Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Modern Medicine and Global Health

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-279-4 (Print)

    978-1-83558-280-0 (Online)

    Published Date



    Mohammed JK Bashir, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman


  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240615

    Sequence and structure statistics of the nanobody database and molecular dynamics simulation analysis of the nanobody VHH

    Antibodies are immunoglobulins produced in vivo by immune cells stimulated by exogenous molecules, and nano-antibodies are a class of molecules that are similar to conventional antibodies but smaller in size. Originally discovered as an antibody in camelidsand cartilaginous fishes, they are called heavy chain antibodies due to the lack of light and heavy chain constant regions in the CH1 region except for the retained heavy chain, and their binding region to the antigen consists of the heavy chain variable region only, making them the smallest antibodies available with complete antibody functional properties. In this experiment, we analyzed the commonalities and differences of the nanobodies by extracting all their amino acid sequences, performed protein modeling of the relevant nanobodies of coronaviruses among them, and then analyzed the data of RMSD and RMSF by using molecular dynamics simulation, and finally predicted and analyzed the protein conformation and the structures of VHH at all levels.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240631

    Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase in cancer progress and therapeutic potentials

    This review delves into the investigation of Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase (MELK) and its significance in different cancer types. The primary emphasis is placed on understanding its role in cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and resistance to therapeutic interventions. The intricate mechanisms of action exhibited by MELK are of significant importance in the context of cancer progression. These mechanisms encompass a wide range of biological processes, including gene regulation, cellular activities, and interactions at the tissue level. This highlights the multifaceted nature of MELK’s involvement in cancer development and underscores its significance in this context. This essay explores the potential of MELK as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker, with a focus on its altered expression patterns in various cancer types. Furthermore, this study delves into the investigation of MELK as a highly promising target for cancer therapy. It provides an in-depth analysis of the progress made in the development of MELK inhibitors and explores their potential clinical applications. The research endeavours in this study focus on addressing challenges related to therapeutic resistance and biomarker validation. Additionally, the investigation explores potential opportunities for combination therapies and personalised medicine approaches. The future directions of research on maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) encompass an in-depth investigation into its underlying molecular mechanisms, the validation of clinical biomarkers associated with MELK, and the exploration of effective combination strategies involving MELK. The role of MELK in cancer and the possibility to utilize it as a target for therapy have garnered significant attention due to their potential to advance precision cancer care and improve patient outcomes.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240638

    Current available treatments for NSCLC

    Lung cancer is one of the most prominent forms of cancer and ranks as the deadliest of disease afflicting humanity. To tackle this issue, a variety of treatment approaches have been devised to counteract this disease. This review aims to illustrate the mainstream curative and palliative treatment methods in managing non-small cell lung cancer, the most common subtype of lung malignancies.For each treatment method, we have investigated its mechanism, classifications, and techniques involved as well as the clinical success of these treatments. Furthermore, we have also included the reasoning behind each treatment plan, including both quality of life as well as overall survival benefits for the patient.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240643

    Recent treatments to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cancer(HCC): update and outlook

    In the US, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which accounts for 75%–85% of instances of liver cancer, is a substantial cause of cancer-related fatalities. This review focuses on the recent developments in managing HCC, specifically through Trans-arterial Chemoembolization (TACE), which is currently first-line recommended and boasts a high survival rate. We have also discussed gene therapy, which aims to correct or replace faulty genes contributing to HCC development. Although it is still on trial, early results show promise. There are also various treatments such as OLT, molecularly targeted therapy, radiation therapy, locoregional therapies, gene therapy and immunotherapy. We have also come up with an innovative idea of creating a therapeutic vaccine using circRNA instead of mRNA, along with LNP, to treat HCC. This approach combines the benefits and functions of both circRNA and LNP. Different components of LNP aid in diverse benefits, to name but a few, stability, encapsulation and delivery efficiency, and higher targeting specificity. The use of circRNA offers adjuvant to immune response and better stability. Recent studies suggest that this hypothesis is theoretically possible. A better understanding of the hazardous disease could lead to the development of more effective treatments, which are urgently needed.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240664

