Theoretical and Natural Science

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Medicine and Global Health (ICMMGH 2023)

    Conference Date






    978-1-915371-65-2 (Print)

    978-1-915371-66-9 (Online)

    Published Date



    Tooba Mahboob, UCSI University

    Sheiladevi Sukumaran, SEGi University


  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230107

    Two-step synthesis and oxidizing power assessment of novel pyrylium

    Photoredox catalysis is a relatively new concept, and it involves the absorption of light for more productive use of lower energy radiation and to catalyze selective reactions. Traditionally, catalysts used for oxidation or reduction reactions were metal catalysts, such as iridium. However, these metal catalysts are not environmentally friendly and are expensive, prompting the use of organic catalysts. Pyrylium salt, an organic catalyst, can be used as a catalyst. However, the oxidizing ability of basic pyrylium is not that good and can still be improved. In this project, a pyrylium salt with substituents that include fluorine and chlorine (halogens) was synthesized to boost its oxidizing ability in an alcohol oxidation reaction due to its electron-withdrawing groups. Despite unsuccessful oxidation, there is still much research to prove that it can substitute for metal catalysts.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230109

    Evaluation of school-based obesity prevention model

    Obesity is a prevalent disease found among adolescents in the United States. The rising incidence in recent years has raised concerns among the public, for obesity is known as the risk factor for several chronic and severe diseases. Programs aimed at treating and preventing childhood obesity are therefore in high demand. Since the enrollment of American youth–who are between 5 and 17 years old–in schools is higher than in any other institution in the United States, schools can implant effective obesity-targeted programs by providing cheap, convenient, and accessible settings for treating and preventing obesity for the student population. This article will review and analyze the success of primary preventive initiatives implemented in schools by comparing the effectiveness of four out of eight components of am integrated comprehensive model for school-based prevention of obesity: physical education courses, food service and nutrition environment, school-site health promotion, and health service. At the end of this article, a future research plan will be introduced. A sample of 154 residential students from a local high school located in Fryeburg, Maine will be observed and surveyed to test the effectiveness of the school-based primary prevention model for obesity.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230113

    Research progress in the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic nephropathy

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common, frequent, age-related diseases, and it is also an important cause of chronic renal failure and end-stage renal diseases. It has always been one of the research hotspots. The high cost of treatment will bring a great burden to society and families. Therefore, it is very important to study the pathogenesis and treatment methods of DN. At present, many methods have been put forward for clinical diagnosis and treatment like Thiazolidinediones, renin inhibitor drug -aliskiren, tregs cells. These methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. However, the etiology of diabetic nephropathy is complicated and the course of the disease is long, and current treatments cannot achieve the expected target. Scholars also have studied many symptomatic treatment methods for different pathogenesis. However, the specific pathogenesis of DN has not yet been fully elucidated, and there is no special medicine for DN yet. This article briefly reviews the pathogenesis and treatments of DN based on the existing kinds of literature and new advances to provide some references for its clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230118

    Bacteriostasis of bacillus sp. 22T against penicillium expansum and comparison between its ability on pear and grape

    In the biological lab of Zhejiang University, we justified and tested a type of bacillus to improve the anti-bacteria ability of commonly affecting diseases of fruits, such as pear and grape, which would lead to a large amount of economic loss and unpredictable negative influence if they were rotten before being sold. Using techniques such as gram staining and bacteriostasis test, this paper explores and confirms the results that bacillus sp. 22T has a strong ability to inhibit the growth of penicillium expansum on pear and grape. After 96 hours of exposure to fermentation broth containing bacillus sp. 22T to suppress the growth of penicillium expansum, 33.33 percent of pear and 16.66 percent of grape were not impacted by the bacterium.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230126

    A review of current developments in Alzheimer’s disease treatment methods

    This article will summarize the results of recent years of exploration into deeper causes of Alzheimer’s disease with possible therapeutic strategies. The most popular pathological hypothesis for the causation of Alzheimer’s is the Aβ cascade hypothesis. Aβ has a dominant role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, according to genetic and pathological data. Another significant histological characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease brains is the presence of neurofibrillary tangles made of the protein tau, which is related with microtubules. In the brain, neuronal loss, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress can result from the cascade consequences of tau toxicity. But as research has progressed, it has been found the Aβ. The accumulation of protein and neurofibrillary tangles composed of phosphorylated tau are only manifestations of AD, not the result. This is also the reason why many drugs fail the phase III clinic. So people began to look for a way out of the problem, starting in the direction of the gene. How to diagnose AD early in the MCI stage, how to find markers for early diagnosis and how to inhibit the progression from the MCI stage to the dementia stage are all questions that need to be investigated in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230135

