Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Modern Medicine and Global Health

    Conference Date

    2024-01-05

    Website

    https://www.icmmgh.org/

    Notes

     

    ISBN

    978-1-83558-395-1 (Print)

    978-1-83558-396-8 (Online)

    Published Date

    2024-07-10

    Editors

    Mohammed JK Bashir, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman

Articles

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240687

    How does fasting effect people’s body health and longevity

    Many people are losing weight, but many are doing it incorrectly. Based on some adverse effects of body image, many people have started to lose weight. Now that weight loss is widespread, it is also vital to research ways to lose weight. This paper talks about how fasting affects the mice’s longevity and how fasting enables us to lose weight. The study shows that increasing fasting frequency can improve the health and survival of male mice. This research has found that increased fasting frequency can enhance the health and survival of male mice. Consequently, fasting may affect human longevity to a certain extent and won’t hurt people’s bodies if people use it correctly. In the future, researchers can do more research on how fasting affects human longevity. Although, nowadays, people can find that fasting may have some effect on human longevity, it is not mature, and people should research more deeply and know how the fasting results.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240721

    An overview of the principles and prospects of ADC drugs

    ADC drugs, or antibody-drug conjugates, represent a class of specialized biopharmaceuticals employed in the treatment of neoplastic diseases and other specific medical conditions. ADCs are tailored therapeutics consisting of monoclonal antibodies covalently bonded to cytotoxic small-molecule payloads. These compounds gain entry into cancer cells by initiating endocytosis, ultimately deploying their intracellular cytotoxic agents to eliminate the malignancies. The theoretical advantage of such drugs is their ability to selectively target tumor tissue while sparing healthy cells. Since the introduction of the first ADC drug to the market in 2000, a surge of enthusiasm from diverse enterprises and research institutions has fueled the development and clinical evaluation of ADC drugs. Simultaneously, the field of ADC drug development has witnessed rapid advancements. This article aims to provide an overview of the fundamental structure and developmental evolution of ADC drugs, conduct a statistical analysis of ADC drugs currently in development, and explore potential future directions for the advancement of ADC drugs.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240832

    Aducanumab: The controversial drug for Alzhiemer’s Disease

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive function. The underlying pathology involves the accumulation of amyloid beta, a protein implicated in the development and progression of the illness. Aducanumab is a type of human monoclonal antibody that exhibits preferential immunoreactivity towards both soluble and insoluble aggregates of Amyloid Beta (Aβ). Two phase 3 studies, namely EMERGE and ENGAGE, were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aducanumab in individuals with early Alzheimer’s disease. These studies were designed identically, randomized, and double-blind in nature. Both trials were suspended early with the ineffective results shown in interim analysis for futility. Aducanumab was reassessed and met the primary and secondary clinical endpoints in EMERGE, but remains ineffective in ENGAGE. Reduction of Aβ plaques was observed in the high-dose group (10 mg/kg), showing a dose- and time-dependent pattern. The primary safety concern with Aducanumab is amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA), particularly in ApoEε4 carriers. Aducanumab is a new therapeutic strategy for AD, providing new treatment with disease-modifying potential. This paper evaluated the pharmacology, mechanism, clinical studies, and safety assessment of aducanumab. This research aims to provide a reference for the understanding of Aducanumab’s current research status and results.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240834

    Research on the application of microbiological treatment technology in environmental engineering

    With the rapid development of China's economy, the problem of environmental pollution has become increasingly serious. In order to effectively treat all kinds of environmental pollution, pollution treatment technology needs to be constantly updated and improved. Microbial treatment technology, with its high efficiency and environmentally friendly features, shows a broad application prospect in pollution treatment. In this paper, the application of microbial treatment technology in the treatment of three typical environmental pollutants is systematically reviewed through extensive literature research. The basic principles of microbial treatment technology are described, and the successful applications of microbial technology in the treatment of wastewater, solid waste and soil heavy metal pollution are discussed in detail in combination with typical cases of environmental pollution treatment. Compared with the traditional physical and chemical methods, microbial technology is easy to operate, with significant treatment effect, lower comprehensive cost, and less likely to produce secondary pollution. In order to give full play to the unique advantages of microbial technology, this paper focuses on the possible limitations of microbial technology in practical application and discusses its future development direction.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240862

    Optimization method of protein coding region identification based on IHHO-CNN-LSTM

