Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Biological Engineering and Medical Science

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-213-8 (Print)

    978-1-83558-214-5 (Online)

    Published Date



    Alan Wang, University of Auckland


  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230701

    Ecosystem and its conservation

    Globally, ecosystems and their restoration and conservation are attracting enormous attention. In recent times, people have gradually realized the importance of ecosystems and the need for ecosystem conservation. At the same time, many scientific conservation measures and methods have been developed, some of which are costly but at least have made a difference in ecosystem restoration. By reviewing a series of related literature, it is possible to see the different views and responses to ecosystems and their conservation in many periods of time, and to realize the seriousness of the situation and challenges facing humanity. The literature review discusses the scientific approach and thinking about the reversibility of ecosystem restoration and rehabilitation.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230702

    Review of genus Halieutaea (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: Ogcocephalidae), with a new species from northern south China sea, named Halieutaea liui

    In the offshore waters of Shantou, Guangdong Province, in the northern part of the South China Sea, a specimen belonging to the genus Halieutaea was collected at a depth of about 100 meters. It is similar to the known Halieutaea fitzsimonsi but also has some differences. Hence, this specimen is considered a neotype named Halieutaea liui sp. nov. The neotype can be distinguished from Halieutaea fitzsimonsi by the following external features: a prominent snout, a shorter peduncle, and unevenly distributed bony spines on the dorsal side of the disc. In addition, methods of distinguishing 13 known species of Halieutaea (including Halieutaea liui sp. nov.) by their appearance characteristics are cldwarified.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230703

    Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease based on new drugs

    It is well-known that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegeneration characterized by memory impairment, cognitive complexity, language impairment, mood swings, and behavioral abnormalities. The AD is related to a variety of factors and has been associated with circumstances, genes, generations and genders. The mechanism of pathogenesis is also unclear, and there are several hypothesis theories. The more convincing one is the deposition of amyloid. Although there is no one drug that can cure the AD completely, there are approved drugs that alleviate the development of the AD by preventing the breakdown of acetylcholinesterase and increasing the nerve cells that transmit messages. The development of new drugs and their use in the treatment of AD has received increasing attention. In this research, six drugs will be focused on, which are aduhelm, aricept, exelon, leqembi, namenda, and namzaric. Compared with single-target drugs, multi-target drugs can target different physiological aspects of the disease and have the advantages of fewer adverse effects, lower clinical doses and significant efficacy. Because their therapeutic mechanisms are different, patients can select the most appropriate drugs for different conditions of the AD according to the symptoms of the disease. Based on the current treatments, there is no way to cure the AD, hoping people could find a full cure for AD in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230704

    The role of glial cells in schizophrenic brain

    Schizophrenia, as a complex neurological disorder, has many distressing symptoms such as hallucinations and some of the common mood or cognitive disorders commonly associated with mental illness. Once suffering from schizophrenia, people’s work and life will be greatly troubled. It is also often associated with other psychiatric disorders, which makes it extremely difficult to treat clinically. However, a diverse of different studies have been able to identify a clear link with neurotransmitter signaling pathways and some brain activity, such as dopamine projection pathways and a significant reduction in gray matter in patients. This research will focus on another dimension, namely the reduction of gray matter volume, to investigate the relationship between oligodendrocyte and astrocyte function and schizophrenia, in an attempt to provide a new vision for the clinical treatment system. In addition, it is expected that this research can also provide a new idea for the development of new drugs for schizophrenia.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230705

    Application of different treatment methods for autism

    Today, more than 70 million people around the world suffer from autism, and scientists around the world are working hard to invest in research into autism treatment, hoping to identify the possibility of a cure among the various attempts. At present, there are a large number of studies on various treatment options for autism, but not many summaries of the studies. Due to the complex causes of autism, this research only summarizes some of the therapeutic and training programs that have made progress in autism. This research of existing research suggests that the adverse symptoms of autism can be improved through applied behavior analysis (ABA) therapy, symptom-relieving medications, talk-based cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), behavioral therapy, gene therapy, gut probiotics supplementation, and web-based training. Although autism is a very complex disease, with the development of technology and in-depth research into its causes, autism is controllable and mitigated. In the future, with more in-depth research, there may be more ways to alleviate the suffering of people with autism.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230708

    A 3D culture method based on interpenetrating hydrogels induced by cells into skeletal muscle tissue in vitro