    Research on British epidemic forecast——Based on SIR model

    Since the beginning of 2020, COVID-19 has swept the world and continues to threaten human society. Forecasting the future trend of the epidemics is very important for the prevention of COVID-19. The SIR model is an important mathematical model to forecast future epidemic in epidemiology. In a press conference from London on July 5th, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson said the British government will end nearly all of the coronavirus restrictions starting July 19. This paper aims to use the SIR model to predict epidemics after deregulation of social distance. The results show that as of July 8, 2021, the number of people infected will continue to increase after deregulation, reaching approximately 30000 per day. The British government should reconsider completely liberalizing epidemic control.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230139

    Principles and applications of fluorescent probe imaging technology

    Fluorescent probe technology was discovered in the 19th century and imaging techniques were applied to microscopy around 1670. Fluorescence microscopic imaging is a classical method for observing the structure of organisms in the life sciences. In this regard, single-molecule fluorescence imaging uses fluorescent probes to label, detect, and analyze individual molecules, helping scientists to clearly observe the activities of individual molecules without disrupting the normal physiological state of the organism. In this paper, the principles and applications of fluorescent probe imaging techniques are described and analyzed. The common detection methods of fluorescent probes are spectrophotometry, electrochemistry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Rapid detection results can be obtained depending on the specific method.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230161

    A review on the β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a well-known mental illness and memory loss is its most common symptom. Until now, the reason of AD has been an unsolved mystery, with the two most prominent previous hypotheses being β-amyloid deposition and Tau protein phosphorylation. However, this year, a seminal paper studying the β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis was found to be falsified, therefore, a large number of scientists have questioned the research value of this hypothesis. This paper is a review of the β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis. The development of β-amyloid precipitation hypothesis is described and previous studies on Aβ*56, Aβ42, and Aβ40 are reviewed. It is concluded that β-amyloid precipitation should continue to be studied. The author also argues that the falsification does not mean that the "amyloid" hypothesis is wrong; the only protein suspected of falsification is Aβ*56. The Aβ hypothesis can still be pursued because there are many other Aβ oligomers that have been shown to be neurotoxic.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230163

    Treatment methods for children with severe asthma in and abroad

    Asthma is one of the common chronic diseases in children, and so far there is no cure for asthma. Asthma sufferers are estimated to be more than 300 million people worldwide, and the number of asthma treatments is growing every year. In recent years, thanks to advances in therapeutic medicines, asthma symptoms can now be successfully controlled with inhaled corticosteroids and, if necessary, in combination with bronchodilators. However, even with maximum use of these drugs, the effect may be insufficient, and there are still some patients with refractory asthma that are not adequately controlled with general treatment. Drugs called biologics may become a drug that works well for previously poorly treated asthma and is recently available in children with severe asthma. Three biologics are currently available for use in children: omalizumab, mepolizumab (6 years and older), and dupilumab (12 years and older). However, there is still a lack of clinical research evidence for the specific clinical improvement rate. Therefore, in this study, this paper conducted a literature review on the latest clinical trials of biological agents at home and abroad, summarized the clinical trials of common biological agents, and introduced the latest treatment methods. The differences and deficiencies between each other achieve the effect of enhancing the prevention and cognition of asthma.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230167

    RNA interference: from target validation to therapeutics

    Generally, a new targeted medicine takes a long time, usually 5 to 15 years, from the discovery and validation of its target to its actual use in treating a disease. There is no doubt that steps such as target validation and target evaluation are essential in preclinical development of new drugs to ensure safety, bioavailability, and efficacy of the drug, and in the target validation phase, RNA interference (RNAi) is a very important method. RNAi drug has double-stranded RNA function, so the targeted mRNA of a specific gene sequence is degraded, its transcription process is abnormal, which leads to gene silencing, and related protein synthesis failure. RNAi technology could specifically shut off specific genes, and, it is a targeted drug with great potential. Therefore, RNAi technology can be used to treat some rare diseases, such as acute hepatic porphyria (AHP) in adults, by using drugs as carriers. In 1998, Andrew Fire and Craig C. Mello first defined the RNAi phenomenon and was honored with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2006 for their discovery of RNAi and their outstanding contributions to the field of gene silencing. Since then, RNAi drugs have been studied by pharmaceutical scientists around the world, but many of the previous drugs have been stopped at the evaluation stage due to their chemical instability. Until October 2018, the world’s first RNAi drug (patisiran) was successfully marketed so that the RNAi drug development became popular again because of remarkable pesticide effect.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230169

