Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Biological Engineering and Medical Science

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-221-3 (Print)

    978-1-83558-222-0 (Online)

    Published Date



    Alan Wang, University of Auckland


  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231086

    The Influence of stress factors on anxiety and depression: The mediating role of neural responses to errors and rewards

    This paper examines how stress impacts depression and anxiety through neural responses to mistakes and rewards. Currently, mental health problems, specifically anxiety and depression, are on the rise. This paper presents a study on how stress affects depression and anxiety. To begin with, this paper describes two neural responses: Error-Related Negative Wave (ERN) and Reward Positive (RewP). ERN could be a significant biomarker of anxiety symptoms. RewP, however, is linked to depression. Based on previous studies, this paper posits that depressed patients exhibit lower RewP amplitude indicative of reduced sensitivity to rewards. Moreover, this paper combines previous studies to demonstrate that stress could impact the amplitude of ERN and RewP. To be more precise, stress could amplify the magnitude of ERN, indicating that people's neural response to errors is heightened, thereby resulting in higher levels of anxiety. However, stress may reduce the magnitude of RewP, indicating a decrease in reward sensitivity and potentially increasing the susceptibility to depression. In summary, this article offers insights on how to articulate the connections among stress, anxiety, depression, and related factors. Furthermore, this article introduces a novel perspective on approaches to treating and preventing anxiety and depression.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231087

    The role of anthropological methods in the Ebola outbreak in Guinea: Bridging cultural and medical perspectives for effective response

    This study delves into the role of anthropological methods in comprehending the dynamics of the Ebola outbreak in Guinea. The backdrop lies in the need to bridge gaps between biomedical research and socio-cultural insights in disease management. The research employs qualitative methods to explore local beliefs, practices, and perceptions. This study examines community engagement, healthcare access, and response effectiveness through participant observation, interviews, and document analysis. Results emphasize the crucial contribution of anthropologists in fostering trust, promoting culturally sensitive interventions, and enhancing collaboration between communities and healthcare entities. The study underscores the significance of interdisciplinary approaches in addressing complex infectious disease outbreaks.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231088

    Review of effects of respiratory muscle training on athlete performance

    For a long time, the respiratory system plays an important role in athletes' training and competition, and its quality directly affects the athletes' competitive level and state. In particular, after the COVID-19 pandemic, many athletes have experienced a significant decline in respiratory function due to viral infection, which has led to a renewed understanding of the importance of respiratory function in athlete training. Furthermore, respiratory muscle training can be a key to improving respiratory function. This paper will review the effects of respiratory muscle training on athlete performance by means of comparative analysis. After analyzing and organizing 36 articles, it can be concluded that different functions of respiratory muscles can improve the sports performance of different types of athletes. Among them, the exercise of inspiratory muscles is the most important, even for athletes infected with COVID-19.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231089

    CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing: A promising approach towards Huntington’s Disease

    Huntington's Disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative condition marked by the gradual decline of motor abilities, cognitive capabilities, and emotional stability. It results from a mutation in the Huntingtin gene (HTT), which triggers the generation of a harmful variant of the Huntingtin protein known as mutant Huntingtin (mHTT). Despite significant advancements in understanding the disease's molecular basis, effective treatments to halt or reverse its progression remain elusive. Over the past few years, the groundbreaking genetic modification technique called Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) has risen as a hopeful tool in the realm of genetic investigation and treatment. CRISPR has the potential to precisely target and modify specific genes, offering new possibilities for the treatment of Huntington's Disease. This paper aims to provide an overview of Huntington's Disease, the CRISPR technology, and its potential applications in addressing the underlying genetic causes of HD. By exploring the fundamental aspects of both HD and CRISPR, this paper hopes to provide a clearer picture to the therapeutic potential of CRISPR in mitigating the effects of this neurodegenerative disorder.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231090

    Icariin stimulates myeloid Leukemic cells differentiation by increasing smad4 protein abundance leading to the inhibition of myeloid Leukemic cell growth

    As acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is still a highly frequent disease (4.3 per 100,000 patients) worldwide and produces an incredibly high incidence rate (4 per 100,000), finding a more effective treatment or new direction of treatment is essential. This research aims to find a new direction of treatment by investigating cell differentiation. Focusing on the BMP signaling pathway, especially the protein of Smad4, the potential of increasing the chance of cell differentiation was found. Icariin (ICAR) was used to target the Smad4 pathway and hopefully become a potential treatment. Therefore, the hypothesis is set as the ICAR would increase the Smad4 level, which activates cell differentiation and potentially become a new treatment for AML. The experimental proposal was concluded in this research, and the combination of imaginary results was analyzed.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231091