    The combination of muscle cells and soft robotics technology has led to the rapid development of biohybrid robots in recent years. Muscle-driven systems had advantages such as joint flexibility, self-repair, and multi-signal perception, demonstrating unique advantages as an effective technological solution for robot drive systems. Current research has many shortcomings in material properties and muscle stability in 3D muscle tissue cultured in vitro, making it difficult to successfully apply the technology. In this study, we developed a new type of interpenetrating hydrogel network that, combined with 3D cell culture and tissue-induced culture, enabled 3D muscle tissue culture in a hydrogel environment and induced differentiation in muscle tissue. The results of this research provided a foundation for future studies on in vitro muscle tissue culture and the implementation of robots in this field.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230711

    Treatment of autism spectrum disorder by regulating neurotransmitters and modifying genes

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder, which has many underlying causes, making it much more challenging to find an appropriate treatment to cure. It has been found that ASD is related to a wide variety of neurochemical changes, including GABA, oxytocin, and several monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Since ASD is heterogeneous, precise technology such as PET, LP, iEEG, rs-fMRIs, and MRS had been emerged to discover the site of illness. It requires a persistent effort since the ASD phenotype is invertible instead of unchanged, which will be explained soon. Until now, only genetic modified virus (rAAV) have so far successfully incorporated with transduction and gene expression in vivo. However, whether the presence of neutralizing circulating antibodies will preclude intravenous administration is unsure. Instead of systemic delivery, intrathecal administration is discovered as a substitute, which can solve the problem and have advanced to a clinical trial. More gene therapies are hypothesized, for instance, using rAAV for gene replacement, ASOs for RNA knockdown, and CRISPR/Cas9 for gene editing. Unfortunately, these gene therapies still have a long way to go to overcome the restrictions. As a result, this research will analyze the different treatments for the ASD.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230715

    Application of different treatment methods for schizophrenia

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating neurological and psychiatric disorder that can result in severe disability for those affected. The presence of this disorder can have far-reaching effects on all aspects of a person's life, affecting not only their personal and familial relationships, but also their social interactions, academic pursuits, and career prospects. Some individuals with schizophrenia may experience multiple cycles of symptom exacerbation and remission throughout their lifetime, with symptoms worsening and improving intermittently. However, for others, symptoms may progressively worsen over time and may even become increasingly severe, potentially persisting throughout their lifetime and significantly impacting their daily life and social relationships. As of today, most medications are still not perfect treatments for this disorder. And only a few, such as lumateperone, have shown initial success in improving and relieving patients' negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. In addition, psychological therapies are being developed, but therapists and psychiatrists are still limited in the number of treatments available. In the face of these unresolved challenges, different treatment methods have been conducted to evaluate investigational therapies, and new models are being constructed to study new pharmacological molecular therapeutic pathways. This research provides an overview of some of the current mainstream treatment strategies for schizophrenia and an outlook for the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230717

    Epidemiology comparison and analysis of Alzheimer's disease in China and the United States

    Alzheimer's disease is a prominent cause of dementia in late adulthood and is recognized as a progressive, multifaceted neurological illness. Studies of incidence and prevalence have a considerable influence on how much of a burden the community and healthcare system must bear. The author will compare and contrast the epidemiological states of Alzheimer's disease in China and the United States, explain their disparities, and offer suggestions for China's future. This paper analyzes the U.S.’s epidemiology situation, China’s epidemiology situation, and then makes a comparison with three aspects. Epidemiology in America includes its overview, the difference between symptom-based data and biomarker-based data, the forecasted increase in prevalence between 2020-2025 in the states, the incidence, and the race; China’s epidemiology describes the overview of China’s Alzheimer’s disease situation and regional studies. It is discovered that China’s decreasing mortality, Asian people’s prevalence are lower than white people, special regional research, and biomarker research are needed with which more research will be carried on.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230721

    Research progress of nociplastic pain in the clinical treatment of chronic pain diseases

    Chronic pain is increasingly developing into a worldwide health problem. Due to the money and treatment required for care and rehabilitation, as well as the complexity of the various types of pain, chronic pain sufferers often bear a huge financial burden as well as a psychological one. According to statistics, 23% of chronic pain sufferers have suicidal thoughts. In 2017, the third category pain named "nociplastic pain" was proposed for the first time by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) which is disparate with the first kind ‘nociceptive pain “and the second pain “neuropathic”. The physiological mechanisms behind this type of pain are not known. However, it is commonly thought to be associated with a hypersensitivity response in the central nervous system and can be resulted in chronic nociceptive pain, so nociplastic pain is able to occur by itself, and can combine with other pain. At the same time, this type of pain affects the central system and produces other derived symptoms. Examples include stimulation of the limbic system, including impaired processing of emotions by the amygdala, amplified pain perception, sleep disturbances, increased fatigue and sensitivity to external environmental stimuli. There are no very clear and obvious diagnostic criteria or methods, and clinical detection is difficult. Due to the many symptoms, patients usually undergo multiple tests, with high medical costs and a poor prognosis. Patients suffer both physical and psychological distress. The disease with its complexity characteristic leads the difficulty for doctors to diagnosis it plagues patients with the condition, while increasing the difficulty of medical diagnosis and the cost of medical treatment. This article synthesizes the existing developments in outcomes in nociplastic pain from introduction and classification to diagnosis and treatment, it discusses the existing research findings.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230723

