Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Biological Engineering and Medical Science

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-217-6 (Print)

    978-1-83558-218-3 (Online)

    Published Date



    Alan Wang, University of Auckland


  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230906

    The pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and relevant treatments

    The prevalence rates of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) continue to rise globally making it an urgent health concern warranting comprehensive examination closely scrutinizing pathophysiology causes symptoms management techniques as well as anticipated methods addressing how best to prevent or cure resulting complications. We know that T2DM is characterized by defective insulin secretion and tissues not responding adequately to treatment- a condition exclusively termed Insulin Resistance - which could influence both genetic predisposition or environmental factors like obesity or sedentary lifestyles. Increased morbidity indicators ranging from myocardial infarction peripheral vascular disease and stroke alike make timely diagnosis imperative. Lifestyle modifications offer optimal intervention possibilities for both preventing onset or long-standing concerns. A concentration on bolstering insulin sensitivity while halting progressive pancreatic β cell failure that common among T2DM patients is to enhance comprehensive and effective treatment plans. From the diversity of T2DM established in terms of its symptoms points to the need for targeted preventive procedures designed towards reducing cases in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230908

    Comparison of neurodermatitis management based on effectiveness and safety

    Neurodermatitis, also known as atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema is the long-term inflammation in the skin. There are many different kinds of therapies without clear conclusions and recommendations as to which therapy is the most effective and safest. This paper aims to compare the effectiveness and safety of four commonly used therapies: steroid therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Phototherapy, and habit reversal. The methodology used was through gathering/searching papers with keywords such as, “neurodermatitis management, atopic dermatitis, habit reversal, steroid therapy,” and comparing the effectiveness and safety of the varying therapies. The results showed us that studies concerning the different therapies should be explored and more therapies need data for us to come to a clear recommendation.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230911

    Nutritional needs and dietary disease prevention measures of the elderly

    In recent years, the phenomenon of population aging has become increasingly severe, and population aging and chronic diseases in the elderly have become a serious global challenge that must be addressed immediately. Due to deteriorating physiological functions, the elderly's metabolic rate has slowed, their ability to absorb and digest nutrients is poor, and their resistance to disease has progressively diminished. Therefore, the elderly should adhere to a rational and scientific diet to supplement the various nutrients their bodies require for optimal health. In this paper, the author examines the nutritional requirements of the geriatric and the diseases associated with nutritional deficiencies, such as osteoporosis, hyperglycemia, stomach diseases, intestinal diseases, and dental diseases, among others. Suitable preventative measures are also proposed, which can strengthen the dietary structure of senior citizens in China, improve their health, and reduce their risk of chronic diseases to a certain degree.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230912

    Analysis on endoplasmic reticulum stress in the cancer cells

    One consequence of being in a low-oxygen environment is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and the unfolded protein response (UPR) is one mechanism to alleviate this condition. In recent years, numerous researchers have proposed employing the UPR in cancer therapy. Apoptosis of cancer cells can be induced by targeting the UPR in a variety of ways. This can be triggered by a number of drugs, some of which induce ER stress while others suppress the unfolded protein response and hence cause death in cancer cells. Through a literature review and analysis, this paper will discuss ER stress in a hypoxic microenvironment, the role of the unfolded protein response in cancer cells, and the therapeutic targeting of the unfolded protein response's protective pathways in the treatment of cancer.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230927

    Emerging role of immune therapy in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases

    Neurodegenerative disorders, a category of illnesses that develop as neurons gradually become defective and eventually die, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Slowly progressing neurodegenerative disorders are accompanied by cognitive decline and functional impairment, significantly burdening individuals and society. At present, clinical treatment is still mainly symptomatic support. The incidence rate has been rising in recent years, and there is a trend toward younger age, which has a negative impact on people's physical health and quality of life. The worldwide burden will continue to increase as the population of the elderly grows, with latent impacts due to prolonged disease durations and changing environments. Unfortunately, such disorders are still untreated because of their complicated pathophysiology. The primary goals of current therapies are to reduce disease symptoms and halt disease progression. Pre-clinical studies for therapeutic methods for AD, PD, and HD have shown promise for AAV intraparenchymal injections and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) delivery. While CRISPR/Cas9-mediated approaches have been employed to develop disease models, identify pathogenic genes, elucidate pathogenesis mechanisms, and as a potential therapeutic approach. This review not only systematically introduces the current situation and diffuse subsets of neurodegenerative diseases, but also discusses treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230930