    Research on the bidirectional relationships between sleep and parkinson’s disease

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in the world, and among its most common symptoms is sleep disruption. Due to the glymphatic system’s role in removing alpha-synuclein and other substances related to PD pathogenesis, glymphatic dysfunction has been established as a risk factor for PD. Though sleep disturbance is often a symptom of PD, its role in increasing glymphatic clearance has led some researchers to believe that sleep disturbance could also be a risk factor for PD. This review will examine the scientific literature that suggests links between sleep disruption, PD pathology, or glymphatic dysfunction, as well as address some of the limitations in affirming such relationships. According to current research, sleep disruption is a common nonmotor symptom of PD but can also lead to reduced glymphatic function, which in turn reduces alpha-synuclein clearance and advances PD pathogenesis. However, PD development could also impair glymphatic clearance by depolarizing AQP4 channels or reducing sleep duration and quality.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231092

    Research on the application of microRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma

    The digestive tract frequently develops the malignant tumor known as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A variety of liver diseases can develop into HCC and therefore a therapeutic approach is required. Extracellular vesicles known as exosomes are released by a number of cells and contain a wide range of active substances, including lipids, proteins, RNA, and DNA. microRNA is a type of RNA that accelerates apoptosis by participating in the regulation of downstream gene translation. Studies have shown that exosomal micrornas regulate HCC. Exosomal microRNAs have been proven in studies which regulate HCC. Exosomal micrornas may therefore be particular biomarkers for HCC metastases and early diagnosis as well as possible therapeutic targets. The utilization of exosomal micrornas in HCC is employed as biomarkers for early diagnosis and may trigger cancer cell apoptosis through the PI3K-AKT channel or MAPKs/ERK channel to produce therapeutic effects. Exosomal micrornas are briefly detailed in this paper.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231093

    Modeling COVID-19 spreading — evidence from Canada

    This study delves into the comprehensive examination of the COVID-19 pandemic that has been affecting the global community since late 2019. The repercussions have been ameliorated to some extent with the advent of effective vaccination campaigns, albeit the impact varies across regions and outbreaks. Beginning with an introduction to the fundamental epidemiological SIR (Susceptibility, Infection, Recovery) model, the research extrapolates it to reflect the complex dynamics of the COVID-19 scenario, employing data from Ontario, Canada, to ground the analysis in real-world observations. Several parameters and initial conditions inform the development of differential equations and ensuing line graphs within the scope of the extended VSEAIR (Vaccinated, Susceptible, Exposed, Asymptomatic Infected, Symptomatic Infected, and Recovered) model. The study scrutinizes the interplay of two pivotal aspects: the effectiveness of vaccination and the influence of governmental interventions. It offers a rigorous review of the trajectory of COVID-19 in Ontario, shedding light on potential strategies to optimize the response to the pandemic and contributing to evidence-based policymaking.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231094

    The use of oncolytic virus to combat neuroblastoma

    Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer that arises from immature nerve cells in the body and often appears in children. The current treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is not a successful method of treatment due to its harm to the child’s body and its inability to effectively pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the brain to effectively target the tumor. Recent studies into the field of oncolytic viruses have shown the possibility to target neuroblastoma cancer cells in the brain by engineering specific viruses to express NY-ESO-1, an antigen that is tumor-specific and commonly expressed in neuroblastoma. Research also showed a method to integrate protein A into the envelope protein of retroviruses which allows monoclonal antibodies’ Fc region to bind with the virus, allowing specificity to an antigen. This paper combines the ideas of previous studies to design a novel model of oncolytic virus treatment that specifically targets neuroblastoma. Since the oncolytic virus can be injected directly at the site and the virus is small enough to penetrate the BBB, the paper hypothesize that the model is a valid treatment for neuroblastoma in children.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231099

    Guvacoline in betel nuts directly binds to and inhibits AChE activity, lowering ACh levels released by neurons

    This paper investigates guvacoline, a compound found in betel nut, and its activity on acetylcholine level. Betel nuts are the chewable seeds of plant used in Chinese traditional medicine. It is commonly used all over southern Asia and the east African seaboard, being the fourth most commonly used drug in the world. It is known for being carcinogenic for throat cancer. Immediate symptoms of betel nut chewing indicate activation of the parasympathetic system, in which acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase is involved. This paper predicts that guvacoline, found in areca nuts, increases free acetylcholine levels released from neurons by allosterically binding to acetylcholinesterase inhibiting it.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231101

    Industrial pollutions on the health effects of infants, children, and adolescents: A systematic review