    Aiming at the current problem of insufficient identification accuracy of coding regions in DNA sequences, this study proposes a protein coding region identification method based on IHHO-CNN-LSTM. Firstly, the data preprocessing of DNA sequences is transformed into feature vectors, and then the protein coding region identification model based on CNN-LSTM is established. To address the limitations of parameter selection of CNN-LSTM, a hybrid strategy improved Harris Hawk Optimization (HHO) algorithm is introduced to achieve adaptive parameter searching of CNN-LSTM, so as to obtain the optimization model of white matter coding region identification based on IHHO-CNN-LSTM. The improved model was used to accurately distinguish coding and non-coding regions. Two benchmark datasets, HMR195 and BG570, are selected for five-fold cross-validation, and the results show that the AUC values of the model designed in this paper are 0.9854 and 0.9895, the corresponding identification accuracy is 0.9527 and 0.9645, respectively, which are significantly better than other models, and also have a significant advantage in terms of computational efficiency. The proposed method can efficiently and accurately identify protein coding regions, which can help promote the related research in the field of genetic engineering.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240887

    Heartworm disease in canines

    Heartworm disease is a parasitic disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis that affects the pulmonary arteries in canines, causing circulatory disturbances and breathing difficulties. The disease is transmitted through mosquito bites and the worms mature in the heart, lungs, and associated blood vessels of canines. Wolbachia, an endosymbiont bacteria present in D. immitis, triggers the canine immune response leading to acute and chronic inflammation in the heart and lung vasculature. The primary lesions in pulmonary arteries and lung parenchyma, along with the proliferation of the worms, result in severe pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure if left untreated. Though dogs of any age, breed, or sex may be affected, the disease is rare in dogs less than one year of age due to the time required for larval maturation into adult heartworms.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240874

    Comparison and analysis of multiple machine learning algorithms on prediction accuracy in Parkinson's patients

    This paper describes an experiment on Parkinson’s disease classification using multiple classification algorithms for comparison. Parkinson’s disease is a common neurological disorder, and early diagnosis and classification are important for the assessment of treatment and prognosis. Therefore, the research implications of this paper are clear. The classification algorithms used in the experiment include adaboost classification model, XGBoost classification model, logistic regression regression model, random forest plain Bayesian classification model, bp neural network and support vector machine. The experimental results show that adaboost classification model performs well when dealing with small sample data, XGBoost classification model performs well when dealing with large-scale datasets, and logistic regression regression model and random forest plain Bayesian classification model also have good performance. The bp neural network and support vector machine, on the other hand, perform poorly in terms of classification results and require a much larger dataset for support. These experimental results have important reference value for the classification and diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Different classification algorithms are suitable for different dataset sizes and characteristics, so in practical applications, we can choose different classification algorithms according to the size and characteristics of the dataset to achieve the optimal classification effect. In conclusion, the results of this paper provide a reference for the classification and diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, as well as a guide for choosing appropriate classification algorithms. In the future, we can further expand the dataset size and use more classification algorithms for comparison to improve the accuracy and robustness of Parkinson’s disease classification.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240898

    Research progress on the immunomodulatory effect of traditional Chinese medicine

    China is a country with thousands of years of research history in traditional Chinese medicine. In ancient China, traditional Chinese medicine has been used to treat diseases and has been passed down to this day. It has gone through thousands of years of spring, summer, autumn, and winter, achieving today's history of traditional Chinese medicine. There are many traditional Chinese medicines that have good immunomodulatory effects. With the expansion of traditional Chinese medicine research, the broad prospects of traditional Chinese medicine in regulating the body's immune system have been gradually realized. This article provides a review of the research progress on the immune regulatory function of traditional Chinese medicine based on the medical experiments and clinical applications of traditional Chinese medicine in immune system regulation in recent years. On the one hand, traditional Chinese medicine can enhance the cellular and humoral immune functions of the body, promote the physiological functions of lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and hematopoietic stem cells; On the other hand, traditional Chinese medicine also has immunosuppressive functions, which can reduce the release of inflammatory factors, inhibit or eliminate the production of antibodies, and inhibit the proliferation of T cells. Currently, research has found that most traditional Chinese medicine has a bidirectional immune regulatory function to restore normal immune responses to either high or low levels. This bidirectional immune regulatory effect actually reflects the theory of "holistic view" and "yin-yang balance" emphasized by traditional Chinese medicine.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240905

    Immunotherapies against HER2 positive breast cancer: focusing on monoclonal antibodies and therapeutic vaccines