    Application of brain computer interface in rehabilitation medicine

    The definition of a brain-computer interface can be thought of as a brain version of a computer, making our brains more digital. Brain computer interface involved fields artificial intelligence, rehabilitation and bioengineering, and it is of great significance to promote the development of rehabilitation medicine. This essay introduces the working principle of brain computer interface. Some key techniques of BCI design are discussed from the aspects of system design, data acquisition method and processing. Finally, some major problems and future development trends are pointed out.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230931

    The effects of functional cereal rich in beta-glucan on cardiovascular health

    The prevalence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases remains a global health concern. Lifestyle modifications, including dietary modifications, have been identified as viable risk reduction strategies. This study seeks to evaluate the potential benefits of beta-glucan-rich functional cereals, such as Uncle Toby’s Oats, in reducing the risk of these diseases. Beta-glucan is a soluble fiber known for its cholesterol-lowering properties, and beta-glucan-rich functional cereals provide a convenient way to incorporate this healthful nutrient into daily diets. This study compares the nutritional profile of Uncle Toby’s Oats, a representative beta-glucan-rich functional cereal, to that of other common breakfast options, such as Rice Bubbles cereal and Vegemite on toast, based on calorie content, macronutrient distribution, and the presence of essential vitamins and minerals. It is anticipated that the results of this study will contribute to public health recommendations for dietary interventions intended to reduce the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230932

    Research on the symptoms, causes, and available treatments of narcolepsy

    The classic tetrad of hypnagogic hallucinations, cataplexy (sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone), excessive daytime sleepiness, and sleep paralysis characterizes narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder. Narcolepsy affects 0.05 percent of the population. It lowers the quality of life for those who have it and can prevent them from engaging in certain occupations and pastimes. Therefore, this paper focuses on the symptoms, causes, and available treatments of narcolepsy. Through literature reading and analysis, it can be concluded that narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by disruptions in signals within the central nervous system and a lack of hypocretins. There is currently no known cure for narcolepsy, and medication along with lifestyle modifications is the basis of therapy. Moreover, several innovative therapies are being created and tested.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230935

    Research progress and preventive strategy of HPV and cervical cancer and other related cancers

    This paper comprehensively reviews the research on the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer and other cancers and expounds the pathogenesis of cancer caused by HPV and its negative impact on the body. The screening methods and their effectiveness are reviewed, and the relevant research and latest developments of vaccines are summarized. First, the basic knowledge about HPV (including the structure and typing of the virus and the mechanism of infection of the virus) is introduced, and the screening method and its effectiveness are explored. Furthermore, the relationship between cervical cancer and HPV infection (including the mechanism of occurrence, the type of virus that causes cervical cancer, and the characteristics after infection) is discussed emphatically. Subsequently, the relationship between HPV infection and other cancers (including the mechanism of infection, classification and post-infection characteristics) was further explored, such as oral cancer, anal cancer, and reproductive organ cancer (except cervical cancer that has been introduced above). In the end, the current research results on HPV prevention and the challenges to be met from the current point of view are summarized, and the outlook and some suggestions for the research direction of future vaccines are made.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230936

    Bacteria in the cancer therapy

    Human has been fighting with cancer for 130 years since the first tumor radical surgery in 1884. During this 130 years of cancer treatment history, there has developed mainly 4 types of treatment, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery and immunotherapy. .However all of these treatment have their own side-effect, including the harm to normal cells, high cost, long developing time. And traditional cancer treatment are often failed to eliminate all the tumor tissue so few patients can be cure completely. Developing an effective cancer treatment is still a challenge. Luckily, a special approach is developing rapidly which is called bacteriotherapy. It can be combined with traditional treatment like chemotherapy and immunotherapy, use bacteria as a vector to deliver the drug or tumor suppressing gene to the tumor. In this way, the effect of harming normal cells can be reduce and the accuracy of attacking tumor can be improved. There are also tumor-specific bacteria found living in tumor which can be effective in cancer treatment. How to use bacteria well in cancer treatment is remain a challenge. This article reviewed the advantages of using bacteria for cancer treatment and the mechanism of bacteria in cancer treatment, giving example of the use of intestinal bacteria, involving the challenge and future of bacteriotherapy.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230939