    Industrial pollution is considered especially harmful to juveniles’ health. This paper analyzes the effect of common pollutants, including particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, persistent organic pollutants, and heavy metals, on three different types of diseases. It can be concluded that particulate matter, nitrogen oxide, and POPs are significantly associated with neurodevelopmental deficiencies in infants. Endocrine-disrupting effects and neuroinflammation are considered the leading causes, but the specific mechanisms remain questioned. Pollutants from heavy industries have a higher potential to cause children’s respiratory diseases, and residency within 4 km of the industry is especially hazardous. Biomarkers VEGF and urinary 8-OHdG reflect a high glutathione-related oxidative burden for exposure to toxic metals attached to particulate matter. Deregulation in metabolism and DNA oxidative damage is shown to be responsible for increasing cancer risk, but the triggering pathway is unclear. The tendency to develop diseases in both genders is heterozygous, and a larger dataset is required to draw a conclusion.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231102

    Metabolism system during exercise and its guiding value for exercise

    With the development of today's society, people's daily activities are becoming increasingly diverse, and sports are gradually integrated into people's daily lives. However, there are still biases and misunderstandings in social cognition regarding physiological knowledge of sports. Therefore, this paper aims to study the energy metabolism response during exercise, focusing on the metabolic mode of cellular respiration and providing guidance on exercise from this study. With the deepening of research, it can be understood the relationship between ATP and energy, recognized that the body generates ATP through three metabolism ways: glycolysis, ATP-PCR, and cellular respiration, and understood the differences between these three metabolism ways, also recognizing that they are crucial for the development of athlete performance. Finally, this paper will provide a method for athletes to train their metabolism system that combines long-term steady-state training with interval training.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231103

    The implication and advantages of small-molecule drug

    Small-molecule drugs are a widely used and theoretically mature therapeutic approach. Due to their small size and stable chemical structure, they can better penetrate the cell membrane and directly reach the intercellular target side, and their pharmacokinetics are more predictable. Many small-molecule drugs have contributed to medical advances and improved the lives of patients. At present, they have shown relatively high efficiency in the targeted treatment of a variety of diseases. In this review, we highlight their mechanisms and possibilities in the treatment of individual human diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and Covid-19 by comparing them with traditional macromolecular drugs, as well as the percentage of small molecule drugs used in current drugs, specific improvements in patient efficacy, or new insights into the mechanisms of action of small molecule drugs. For the prospects of small molecule drugs, new drugs will also emerge along with new challenges.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231106

    The mechanism and the therapeutics of Major Depressive Disorder

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is currently a common and significant disorder. More young people are being diagnosed each day. Decades of research have been done and have provided us with the ability to manage the illness in terms of treatments and the neurobiology behind it. However, it is universally acknowledged that some of the problems still remain. The complete mechanism which processes in the brain of a patient of MDD is not fully revealed and in some cases, treatments such as evidence-based psychological psychotherapy and antidepressants lacked effectiveness. For patients who do experience a reduced level of depressive symptoms, repeated episodes happens often and recurrent remains at high chances. In this review, human knowledge of MDD in the current state will be summarized, including the two most commonly believed pathophysiology pathway. In addition, different types of treatments that tackles distinct aspects of the disorder are highlighted. Prevention programs and intervention methods which have been applied are discussed. They range from small actions, such as practicing meditation and mindfulness, to large movement, such as taking a psycho-educational program with a therapist. Lastly, this review points out the inadequate in human understanding towards MDD and outlines the some of the therapeutical prospects in research and investigation of depression that are able to give rise to a more successful and effectual treatment system option in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231108

    Comparison of properties of cardiac vascular stent materials

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a serious threat to human health and life, an important public safety issue, and one of the leading causes of death in the world. Typically, the treatment involves implanting stents in the patient's blood vessels to support the vessels and keep the blood flow open so that oxygen and nutrients can be delivered. This paper will discuss and compare the three main categories of vascular stent materials: 1) organic materials; 2) inorganic materials; and 3) composite materials. Existing bio-organic materials are mostly organic materials that exist in large quantities in the human body and are mostly used as bio-coatings applied to metal bodies, in addition to polyester cardiovascular scaffolds, which are a major category for future development. Inorganic materials are currently the main components of cardiovascular scaffolds, mainly metals, and bio-ceramics. Metals, as the earliest basic materials utilized by mankind, also play a major role in cardiovascular scaffolds. To enhance some specific properties of existing cardiovascular scaffolds, composite materials have been developed, and in the field of materials engineering composite materials are regarded as a major project for future development. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each material in turn and explore the future direction of materials in this field. The development of cardiac vascular stent materials will make up for the deficiencies in clinical medicine that cannot be solved by drug-based therapies and is an indispensable part of the development of human science and technology.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231110