    Immune checkpoint inhibitor combination therapy

    In recent years, Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are being approved for the treatment of a wide range of malignancies, and they are one of the most popular immunotherapies for tumours, bringing new hope to patients. However, single-agent ICI therapy has limited efficacy and is prone to drug resistance, and the objective remission rate of ICI alone is only 10-20% in some tumours, therefore, how to improve clinical efficacy is the key point of clinical research associated with immunotherapy. New research has found that the combination of ICIs with differing mechanisms not only improves efficacy, but also prolongs the anti-tumour effect, while an appropriate dosing regimen can effectively balance efficacy and safety. It is proposed to review the mechanism, pharmacokinetics and clinical research progress of ICI combination therapy.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240699

    Advances in early diagnosis and treatments of kidney cancer

    OVERMAN M J, LONARDI S, WONG K Y M, et al. Durable clinical benefit with nivolumab plus ipilimumab in DNA mismatch repair-deficient/microsatellite instability-high metastatic colorectal cancer [J]. J Clin Oncol, 2018, 36(8): 773-779.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240705

    The Pathogenesis and Differences in molecule of Autism

    With the deepening of the understanding of autism, the scope of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) continues to expand. The prevalence rate of ASD has arrived over 1% around the world. Language and social communication issues, as well as recurrent stereotyped interests and behaviors, are the main signs of autism. To find out the pathogenesis of autism, scientists have found a lot, which show that autism is a complex disorder resulting from many factors, but many questions remain unanswered. Numerous theses have been written about the causes and symptoms of autism, but frequently only a few of these perspectives have received attention. This review is to sum up the causative factors of autism, including genes and environmental, and lists how autism different from normal people in terms of genes, proteins, and cells. This review will introduce these factors with some examples.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240729

    Improving brain penetration using elacridar—a P-glycoprotein and BCRP inhibitor

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a site for a myriad of disorders and diseases, such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Many medications targeting these illnesses remain challenged due to efflux transporters forming a blood-brain barrier (BBB). To combat such challenges, elacridar shown promise at inhibiting such transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), therefore improving brain penetration. However, as an early clinical candidate, many remain unknown about elacridar’s pharmacokinetic (PK) properties in the human body. This paper aims to obtain a better understanding of elacridar’s pharmacokinetic profile and predict the optimal dose and dose interval for its application in the clinic. To begin with, a series of basic PK models were created using fundamental PK equations and the models were fit to elacridar clinical data to obtain elacridar-specific PK parameters. Next, elacridar preclinical PK as well as in vitro inhibition assay were used to determine the therapeutic window. Our final, multiple-dose extravascular PK model reveals that the most convenient and effective dose regimen is 900 mg BID (bis in die; twice per day). With this elacridar PK model, researchers can leverage elacridar human PK to improve clinical outcomes.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240730

    The potential and prospects of sleep biomarkers in early Alzheimer's disease diagnosis

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), often accompanied by sleep disturbances, is a neurodegenerative disease. Sleep disruptions have the potential to serve as biomarkers for early diagnosis because they can be observed in the initial stages of disease progression in the sleep-wake cycle. This paper summarizes the latest findings on AD manifestations during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep oscillations, and cognitive impairment. It provides a detailed overview of diagnostic bioindicators for primary Alzheimer’s disease, including invasive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers, non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG), and plasma biomarkers, and compares their advantages and limitations in diagnosing early AD. The accuracy and reliability of sleep biomarkers in early diagnosis are evaluated, along with their clinical application prospects. The paper also proposes improvements in the use of sleep clinical markers for early Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis, aiming for greater breakthroughs in this field. The significance of this review lies in its in-depth exploration of the association between sleep disturbances and the early period of the disease, along with the introduction of potential biomarkers that can serve as tools for early determining and monitoring of this neurodegenerative health issue.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240749

    Mitochondria in aging: A review of structure, function, and interorganelle relationships

    The process of aging is what everyone is experiencing during the whole life. Many factors contribute to the aging process, among which the changes in mitochondrial structure and function are one important step. in this review, we elaborated on the relationship between mitochondria and aging from three aspects: the structure and function of mitochondria, the changes of mitochondria during aging, and the relationship between mitochondria and other organelles, we also described the progress related to mitochondrial targeted therapy. In summary, The passage highlights a review that examines the connection between mitochondria and aging from three main angles: understanding the structure and function of mitochondria, exploring how mitochondria change as an individual ages, and uncovering their relationships with other cellular organelles. Additionally, the passage discusses the advancements in mitochondrial targeted therapy within the context of aging.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240751