    Research on genetic regulation of sleep

    Sleep is the most vital function of mammals to maintain energy homeostasis. For years, the mechanism behind how sleep is regulated has been studied, and several genetic pathways had been identified as the key to encoding the circadian rhythms to enable the mammalian sleep and wake cycles. This paper explains the mechanisms behind the PER, CRY, CLOCK, and BMAL1 pathways, which play a central role in manipulating the function of the circadian clock. Other pathways, such as the DEC1/2 genes, interact with the circadian clock genes to form negative feedback loops to further control the circadian rhythm pathway and directly regulate sleep through orexin. Mutations occurring in these pathways could potentially cause conditions such as narcolepsy, restless leg syndrome, insomnia, sleep apnea, delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS), and advanced sleep phase syndrome (ASPS). These conclusions are based on previous studies and experiments that identified these pathways. While recent studies have shed light on the mechanisms of the PER, CLOCK, BMAL1, and DEC genes in regulating sleep and circadian rhythms, there is still much to discover. The intricate interactions and genetic pathways involved in sleep regulation are not yet fully understood. Further research in this field may uncover new insights into the genetic basis of sleep and provide avenues for developing interventions to address sleep disorders.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230940

    Advances and application of common biosensors

    Biosensors are devices that can detect and measure chemical components in organisms through specialized biological properties or reactions. This paper provides an overview of the three main types of biosensors: enzymatic, immunosensors, and microbial sensors. Enzymatic biosensors utilize enzymes to catalyze specific reactions between target molecules and other components of the biosensor, creating measurable signals. Immunosensors rely on immunological reactions between antigens and antibodies to detect and quantify substances in a solution. Microbial sensors use microbial cells to produce signal outputs being tested. Each type of biosensor has unique applications and mechanisms that make them useful in various scientific studies, including clinical medicine, laboratory research, environmental monitoring, and food engineering. Ongoing advancements in technology will undoubtedly continue to expand the scope of biosensors’ uses, making them increasingly important in many fields. This paper aims to provide researchers with an understanding of the mechanisms behind biosensors and strategies to improve their performance for better measurement, detection, and monitoring capabilities.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230943

    Advantages and disadvantages of glycomacropeptide therapy for phenylketonuria compared with traditional diet therapy

    Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disease for which there is no cure, which has a lasting adverse impact on patients' lives. At present, only two treatment methods have been widely used in clinical practice, one is traditional long-term low protein diet therapy, the other is glycomacropeptide therapy. However, the two methods have defects such as poor food palatability, poor patient compliance, and unclear immunity. Therefore, it is particularly important to explore the potential advantages and complementary advantages of the two widely used methods to improve patients' lives. This paper mainly applies the research method of literature review to explore and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of traditional diet therapy and glycomacropeptide therapy. The conclusion of this study is that in order to benefit the existing PKU patients to a greater extent and improve their quality of life and treatment effect, traditional diet therapy should be given priority, supplemented by glycomacropeptide therapy, and the two dietary plans should be implemented in parallel, so as to achieve better results. In addition, do not use the two treatment schemes in isolation.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230947

    Exploring the cooperation between rehabilitation medicine and CAR-T cell therapy for enhanced cancer treatment

    The most common cause of death worldwide is cancer, and the sophisticated and aggressive medications used to treat it can have serious side effects and limitations. Immunotherapy known as chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy has become a viable treatment option for some cancers, notably hematologic malignancies. However, it is linked to a number of adverse effects that may have a detrimental influence on patients' quality of life and access to care. Because it focuses on recovering patients' functional abilities and enhancing their quality of life rehabilitation medicine is essential to the treatment of cancer. This literature review aims to explore the cooperation between them to achieve better cancer treatment outcomes. This literature review will analyze and evaluate the literature on side effects of CAR-T Cell Therapy, the role of rehabilitation medicine in cancer treatment, and the rationale behind combining these two approaches for improved cancer treatment.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230952

    Current therapy of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    In recent years, with the rapid development of molecular immunology and related biotechnology, immunotherapy has made breakthrough progress in tumor treatment. The main object of this paper is the current clinical treatment of different lung cancer and their advantages and disadvantages. Through the literature review method, the latest and most standard treatment methods were selected and summarized. Studies have found that chemotherapy, especially platinum-based chemotherapy, is still the most effective means for lung cancer in clinical practice, and immunotherapy mainly relies on combination with chemotherapy to play a role. However, as a new treatment method, epidemic therapy is becoming increasingly mature, and compared with traditional chemotherapy, it has greater research and development potential and broader prospects. The research and development of immunotherapy will be the focus of the therapies for lung cancer in the future. Researchers need to tailor treatment methods based on the principles of individualized treatment to optimize the design and outcomes of clinical studies.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230953

