation for athletes. A nutritious diet is a formula for success. Athletes should consume the appropriate amount of energy required by the body. This paper examines the physiological characteristics and nutritional requirements of athletes through a literature review. In-depth research will be conducted to determine the nutritional requirements of basketball players and make dietary recommendations. The purpose of this study is to make dietary recommendations for basketball players by analysing their fundamental signs and nutritional requirements.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230801

    Gastric cancer stem cell: Carcinogenesis and targeted personalized therapies of cancer stem cell

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers in worldwide range which ranks fifth, and it is also third most common cancerous death reason. Although there has been a decline in the rate of incidence and mortality over recent fifty years, cure for GC is extremely hard to achieve. The symptoms are not conspicuous at early stage of the GC patients usually, which is the reason GC is diagnosed at terminal stage. And it is worse that the prognosis effect is outrageously bad, the median survival times are mostly less than a year. Under this condition, prevention is the most efficient method to reduce the incidence and mortality, meanwhile, the application of newly emerged therapy should be attached importance to GC. To create accurate treatment to achieve this goal, it is necessary to comprehend the mechanism of the carcinogenesis, and mechanism of cancer development, the critical transformation points derived from those mechanism will divide the different methodology applying period. This article mainly focuses on the cancer stem cell (CSC) aspect of carcinogenesis, cancer development to inform the points which can be utilized to intervene and new therapy method.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230803

    Effects of dietary structure on obesity and following diseases

    Due to the quite unhealthy diet that people normally have in recent years, obesity becomes a more and more popular health issue. In recent years, it even becomes a risk factor for deaths. This essay mainly focuses on how the components in diet may cause obesity and other diseases and what components are required to make up of a healthy and balanced diet. To figure out a possible solution for the raising negative consequences brought by obesity, like coronary heart disease and type II diabetes, some investigations have been done. The researchers provided mice with either a diet high in fat or a normal diet to simulate the healthy diet and a quite unhealthy one that humans may take. Some extra tests like glucose tests are taken to show whether the mice have got the symptoms of diabetes. The simulation lasted for two months, an overall higher weight for the mice that were fed with high-fat diet was seen, which indicates that high-fat diet will put more weight on creatures. Also, high-fat diet overall leads to a higher glucose level, which suggests that unhealthy diet may show a decrease in the ability to decompose glucose and therefore causes diabetes. After the data is obtained and the result was drawn, nutritionists may cooperate with doctors and try to figure out the best possible diet for the patients that have very high risk of getting or already suffering from obesity, CHD or type 2 diabetes.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230804

    Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in cancer models

    Cancer has a high mortality and prevalence rate in the world. CRISPR-Cas9 is one of the novel and most common gene-editing techniques. Compared with the first two generations of gene-editing technologies, CRISPR-Cas9 system has the advantages of easy design, low cost, high efficiency and so on. sgRNA guides Cas9 to the site of the targeted gene, and Cas9 cuts the DNA strand at that site, triggering the NHEJ or HDR mechanism so as to achieve the purpose of deletion or insertion. CRISPR-Cas9 can be combined with other factors for other purposes, such as CRISPRa, CRISPRi, and base editing. The CRISPR system now has been used extensively for research into biological mechanisms and disease treatments. Since cancer is controlled by genes, a number of researchers in recent years have looked at using the CRISPR system to treat cancer. The CRISPR technology has greatly improved our understanding of cancer and the factors that affect it, and has had a major impact on the study and treatment of cancer. CRISPR gene editing can quickly and efficiently generate gene knockouts and regulate gene expression to identify relevant genes that influence cancer growth. This review systematically introduces CRISPR-Cas9 and its application methods, delivery modes, and discusses some studies using cell lines and organoids in vitro and animal models for cancer therapy in vivo.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230805

    Current status of drug treatment for hand foot mouth disease

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease caused by the intestinal RNA virus. Hand, foot, and mouth disease can occur every season, with no significant difference in specificity. However, the more frequent season of onset is spring and summer, with April to September as the main month of onset. Coastal areas are relatively popular areas of incidence. HFMD is mainly characterized by herpes with different sizes and clinical manifestations, such as in the hands, feet, and mouth. This article categorizes drugs into two categories: antiviral drugs and antiviral prevention. In describing antiviral drugs, they are classified them into traditional Chinese medicine and non-traditional Chinese medicine. At the same time, the two most effective and commonly used drugs or methods are summarized for preventing HFMD, namely the EV-71 virus vaccine for HFMD, and the washable hand sanitizer that prevents HFMD by blocking the transmission path of the virus. A comprehensive description and summary of the current treatment methods and drugs for combating and treating HFMD. This article provides a comprehensive description of different drugs by elaborating on their advantages and therapeutic principles, combined with their related pharmacological effects.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230807