    Methods for the detection of microplastics in mammals

    The mass manufacture and extensive usage of plastics have brought about the spread of microplastics throughout the whole environment and even into the bodies of humans and animals. The toxic effects of microplastics cannot be ignored and their accumulation in the body is potentially dangerous. Therefore, scientists have used different methods to observe the morphology of microplastics in the mammal body and to detect and evaluate the levels of microplastics in the body. As a result, the toxicological consequences of plastic particles on the body are well understood. This review summarized some common methods of detecting microplastics in mammals, especially humans, by reviewing the research on microplastics conducted by different research groups in recent years. and evaluated the characteristics, detection goals, and advantages and disadvantages of each method. This establishes a more comprehensive overview of current microplastic detection technologies and can create a theoretical basis for future analysis of microplastic dynamics.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231115

    Brain-targeted delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated glioblastoma therapeutics

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a life-threatening malignant tumor of the central nervous system, for which there is currently no effective treatment. Its low survival rate has been interpreted as a result of its high proliferation rate, resistance to apoptosis, and the ability to create a microenvironment conducive to tumor growth. Recently, a powerful and accurate gene-editing tool, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-Associated Protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9), has high potential in various scientific fields. Such technologies can manipulate cellular mechanisms and defective genes that lead to the progression of many serious diseases such as cancer. One of the major barriers to the application of this technique is the development of a delivery method to diffuse CRISPR/Cas9 efficiently and accurately to the target location in brain. Most existing delivery methods are failed to be translated into clinical result due to the lack of promising safety and efficiency. Thus, I will introduce several strategies here that can be used potentially for CRISPR-Cas9 system delivery in GBM treatment including the principle, advantages, limitations, and latest developments of these systems. This review is composed to provide a concise summary for future researchers to understand the current challenges and approaches in CRISPR/Cas9 mediated GBM therapeutics delivery.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231117

    Lavender essential oil research and application process in China

    Lavender, a perennial subshrub classified under the genus Lavandula and the family Labiatae, is native to the southern areas of Europe and the Mediterranean. It has also been brought to China, albeit with less research conducted on the subject. China is home to two primary cultivated species of lavender, which are primarily found in regions such as Xinjiang, Shaanxi, and Jiangsu. Among these regions, Xinjiang is the predominant cultivator, with a focus on the narrow-leaved lavender variety. The full understanding of the sensible and efficient utilisation of lavender essential oil is necessary due to its significant therapeutic and decorative significance. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of lavender essential oil, encompassing an analysis of its active components and recommended application guidelines based on a thorough assessment of relevant literature. Additionally, it compares and evaluates various extraction processes currently employed in the industry. Furthermore, the research delves into the safety considerations associated with lavender essential oil and explores appropriate practises for its consumption to ensure user well-being.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231118

    Identifying the relationship between depression and cognitive neuroscience

    Major depression (MD) is increasingly prevalent worldwide and more practical treatments are in demand. Discovering its mechanisms and affective factors could help in finding better treatment and understanding how each individual’s differences affect the mechanisms. This article focuses on discovering the relationship between depression and neuroscience, particularly on the cognitive aspect, emotion regulation, and brain structure. Three main executive functions in cognitive function, including updating, shifting, and inhibition are analyzed. Moreover, this paper indicates the relationship between dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the brain structure and depression by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). With integrated information providing insights, several notable factors and mechanisms have been found. This proves that cognitive executive processes have a direct impact on emotion, where updating working memory can reduce the effects of negative emotions; however, shifting impairment tends to experience emotional dysregulation, and inhibitory deficits may impair adaptive emotion regulation processes. In addition, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) region of the brain structure manages the functions of emotion regulation and cognitive regulation. In a parallel understanding, cognitive dysfunction is associated with dynamic emotional states and MD psychopathology. Based on these findings, several possible treatments are subsequently put forward. Meanwhile, researchers discovered new directions to examine the relations between MD and neuroscience.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/24/20231120

    Research on the effects of PM2.5 exposure on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in an aging population

    In contemporary times, there is an observable inclination towards the exacerbation of air pollution, which has emerged as a prominent global environmental issue. Among the various factors contributing to this issue, PM2.5 emerges as a key determinant. The geriatric demographic exhibits a heightened vulnerability to respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. This study offers a thorough analysis of the correlation between PM2.5 and human pathology and epidemiology. It also investigates the many pathophysiological pathways that establish a connection between exposure to PM2.5 and the development of respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. The results of this study suggest that PM2.5 has a substantial impact on the occurrence and fatality rates of several common illnesses within the senior demographic. Furthermore, this paper offers recommendations for potential public health interventions intended to alleviate the adverse effects of this avoidable determinant on the development of diseases and death rates.

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