    Application of immune checkpoint inhibitor in melanoma treatment

    Since ipilimumab was approved by FDA in 2011 as the first immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) to treat melanoma, the development of immunotherapy had a huge break through. These inhibitors can block the checkpoint proteins, which include CTLA-4 and PD-1, and resulting in the reactivation of T cells. Their promising effect on suppressing cancer growth is proved once they were used in cancer treatments. One of the greatest contributions of the ICIs is the improvement of melanoma treatment. Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer since its death rate is the highest among all the skin cancer. Their application on melanoma patients is shown to improve patients’ overall survival and response rate with durable responses. Furthermore, they can treat metastatic melanoma which former therapies were struggling with. Although they still faced the problem of severe side-effects that damage patients’ lives, many new combinations of therapies had been invented to overcome these drawbacks. The results of using combined therapies are anticipated in further clinical trials.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230954

    Review of the detection of metal ions using fluorescent probes

    Metal ions, essential for numerous physiological functions of the human body require accurate monitoring in order to gain precise knowledge of the health status of people. As fluorescent probes advances, the level of metal ions can be measured with high selectivity and sensitivity. Allowing the homeostasis of numerous metal ions to be maintained easily. Fluorescent probes are a hot area of research, providing a prospective tool for the detection of metal ions and to provide critical statistics in maintaining the homeostasis of the human body. This article introduces several fluorescent probes on the detection of both essential and toxic metal ions. It gives a review about the recent development in the detection of metal ions using fluorescent probes. This article explains the mechanism of recognition of each fluorescent probe and summarizes the results obtained from experiments. Outlining the advantages and shortcomings of each fluorescent probe. It includes novel fluorescent probes based on uncommon mechanisms.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230958

    Unraveling the Complexity of triple-negative breast cancer: A comprehensive research analysis

    TNBC, also known as triple-negative breast cancer, is a predominantly female-targeting and stands out due to its defining attribute. TNBC accounts for a considerable percentage of BC cases, and unfortunately, it is associated with poor prognoses and limited treatment options. In-depth information about TNBC, including its epidemiology, clinical expression, molecular features, and current diagnostic and treatment options, is provided in this research paper. In addition to examining ongoing research projects to better TNBC patient outcomes and treatment options, the report also suggests potential future routes for improved management tactics. The development of effective targeted treatments and individualized treatment plans for such a challenging disease necessitates an understanding of the distinctive characteristics of TNBC. This article contributes to continuing efforts to meet the unmet clinical requirements of patients affected by this aggressive BC subtype by offering insight into the complexity of TNBC.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230959

    The brief introduction of CAR T-cell: From mechanism to application

    Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) gene therapy is a newly developed solution to fight tumor cells. The therapy develops from the combination of the immunity and cell bioengineering, taking advantage of the cell killing function of T-cells, scientists modify them with a bioengineering method to target specific cells. In recent days, this therapy shows great results in several trials especially in hematological malignancies. However, there are still many obstacles, such as toxicities, that need to be overcome. Taking the promising potentials of CAR T-cell gene therapy, it is still a revolutionary step in the improvement of immunotherapy. In this paper, we focus on the structure and target antigens of CAR T-cell, summarize the generations of CAR T-cell gene therapies, as well as list out the FDA approved treatments using CAR. Most importantly, we will discuss the past advancements, recent innovations, and the existing factors that still prevent CAR T-cells from becoming the first line treatment for cancers.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/22/20230961

    Influenza virus evolution and vaccine development

    Although the effectiveness of universal influenza vaccines may vary from year to year, getting vaccinated against the influenza virus remains the optimal strategy for preventing influenza virus infection. As a result, recent research has focused on improving the protective efficacy and potency of influenza vaccines. This paper explores two theories: antigenic drift and antigenic imprinting. Antigenic drift refers to the gradual changes and evolution of antigens within influenza viruses. However, epidemiological data suggest that a single strain dominates each flu season. The theory of antigenic imprinting helps explain this phenomenon. Population immunity targets epitopes of limited variables (ELVs). Influenza vaccines can target ELVs to enhance vaccine effectiveness specifically.

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