    The role of the 14-3-3 protein family in disease

    14-3-3 protein is a dimer protein extracted from bovine brain cells, a highly conserved protein prevalent in eukaryotes. There are seven subtypes in mammals, respectively σ, ζ, β, γ, η, ε and τ. The subtypes differ in content and function. It was found that the protein interacts with corresponding ligand protein in regulating life activities, such as: cell cycle regulation, cell development, the transmission of cell signal molecules plays an important role. At the same time, related regulators have been developed based on cell-cell interaction. In recent years, the exploration of 14-3-3 protein has been deepening gradually. Inhibition or stabilizers of the 14-3-3 protein in question have been studied or discovered, and have become a new target for treating diseases. This paper reviews the effects of 14-3-3 protein on neurological disease, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and cancer are reviewed. It is found that protein subtypes affect the occurrence of diseases.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230809

    An introduction to cancer vaccine, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell and immune checkpoint blockade

    Cancer immunotherapy has been a hot topic of cancer therapy discussion for over decades. Several successful cancer immunotherapies have already existed for about 30 years, however it is just in the past decade that immunotherapy has achieved broad breakthrough on patient survival in multiple high-incidence cancer indications. Immunotherapy, as a promising therapy depending mainly on the mechanism that immune cells work to eliminate cancer cells, has three hot topics recently. Cancer vaccine is a therapeutic vaccine that typically involves exogenous administration of selected tumour antigens to activate dendritic cells (DCs), or even DCs themselves in order to initiate and stimulate immune response to tumour cells, regain their control over tumour growth, induce existed tumour regression and eradicate minimal residual disease. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy uses a patient's own T cells, but genetically engineered to express a synthetic receptor that binds to a tumour antigen more precisely and efficiently, to serve as more effective army against tumours. Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) depends on blocking certain receptors and their ligands involved in pathways that attenuate T cell activation — for example, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PD1) and its ligand, PDL1 — to restore T cells’ activity and prevent acquired peripheral tolerance to tumour antigens. This review gives a brief introduction to how human immune system works and a basic overview on the principles of cancer vaccine, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB).

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230812

    Rabies’ proteins’ functions and future directions

    The rabies virus, which mostly originates from the bite of a sick dog or cat and spreads, kills tens of thousands of people each year, and it is super lethal, with almost no one surviving the infection, s so, everyone is afraid of it. The main body of the rabies virus is bullet-shaped, and each combination of proteins in it is an innate destroyer. From the destruction of cells by the G and M proteins to the transcription of the P and L proteins in concert with each other, the precision, and division of labor of the rabies virus are obvious. Of these, the L protein is the key to the operation of everything, and this paper will explore the destruction of each protein, thereby stopping the spread of RABV. In particular, the possibility that the L protein, unlike rabies vaccines currently on the market, might be a future drug design idea by destroying the structure of RABV after the virus enters the cell. Keywords: Rabies, RABV, Protein Matching, L protein.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230813

    Binding modes in ligand-docked hepatitis B virus core protein simulated by a Monte Carlo method

    Hepatitis B virus core protein (HBV Cp) is closely involved in the viral assembly, nuclear functions, compartment for reverse transcription, and intra-cellular trafficking. Therefore, modulation of HBV Cp assembly is a promising method to control HBV infection in both preclinical and clinical studies. In this paper, two ligands of HAP18 and AT-130, as representations of heteroaryldihydropyrimidines and phenylpropenamides, have been chosen. Their Binding modes and conformations docking with the HBV Cp have been simulated by a Monte Carlo method. Strong polar contact in HAP18-bound and relatively weak interaction dominated by the Lennard-Jones potential in AT130-bound have been observed, respectively. Although different binding modes result in different assembly behaviors of HBV core protein, both of them strongly influence the quaternary structure of the Cp assembly, changing the spatial relationship between dimers, and inducing noninfective Cp misassembly. The simulation is expected to be helpful to get some insight into the antiviral mechanism of HBV Cp assembly modulation.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230819