    Human disruption on the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem since 2000

    The Great Barrier Reef is currently experiencing severe environmental pollution and extreme climate, which put the whole local ecosystem in danger. This literature review collects 10 journals (articles) from different scholars to discuss what impact did human put on the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem, and how do the animals of Great Barrier Reef ecosystem react. Various animals in the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem are classified and separately discussed, including coral reef, its symbiotic algae, fish species, and then the author sums up the ecosystem as a whole. While summarizing and analyzing the scholars’ works, the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem needs to be protected through human intervention. Combining new ways of carbon-absorbing techniques to deal with extreme climate El Nino and pesticide control will be a potential solution of the Great Barrier ecosystem crisis.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230724

    Impact of global warming on extreme hot and cold weather

    After the industrial revolution, carbon dioxide emissions have continued to grow rapidly and global warming has become evident. Along with the warming, heat waves, cold waves, and protracted droughts are only a few examples of the extreme weather and climatic phenomena that additionally happened regularly, causing many casualties and property damages. In order to offer a foundation for future decision-making about the avoidance and reaction to severe hot and low temperature weather, we analyzed the reaction of future temperature to rising temperatures in the context of global heating in this study. This paper first analyzed the impact of global warming on extreme hot weather based on the Fifth Assessment Report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), in terms of the probability of occurrence of extreme hot weather when the average and temperature variance increase individually and together. Secondly, by examining the causes of the intensified polar vortex brought on by stratospheric warming as in setting of climate warming, the effects of global warming on extreme low degree weather were examined. The findings demonstrated that climate warming had an important impact on the occurrence of extreme high and low temperature weather. Warming on the one hand may make the average temperature and temperature variance change in some regions larger, and extreme high heat occurrences are more likely to occur as the temperature's average and variation both rise. Warming on the other hand will warm the stratosphere, which in turn will cause the asymmetric polar vortex to strengthen, making extreme low temperature events more likely to occur.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230725

    A hand-held electro-mechanical exciter for multi-frequency peripheral neuropathy assessment

    Diabetes is becoming alarmingly common worldwide and is associated with long-term complications. One of the major and common complications of the disease is peripheral neuropathy, which causes loss of sensation in the patient's limbs due to the degeneration of sensory nerves. Loss of sensation often allows injuries to get unnoticed, which increases the risk of infections that may lead to ulcers and amputation. Several tests are used as part of peripheral neuropathy screening, one of which is the vibration perception threshold (VPT) test. Most of the existing instruments for VPT testing apply a stimulus at a single frequency while gradually increasing the vibration acceleration until the stimulus is felt and reported by the subject. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that performing VPT at several frequencies offers a comprehensive VPT assessment. Moreover, the literature indicates that VPT evaluation is affected by excessive pressure that may be applied by the operator while the vibrator’s head is in contact with the skin. In this work, we describe the design of a hand-held exciter instrument capable of applying multifrequency stimuli in the range 4 Hz – 500 Hz and that prevents excessive pressure from being applied by the operator to the subject’s skin.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230726

    Modelling and analyzing dynamic system for transmission of Paragonimiasis

    Paragonimiasis is caused by the invasion of Paragonimus westermani in the host. Since its proliferation will lead to the decrease of cell density in the host or even death, the quantitative study of its epidemic rule is an important reference for the prevention and control works, but which is lacking study. The significance of studying the transmission of paragonimiasis lies in its multi-intermediate host infection route. We modelled the transmission mechanism of Paragonimiasis based on the SICR model and its variants, in which population are categorized as susceptible, mildly infected, severely infected, and recovered. We theoretically derive the disease-free equilibrium of the proposed dynamical system, as well as the basic reproduction number. Based on the basic reproduction number, we further discussed the impact of infection rates, recovery rates, and mortality rates in mildly and severely infected patients on the control of outbreak transmission. These results have clinical and guiding implications of the early protection and control of severely infected patients.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230727