    Analysis of the application of bioinformatics in the medicine

    As humans develop, science is also rapidly evolving, and biological science and medical support are vital for humans need. The development of biology has been particularly important. It stretches from the initial understanding of plants and animals to human biology and micro molecular biology, from macro understanding of life to micro molecular biology. Although it has accumulated a lot of knowledge about biology, it still has many unknowns about this giant and precise system. However, in recent years, a new interdisciplinary and emerging discipline has greatly opened up people’s understanding about biological information-bioinformatics. The most fundamental research target of bioinformatics is different sequences. The most important is the amino acid sequence of proteins and the base sequence of DNA. To study sequences and their constituent components, bioinformatics has another major research target - the biological database. This involves analysing the structure, connotation, and function of biological information through basic protein and nucleic acid sequences. Therefore, bioinformatics has made tremendous applications in the medical field. This research mainly analyzes and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the application of bioinformatics in the medical field.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240752

    Cyclin D1 in various cancers: Mechanisms and clinical implications

    Gastrointestinal cancers, including esophageal, gastric, hepatic, pancreatic, and colorectal malignancies, present a significant global health challenge. Their distinct characteristics characterized by abnormal cell proliferation, invasive behavior, and tumor formation make them highly aggressive and detrimental to human health. These diseases often lead to malnutrition, organ failure, and obstruction. Cyclin D1 protein is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression and an essential marker for comprehending the complex landscape of cancer biology. This research provides an in-depth exploration of gastrointestinal cancers by shedding light on their adverse effects on the human body while emphasizing the critical role played by cyclin D1 within this challenging disease context. Extensively studied in colorectal cancer as well as esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cancer, and pancreatic cancer contexts. Cyclin D1 emerges as a key player. Specifically, in cases of colorectal cancer, overexpression of cyclin D1 is frequently linked to aggressive tumor behavior brought on by APC gene mutations and abnormal Wnt signalling pathway activation. Esophageal cancer patients especially those with ESCC frequently exhibit elevated levels of Cyclin D1 indicating poor prognosis. A similar trend is observed in gastric cancer where increased expression of cyclin D1 is linked to disease severity.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240753

    The bioinformatic analysis of CFTR in essential hypertension

    The CFTR gene is associated with cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease primarily affecting the respiratory and digestive systems. Essential hypertension is a common cardiovascular disorder characterized by high blood pressure. In this bioinformatic analysis, various databases and tools were used to investigate the potential mechanisms underlying this association. Gene expression data and epigenetic analyses were used to identify the biological processes between CFTR and hypertension. Additionally, genetic variants within CFTR were analysed for potential effects on hypertension susceptibility. The results of this analysis suggest that CFTR may not play a role in hypertension. Moreover, hypertension has no special epigenetic feather. Further studies are needed to confirm the mechanisms of such a phenomenon.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240754

    Gut-to-brain axis provides novel therapeutic targets for depression

    As an essential counterpart of the human internal environment, the gut microbiome has been investigated extensively in light of multiple diseases. This study aims to find out potential treatments for depression by altering gut microbiome composition in order to alleviate side effects caused by traditional medications. According to previous findings, the human gut correlates with the brain through pathways known as the gut-brain axis. Two genera of microbiome, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, have been mentioned by researchers to be crucial to depression-related neurotransmitter secretion in GBA. Besides, they have already been used in clinical as effective probiotics for gut-related diseases. The paper hypothesized particular interactions between the two genera and the human nerve that enable them to be therapeutic cures in adequate amounts. In this study, a range of available single-cell data about “depression” and “lactobacillus and bifidobacterium” were analyzed and adjusted into proper figures. I discuss the efficacy of different species, concentrations, and other elements of those probiotics, eventually proposing a novel way of treating and classifying depressive disorders. The study puts forth a perspective of maintaining a depression-free state with an internal factor, the gut microbiome, instead of targeting the efferent neurons directly with external drugs which could cause resistance and severe side effects.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240755

    Analysis of the current status and development prospects of artificial hearts

    Confronted with the rapid need for transplantable hearts, patients who need a heart transplant cannot receive the suitable configuration. Thus contributes to the development of artificial hearts, which can be created to substitute the old, the ill heart without waiting for transplantable hearts. Nowadays, this paper shows the public the artificial hearts. Through the extensive literature, it is clear that the development of artificial hearts. Dating back to the fifties of the last century, scientists began studying artificial hearts. Till now, China has created four generations of artificial hearts. They became more and more strong. The importance of the heart goes without saying, however, every year there are more and more heart failure patients. Paying more attention to the artificial hearts helps reduce the death rate of heart failures. Actually, although the patients can get the heart donors, they may not tolerate rejection. So research into artificial hearts more suitable for patients is imminent. This paper mainly introduces the fourth-generation artificial hearts (in fact, it is an improved version of the third generation), the magnetic levitation artificial heart attracts much more attention, and its composition and function have been greatly improved, reducing the difficulty of surgery. It is hoped that people can know much more about artificial hearts, and prospects for better methods to make better artificial hearts, and promote heart transplantations.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240756