    Research on the parasomnia’s classifications, symptoms and treatments

    Parasomnia is a neurological disorder that refers to abnormal behavior during sleep. This disease has received increasing attention and research over the past few decades. In the 1950s, the symptoms of parasomnia were first described and further studied. This paper describes the three classifications of parasomnias, and details the symptoms and treatment options for these three classifications. By reading and analyzing the previous literature, it can be concluded that the types of parasomnia can be roughly divided into circadian dysrhythmia sleep disorder, sleep apnea syndrome, and restless leg syndrome. Circadian dysrhythmia sleep disorder is characterized by late sleep, insufficient or excessive sleep duration, resulting in daytime fatigue, a lack of concentration, and other symptoms. The treatment method is light therapy. The main symptom of sleep apnea is that breathing stops during sleep, resulting in a lack of oxygen supply. The treatment is to improve the maxillofacial structure through surgery to reduce the problem of dyspnea. The most obvious symptom of restless leg syndrome is discomfort and unbearable numbness in the lower legs and feet while sleeping. There are three ways to treat this condition. A more non-pharmacological treatment is to do some exercise to reduce the discomfort of the leg muscles, a medical treatment is to give the patient levodopa, and if the syndrome is caused by a lack of iron in the body, iron supplementation is sufficient.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230820

    A lipid-based LMP2-mRNA vaccine to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    This paper focuses on developing a lipid-based vaccine targeting nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a highly severe and invasive epithelial malignancy associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The researchers selected EBV latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) as the preferred antigen for the vaccine. They synthesized full-length LMP2 using an in vitro transcription method and encapsulated it into cationic liposomes based on (2,3-dioleacyl propyl) trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP) to create the mRNA vaccine (LPX-mLMP2). Cell assays in the study demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells efficiently took up LPX-mLMP2 and expressed LMP2. This led to the formation of peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC) for presentation. Moreover, the proliferation of antigen-specific T cells at the tumor site indicated the promising potential for mRNA vaccines in combating virus-induced cancers, such as NPC. The researchers concluded that the newly developed mRNA vaccine encoding the antigen offered advantages in the context of NPC and highlighted the attractiveness of mRNA vaccines as candidates for cancer immunotherapy.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230821

    Effect of brain-computer interface training on functional recovery after stroke

    As the aging population continues to grow, the incidence of stroke is increasing yearly. Patients with stroke often have residual motor dysfunction symptoms, which seriously affects their life and work. The traditional treatment methods have limited applicability and efficacy, making it difficult for patients to control their muscles voluntarily and achieve cortical-muscle coupling. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology can enable patients with severely impaired motor function to control external devices through brain-controlled movements, thus promoting the efficiency of motor rehabilitation training and becoming a hot research topic. This article systematically summarizes the basic technology of BCI, its application in stroke rehabilitation, and future development trends.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230826

    Albumin-binding prodrugs’ use in treating cancer

    Throughout the past few decades, the use of targeted delivery methods for cancer therapies has dramatically increased. Prodrug, a type of drug that can apply the targeting therapy, is defined as chemicals that undergo chemical transformations after enters the patient’s body. They will be activated and release the parent drug after reached the targeted site. Both passively and actively targeted therapies are explored. The albumin-binding prodrug, a model of prodrug applying passively targeted therapy, this paper introduces the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect to target the tumor site. Besides, since the human serum albumin is an endogenous substance originated from human body, its nanoparticles is able to carry the anticancer drugs to elongate the circulatory half-lives of drugs since it will not be rejected by the immune system. However, the activated compound's systemic toxicity and the dearth of information regarding the biodistribution of prodrugs are two possible disadvantages. Moreover, some exogenous albumin formulations are prohibited from participating in clinical trials because of their very poor delivery efficiency. In conclusion, the albumin-binding prodrug is a cancer treating therapy that has great promise and great capability despite the potential risks.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230827

    Recent progress in the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is one of the prime cuases of dementia, responsible for 60% to 70% of cases worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Unfortunately, numerous research challenges still remain for this disease, which poses a great threat to human health worldwide, especially in the elderly population. Scientists are still struggling to find the pathogenesis and pathogenic mechanisms of AD, and while research for new tests and novel drugs is ongoing, it faces a high failure rate. This article will summarize some remarkable results to date and discuss future research directions.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230837