    HER2 positive breast cancer is prevalent in females, accounting for 31% female cancer worldwide. The pathology is due to the fact that overexpressed HER2 protein dimerize will others to cause constitutively signalling cascades inside the cells. Eventually, tumour develops due to uncontrolled proliferation. Immunotherapies have been researched significantly in treating this type of cancer, and this article focuses on the monoclonal antibodies and the therapeutic vaccines. Monoclonal antibodies, especially trastuzumab, significantly benefit in clinical outcomes. However, resistance developed against trastuzumab, and this urged the development of other novels mAb and antibody drug conjugates. On the other hand, even though none of the therapeutic vaccines have been approved, they are actively researched in clinical trials. With immunogenic peptides and efficient platforms are chosen, the therapeutic vaccine is expected to activate immune cells, resulting in elimination of tumour cells. Both approaches have drawbacks including drug resistance and the suppressive tumour microenvironment. Therefore, combined immunotherapies may be considered as potent treatment in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240909

    Establishment and validation of a prognostic model for major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-related genes in breast cancer

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a group of genes involved in the immune system. In order to investigate this phenomenon, relevant sample data from human breast cancer can be downloaded from databases such as TCGA and GEO. Differential analysis of MHC-related genes that are differentially expressed (MHCRDEGs) can then be performed using single-factor Cox analysis. The identified characteristic genes can be subjected to differential analysis and protein interaction network analysis using multiple datasets. This analysis can aid in the selection of prognostic genes and the establishment of a clinically relevant MHCRDEG model, which can then be validated using multiple datasets. Through machine learning methods, six characteristic genes (LIFR, UGP2, F2RL2, SLC7A5, TUBA1C, IL12B) can be screened, and a diagnostic risk model can be developed. Finally, by comparing the results obtained from multiple datasets, four characteristic genes (LIFR, SLC7A5, TUBA1C, UGP2) can be identified. A clinical prognostic risk model can be established based on these genes, and its validity and accuracy can be confirmed using multiple datasets. This comprehensive study provides valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of MHC-related genes in cancer.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240911

    The approaches and challenges in delivery CRISPR/Cas9

    A significant technological advance, grouped regularly separated short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 genome editing program has revolutionized genetic modification for precision medicine and therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Furthermore, efficient transport of the CRISPR elements is necessary for the successful application of this type of gene editing for therapeutics. However, there are considerable challenges associated with delivering CRISPR/Cas9 to the target. The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system's molecular mechanisms, current delivery strategies, and the various CRISPR/Cas9 delivery vehicles, including non-viral delivery methods like microinjection and electroporation and this review will address virus transmission strategies such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) and CRISPR-Phage, as well as a discussion of their specific advantages. At last, we discuss major obstacles to CRISPR/Cas9 efficacy that must be solved before successful human gene therapy may be achieved.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240920

    Early pathogenesis, risks, and interventions of Dyslexia

    Reading proficiency is a foundational skill crucial for academic and social development in children. Developmental Dyslexia (DD), characterized by reading and writing difficulties despite adequate intelligence, poses a significant challenge, with a prevalence of 4–17%. This literature review explores the pathogenesis, risk factors, and interventions associated with DD. Children with DD face challenges in decoding and phonological processing, accompanied by deficits in the magnocellular pathway, complicating precise detection. Genetic, neural, and environmental factors contribute to DD, necessitating an integrative approach. Early interventions, focusing on phoneme awareness, rhythm, and visual skills, show promise. Neurobiological investigations reveal abnormalities in brain regions and connectivity, emphasizing the multifaceted nature of DD. Environmental factors, including maternal behaviors and socioeconomic status, contribute to DD risk. Interventions, such as music-based approaches, educational games, and mobile applications, demonstrate transformative impacts. To conclude, this review calls for continued research, global collaboration, and inclusive practices to advance our understanding and intervention strategies for DD on a global scale.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240925

    Predicting heart disease risk using machine learning: A comparative study of multiple algorithms

    Heart disease has consistently ranked among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally, causing millions of deaths every year, but early diagnosis and medical intervention are considered effective ways to treat heart disease. Therefore, constructing predictive models through data analysis and machine learning algorithms that significantly improve the accuracy of early diagnosis and medical intervention could potentially save millions of lives. Using Kamil Pytlak’s dataset from Kaggle, which was originally derived from the 2020 annual CDC survey, this study explores the application of six common machine learning techniques in predicting heart disease. It focuses on data preprocessing, balancing the dataset via undersampling, and feature selection, narrowing down to 8 key risk factors from 17. Among the models—Logistic Regression, LDA, QDA, Boosted Tree, Random Forest, and K Nearest Neighbors—Logistic Regression outperformed others with a 74.6% accuracy and an 82.3% AUC. Despite the challenges in prediction accuracy, the results underline the significant potential of machine learning in early diagnosis and intervention, indicating a promising direction for enhancing public health management strategies against heart disease.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240926