    Chemical synthesis and the combination with oxygen of heme

    Heme is an essential compound in the human body. This work includes two main research summaries of heme and the chemical nature of this organic compound. The first part of this work includes specific processes, enzymes that be used, and situations where the synthesis of heme takes place. The next part is about how heme binds with oxygen and carries these molecules in body tissues and the effects of pH and temperature in combination with oxygen. The last part introduces a heme-dependent enzyme called catalase and how heme functions in this enzyme. Overall, this work contains most facts and specific illustrations of heme synthesis and its primary function. The meaning of this essay is to illustrate the process when heme binding with oxygen in the aspect of chemistry and explain other facts and functions of heme in the chemistry aspect.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230729

    Brain computer interface and its application in games for people with physical disability

    This paper will investigate the fundamentals of the Brain-Computer Interface, including various kinds of implantable Neural Probes, materials used to construct neural probes, and essential methods to detect crucial electrical and chemical signals from brain structures to building well-behaved Brain-Computer Interfaces. Beyond that, this paper will delve deeper into the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) and its application in the modern time game industry and look into the future perspectives of BCI for helping underrepresented groups that could not utilize traditional input devices.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230731

    Progresses on the management of swimmer’s shoulder

    Swimmer’s shoulder frequently happens on the swimmers which is the reason why it is named after it. However, it also occurs to people who overload their shoulders via over the head motion. We need to pay attention to this injury due to the after effect on the body as the injury worsens. This is a report summarizing the introduction, anatomy of the shoulder, diagnostic, treatment, prevention of swimmer’s shoulder injury. Besides, swimmer’s shoulder happens mostly on the swimmers, but it worth to mention that it also occurs to people who overload shoulder with over the head motions.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230732

    Common sports injuries and physical treatments

    Physiotherapy is a non-invasive and non-pharmaceutical application of artificial physical factors and natural physical factors to the human body through the body's neurological, humoral, endocrine, immune and other physiological regulatory mechanisms to achieve the purpose of treatment and rehabilitation. With the widespread popularity and popularity of sports, more people are participating in sports in which injuries become common at different levels of sports from daily recreation to high intensity competitive levels. Physical therapy is considered the first choice for sports people to treat sports injuries and is becoming common and mainstream in the field of sports injury treatment and rehabilitation. Physiotherapy has become critical as a primary treatment or secondary intervention after a sports injury and make sense in the rehabilitation of sports injuries. This article focuses on the physiotherapy treatment of common sports injuries in different sports. Common sports injuries in basketball include ankle sprains, meniscus tears, Achilles tendon ruptures, and patellar tendonitis. Common sports injuries in rugby include groin injuries and shoulder dislocations. Common sports injuries in baseball include ulnar collateral ligament injuries and rotator cuff injuries. Common sports injuries in tennis include epicondylitis of the elbow joint. Common injuries in soccer include medial collateral ligament sprains and calf strains. This article analyzes the anatomical structure of the above-mentioned common injury sites, the physical means of intervention and the different roles of physiotherapy in different sports injuries. The results of the article found that physiotherapy is available for all the sports mentioned above. However, depending on the injury in a sport, physiotherapy has a different proportion of the conventional treatment modalities.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230734

    Common causes and anatomical principles of knee injury and the treatment of different injuries

    A knee injury is a common problem that affects people of all ages and activity levels. This review article outlines the anatomy of some common knee injuries and the effective treatment and rehabilitation for different situations. By studying the causes of a knee injury, such as common ones such as pre-cross ligament cracks, semi-monthly plate wear, and pancreatitis, we can determine that treatment for different injuries depends on the specific injury and may include conservative management with rest, physical therapy, surgery, or surgical intervention. At the same time, rehabilitation is an important part of knee injury management, which can have a bearing on when an athlete can return to play and how rehabilitation can improve sports performance for athletic patients.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/20/20230739

    CRISPR/Cas base-editing systems and their potential applications and prospects

    CRISPR-Cas9 and its derivatives such as cytosine base editor, adenine base editor and prime editing are an important topic of research today. In recent years, with continuous development and updates by researchers, editing systems have been able to achieve various modifications of target genes. For example, base substitution, insertion and deletion of short fragment genes, etc. have wide applications in plants and animals, etc. However, these editing systems derived from the CRISPR/Cas9 system still face challenges in terms of editing efficiency and accuracy. This review describes the current status of research using editing systems in plant breeding, gene disease treatment, and knockdown of specific genes by establishing animal models, analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of editing technologies, and looks forward to their development.

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