    Trigger of immune deficiency lead to fungal infection in animal

    The immune system, as an important protection for animals and humans, ensures that they are not attacked by invading microorganisms and destroying them. Once immune system is damaged or defective, it allows harmful microorganisms to grow and spread within the body, attacking internal organs, leading to infections and diseases. When animals are infected with fungi and cause diseases, they can be treated with antibiotics or by surgery. However, probability of diseases caused by fungal infections in animals has gradually increased. Fungi, as a type of microorganisms, play a dominant role in fungal diseases. Therefore, in the article, it will study how microorganisms operate in animals to cause infection, and lead to fungal infectious diseases through analyzing the mechanism of microbial fungi in animals with immune system defects and their impact on animals. Many studies have shown that the common fungal pathogens of infectious diseases exist in the environment of daily life and inside an animal's body. Poor living conditions or improper feeding are the reasons that trigger the growth of microbial fungi in animals. Through research results, improving animal immunity, creating a good living environment and diet can prevent animals from being infected by fungi and leading to diseases. This series of movements of fungi in animals also reflects importance to both the animal body and the environment. Research on the mechanisms of various microorganisms in infections and diseases can also facilitate development for faster and more effective treatment methods, thereby reducing animal infection caused diseases.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230839

    Revolutionizing vaccinology: The rise of mRNA vaccine

    The public health sector has been greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and vaccines have become a crucial means of managing the virus. mRNA vaccines have gained prominence among the available vaccines due to their effectiveness and safety, marking a significant advancement in the field of biotechnology. Traditional vaccines have often resulted in severe symptoms and partial protection, while newer recombinant vaccines have significant drawbacks. In contrast, mRNA vaccines offer unprecedented cost-effectiveness, safety, and high efficacy per dose. The mRNA vaccines transport bioengineered mRNA to the human body, which translates into proteins that stimulate the immune response. However, there are some challenges associated with the development and production of mRNA vaccines, such as efficient delivery and maintaining the integrity of the mRNA molecule during storage and delivery. Despite these challenges, mRNA vaccines represent the future of vaccinology and the first line of defense against major infectious diseases. This paper explores the structure, mechanisms, immunology, and related areas of study concerning mRNA vaccines. The paper emphasizes the challenges in developing and producing mRNA vaccines and potential solutions to overcome these challenges.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230842

    The pathogen, clinical overview and influence of depression

    Depression is a mental health disorder that affects a significant portion of the global population. At the same time, the influence of depression on a person's physical and mental health is well established and studying the impact of depression on the outcome of a pathogen can lead to improved healthcare outcomes for individuals suffering from both. So, this article focuses on the pathogen, clinical overview and influence which mainly gathers information from different aspects to give a summary of areas of depression based on the data and results from recent studies. The research results indicate that depression is a complex disease that encompasses different causes, including genetic and biological factors. The recurrence of depression is a common phenomenon, and people with a history of depression should be more cautious, although drugs targeting recurrence have emerged. When early warning signals are detected, patients need to take action to prevent them.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230843

    From RNA world to RNA-peptide world: A review

    How life starts from small molecules to RNAs and further to modern life is an unanswered question. Cyanosulfitic chemistry established the synthesis of building blocks, including 12 proteinogenic amino acids, 4 ribo- and deoxyribo-nucleosides, and phospholipids, from hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulfite under prebiotically plausible conditions. Later on, the non-enzymatic monomer extension of nucleotides provided a plausible pathway from mononucleotides to RNAs giving rise to the RNA world. RNA is one of the key components for the origin of life, firstly, the sequence information can be heritage by template copying reaction. Secondly, RNA is able to fold into a secondary structure which has the capability to catalyze chemical reactions. The RNA world scenario has perfectly overcome the chicken-egg problem, but it still cannot explain why peptides are involved in modern life. Most recently, with the establishment of the reaction between RNA and peptides, the trajectory to the RNA-peptide world theory has opened up a new era of the origin of life research. Here I will discuss the current results relevant to the RNA world to RNA-peptide world theory.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/21/20230844

    Application and risk analysis of brain-computer interface

    As society progresses and science and technology develop, brain-computer interface has made eye-catching achievements. Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a technology that realizes information exchange and response by establishing a direct connection between the brain and external devices. Brain-computer interface is one of the main research directions of human-computer interaction, which has great development potential and wide application in the future. However, the risks and challenges beckoned by it, on the other hand, cannot be ignored. It is of great significance to analyze its application and risk and at the same time to develop the solutions. Based on the existing literature, this paper summarized the working principle of the brain-computer interface, combed its application in various modern fields, and explained the current challenges it faces, hoping to provide certain references for the further development of the technology. Pursuant to relevant studies, it was found that the brain-computer interface has wide application prospects in medical treatment, the economy, people's livelihood, education, and the military, and currently, the main challenges cover inaccurate transmission, low safety factors, obvious ethical problems, and privacy disclosure risk.

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