    Investigating the prevalence and function of the mecA gene and PBP2a protein among Staphylococcus and Mammaliicoccus species

    The mecA gene, an acquired gene encoding an additional penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a) with low affinity to nearly all β-lactams, is associated with the epidemiologically most important mechanism of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. However, apart from S. aureus, the mecA gene and functional PBP2a protein have also been discovered in other staphylococcal or mammalicoccal species. This research uses the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) to gather mecA gene and PBP2a amino acid sequences from multiple bacterial species and analyse the topology, structure, and function of the aligned PBP2a proteins. BLAST analysis indicated that the mecA gene and PBP2a protein sequences are present in several staphylococcal and mammaliicoccal species, and both the structure and function of the PBP2a protein are highly conserved among the species. This research indicates that the mecA gene and PBP2a protein are present and functional in a wide range of staphylococcal and mammaliicoccal species and highlights the high conserveness of the PBP2a protein among those species.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240929

    Effect of magnetic field-assisted cryogenic storage technology on food quality

    With the rapid development of society, the eating quality of cryopreserved food has long failed to meet people’s needs. However, in recent years, one of the physical preservation technologies—magnetic field which is used in the field of low-temperature food storage, as it is safe, non-polluting, and greatly improves food quality. Magnetic fields maintain and improve food quality by regulating the freezing process, reducing enzyme activity, and killing microorganisms. The paper reviews the mechanism of magnetic field-assisted low-temperature storage technology and its effects on water molecules, enzyme activities, and microbial counts in different foodstuffs through literature at home and abroad. The study summarizes the fact that there are only a small number of studies on pasta products. The experimental design is subject to the interference of other factors with the results of the experiments. It also includes prospects for future research that magnetic field-assisted cryogenic storage technology can greatly reduce the probability of fresh food due to improper low-temperature storage and lead to corruption and deterioration to protect the original nutritional value and economic value of fresh food.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240930

    The stochasticity in organismal development: Stem cell heterogeneity

    Organismal development was traditionally believed to be a tightly regulated process; however, recent discoveries have uncovered its underlying stochasticity. Numerous questions remain unsolved regarding the effect of stochasticity, the origin of variability, to what extent stochasticity influences development, and how the balance between randomness and robustness is maintained. This dissertation provides an overview of beneficial and detrimental aspects of stochastic events in the organismal development process, with a particular focus on explaining how intrinsic and extrinsic noise contribute to stem cell heterogeneity, which plays a crucial role in their differentiation and self-renewal. Furthermore, the current research limitations and significance of future exploration in this field were highlighted in the end.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240933

    Bioinformatics-based analysis of the prognostic value of CAF-related genes in lung squamous cell carcinoma

    The survival rate for lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is significantly lower compared to other types of tumors, although some effective immunotherapies have been applied in the clinic. The prognosis of LUSC is largely dependent on the individual patient’s cancer assessment. Current clinical assessments based on clinical indicators and staging systems have limitations in accuracy. Therefore, prognostic prediction and assessment require precise and individualized assessment using genetic tools. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment have been reported to impact the survival of LUSC by expressing specific proteins regulated by CAF-related genes (CAFRGs). Building upon this, the study aimed to identify CAFRGs in the gene expression data of LUSC using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), and one-way Cox and lasso regression screened for prognostically relevant CAFRGs in LUSC, incorporating six independent CAFRGs related to prognosis, to establish a risk score model for LUSC patients, and to further investigate potential CAF biomarkers related to LUSC prognosis. The TCGA database served as the training set, while the external dataset GSE30219 from the GEO database was employed for validating the accuracy and reliability of the model. Univariate Cox and multivariate Cox regression analyses demonstrated the significance of this risk score as a crucial independent prognostic factor for LUSC. According to immune infiltration and differences in immunotherapy response, personalized treatment strategies suitable for people with different risk scores were derived. We posit that the findings from this study offer robust evidence regarding the association between CAFRGs and LUSC prognosis. This can aid in establishing a dependable prognostic risk model, facilitating more precise prognostic predictions to guide personalized treatment decisions.The survival rate for lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is significantly lower compared to other types of tumors, although some effective immunotherapies have been applied in the clinic. The prognosis of LUSC is largely dependent on the individual patient’s cancer assessment. Current clinical assessments based on clinical indicators and staging systems have limitations in accuracy. Therefore, prognostic prediction and assessment require precise and individualized assessment using genetic tools. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment have been reported to impact the survival of LUSC by expressing specific proteins regulated by CAF-related genes (CAFRGs). Building upon this, the study aimed to identify CAFRGs in the gene expression data of LUSC using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), and one-way Cox and lasso regression screened for prognostically relevant CAFRGs in LUSC, incorporating six independent CAFRGs related to prognosis, to establish a risk score model for LUSC patients, and to further investigate potential CAF biomarkers related to LUSC prognosis. The TCGA database served as the training set, while the external dataset GSE30219 from the GEO database was employed for validating the accuracy and reliability of the model. Univariate Cox and multivariate Cox regression analyses demonstrated the significance of this risk score as a crucial independent prognostic factor for LUSC. According to immune infiltration and differences in immunotherapy response, personalized treatment strategies suitable for people with different risk scores were derived. We posit that the findings from this study offer robust evidence regarding the association between CAFRGs and LUSC prognosis. This can aid in establishing a dependable prognostic risk model, facilitating more precise prognostic predictions to guide personalized treatment decisions.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240935