    Inhibitory effects of methylglyoxal (MGO) on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) in model system

    Methylglyoxal was produced by the degradation of glucose, and its role in producing 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) was studied attempting to clarify the reaction pathways. The study showed that the PhIP yield was decreased when glucose was added to a mixture of phenylacetaldehyde and creatinine or when methylglyoxal was incorporated into a blend of phenylalanine (phenylacetaldehyde), creatinine and glucose in proportions of 1:1:0.5. PhIP yield was firstly increased and then decreased when glucose was incorporated into a blend of phenylalanine and creatinine. When methylglyoxal was added to the creatinine/phenylacetaldehyde/glucose mixture, methylglyoxal achieved around 83.2% inhibition of PhIP. However methylglyoxal achieved around 39% inhibition of PhIP in the creatinine/phenylalanine/glucose mixture. All of these results indicate that the addition of methylglyoxal to the phenylacetaldehyde/creatinine mixture inhibited the formation of PhIP. A pathway which the inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal on PhIP composition is proposed. Meanwhile, this study explained the ways in which glucose are involved in the composition of PhIP, and helped us better study the formation mechanism of PhIP.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240758

    Research on the gold criteria of imaging to diagnose left ventricular non-compaction

    The gold standard for diagnosing left ventricular noncompaction evaluated in this article was compared using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. To generate results, the paper used systematic data analysis techniques such as article screening, data extraction, meta-analysis, and forest plots. Use data gaps exhibited on forest plots to eliminate untrustworthy data, shown here as major gaps with other data, that should be avoided in follow-up investigations. The value of the aforementioned “gold standard for diagnosis” is as follows. It was discovered that two figures demonstrated the reliability of cMRI, while the other demonstrated that the echocardiograph was more accurate. Two numbers were eliminated because there was no statistically significant difference, and the data p > 0.05. More data integration is still required.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240760

    Vagus nerve stimulation on epilepsy and depression

    This review presents an overview of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) utilization. The vagus nerve (VN) is among the most versatile and important nerves, with the capability to regulate a few bodily functions, and has been playing a vital role as part of therapies for a range of health concerns. VNS is an effective therapeutic method, which has gotten the approval of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States. It is a type of neurostimulation method that plays a crucial part in drug-resistant depression and refractory epilepsy. It provides a surgical option for patients suffering from the conditions mentioned above, and is rather effective compared with other surgical approaches, thus improving patients’ life quality. Despite side effects, it is considered a decent therapeutic method and is currently used widely clinically. Furthermore, the mechanisms of VNS have not been completely understood. Therefore, further research is necessary, to discover the potential of VNS as an additional therapy for various other medical conditions.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240762

    L-theanine mechanism and application in the treatment of breast cancer

    Breast cancer has been recognized as the leading cancer worldwide and is one of the most common diseases among women, with an incidence rate of up to 7.7%. The pathogenesis of breast cancer can be categorized into congenital and acquired factors, including epigenetics and mutations. The occurrence of breast cancer is closely related to acquired factors such as environment, emotions, and diet. Numerous studies have demonstrated that L-theanine in tea can intervene in the growth and spread of breast cancer cells, thus playing a role in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. This article provides an overview of the current research on the prevention and treatment of breast cancer using L-theanine, and also prospects the future development and application of L-theanine.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-16 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/29/20240763

    Analysis on type 2 diabetes genetic polymorphism of different races/ethnicity

    Whether from the perspective of impact scope or patient number, type 2 diabetes is one of the most influential diseases around the world today. However, in regards to type 2 diabetes’s pathology, scientists still could not provide an accurate explanation. In the long period of research, our understanding of the disease has already become deep enough to realize that type 2 diabetes is closely associated with genetics. This passage is based on this point of view and aims to take a glance at the polymorphism between genetic information of different racial/ethnic groups of people. From the analysis, it could be concluded that genetic polymorphism can provide useful information for the difference of pathology of patients, which could then inspire further drug development and more proper treatment scheme decision.

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