    Clinical characteristics and differential gene expression analysis of chronic fatigue syndrome with sleep disorder

    Objective Preliminary study of clinical features and differential gene expression in chronic fatigue syndrome with sleep disorders. Methods Healthy people, chronic fatigue, and CFS patients were included. The FS-14 Scale, PSQI Scale, and MoCA Scale were used to assess fatigue, sleep quality, and cognitive function. The Chronic Fatigue Syndrome targets were searched through the GEO database, and the sleep disorder targets were screened through the GeneBank, Genecards, CTD, and Disgenet databases. Cross-targets were analyzed for GO and KEGG enrichment. Results On the comparison of the degree of fatigue and sleep disorder, the CFS patients were more severe than the healthy group and the chronic fatigue group (P<0.01), and the chronic fatigue group was also more severe than the healthy group (P<0.01). On the comparison of cognitive function, CFS patients were more severe than the healthy group and chronic fatigue group (P<0.01), and there was no difference between the chronic fatigue group and the healthy group. Screening obtained 854 CFS disease targets and 3228 sleep disorder targets, totaling 172 cross-targets. Conclusion Patients with CFS have significant sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, and fatigue may exacerbate cognitive dysfunction with prolonged disease duration. Mechanisms may be related to pathways of neurodegeneration-multiple diseases, lipid and atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, circadian entrainment, etc., and regulated by pathways such as the cAMP signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway, and other pathways. This study provides a research basis for exploring the mechanisms of CFS brain function disorders.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240938

    Genomics-driven pharmacodynamics: A new frontier in personalized medicine

    Personalized medicine is an emerging, rapidly evolving approach to clinical practice where he uses new technologies to provide decision-making for the prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease. Personalized medicine is rooted in the idea that because individuals have subtle and unique characteristics at the molecular, physiological, environmental exposure and behavioral levels, they may need to target the diseases they have to accommodate these subtle and unique characteristics. The goal of personalized medicine is often thought to be to provide the right treatment to the right person at the right time. Genomics has great potential in the development of personalized medicine. Pharmacokinetics provides a quantitative way to understand drug behavior in humans and is the scientific basis for realizing personalized medicine. This article aims to explore the impact of genomics on pharmacokinetics and apply these insights to personalized medicine.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/35/20240944

    Analysis of the advantages and sustainability of digital breast tomosynthesis

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plays an important role in medical imaging, especially in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. This article delves into the distinctive features of DBT, which surpass traditional 2D mammography in both sensitivity and specificity, resulting in clearer and more accurate breast imaging, thus improving breast cancer's detection rate and diagnostic accuracy. Despite these advantages, DBT faces limitations, including heightened radiation exposure, increased cost, and image processing and interpretation complexities.This article, drawing from theoretical frameworks and case studies, uncovers the potential of emerging technologies like deep learning to improve the reconstruction of two-dimensional images, bolster the progression of DBT, and drive advancements in breast screening technology. Through the combination of deep learning technology and DBT 3D data, future research can be dedicated to generating more accurate 2D images, thus further improving the efficiency and accuracy of breast cancer screening. Meanwhile, the introduction of the DCGNN model is anticipated to revolutionize deep feature extraction specifically for DBT-s2D image data, potentially leading to significant breakthroughs in this field.

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