    Efficacy and mechanism of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors against cancer

    This paper focuses on an overview of the development progress of different cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. The CDKS are a group of kinases that are indispensable in the cell cycle. However, when it comes to cancer, the cell cycle is not healthy which causes malignancy of the cell that is able to mitosis infinitely. Considering the CDK are a group of molecules that is fundament during mitosis, researchers have developed its inhibitors to inhibit the effect that it has during the cell cycle to postpone the growth of cancer and lead to cancer cell apoptosis. This paper targets on the CDK inhibitors of pan-CDK, CDK4/6, 7, 9, and 12, also introducing their development history and current stages in clinical trials, as well as the drugs related to these CDK inhibitors that are FDA-approved for cancer treatment. In addition, the paper also introduces the future potentials of CDK inhibitors in the treatment and therapy of cancer-related diseases.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230175

    Effect of dietary patterns on the prognosis of breast cancer patients

    Breast cancer (BC) is a serious threat to women's health. Higher BC risk is allegedly related to personal lifestyle like diet. However, it is still unclear how dietary quality affect BC survivors. This meta-analyse aimed to figure out it. The highest and lowest categories of healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns were compared by using the random-effects meta-analyses, which combined relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that were multivariable-adjusted. 11 eligible articles, including two RCTs, three case-control studies, and six cohort studies, were found and included in this paper after they met the inclusion criteria. According to the pooled analyses, when compared to the lowest group, women with the highest quality healthy diet (highest quintile/quartile/tertile) had 24% lower risk of overall death(random effects (RR = 0.76; 95%CI = 0.67-0.86), 16% lower risk of BC specific death (random effects (RR = 0.84; 95%CI = 0.75-0.94), 28% lower risk of No-BC death (random effects (RR = 0.72; 95%CI = 0.63-0.83),and 4% higher risk of recurrence (random effects (RR = 1.04; 95%CI = 0.97-1.12). According to our meta-analysis, consuming a high-quality healthy diet was linked to a lower risk of all-cause death. The results could have significant effects on encouraging the use of daily dietary treatment regimen to benefit breast cancer patients. To achieve better long-term survival and better quality of life for BC patients, definitively establishing effective interventions will necessarily require further researches.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230176

    Eribulin and its application as anti-cancer treatment

    Eribulin (E7389) is a synthetic small molecule medication with high anti-cancer efficacy exhibited in preclinical studies. It is a structure-simplified macrocyclic ketone analog of Halichondrin B, which can inhibit the development of microtubule that is essential for the mitosis of cancer cells. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given eribulin approval as a third-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer (approved in 2010) or metastatic liposarcoma (approved in 2016). In a number of clinical trials, eribulin has shown outstanding efficacy and safety in the treatment of solid tumors, particularly for breast cancer and sarcoma. Current eribulin clinical trials focus on its use in the therapy of other various cancer types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), salivary gland cancer, cervical cancer, urethral cancer, and prostate cancer, and its application in combination treatment. The present study summarizes the mechanism, development, and future directions of eribulin, with an emphasis on the results of clinical trials.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230179

    The public health risks of e-cigarettes: a systematic review

    With the relevant anti-smoking policy introduced by the state, people realized the significance of smoking cessation. Therefore, E-cigarettes were regarded as a replacement of cigarettes. The analysis, which is about prevalence trends, the reason about taking systematical review, and the value of systematical review, explains this review’s stand. In this paper, the 9 articles from PubMed was collected and organized for classification.The dangers of human health is caused by the special component of e-cigarettes. Generally speaking, some countries’ legislate measures related to tobacco control have not fully met the requirements of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and played a role in protecting people from tobacco hazards, displaying in the lack of smoke-free legislation in public places at the national level, relatively low tobacco consumption taxes, no comprehensive ban on tobacco sponsorship. The control of e-cigarettes as tobacco products in many countries may not achieve the purpose of strict regulation. The authority believed to add punishment to people who sell novel flavor e-cigarettes should let them take legal responsibility. Furthermore, schools should increase publicity and education about public and individual health, to promote people’s health awareness and stop them from using e-cigarettes at a relatively young age.The objective of this review is to spot literature and describe the effects of e-cigarettes on public human health. Through researching and comparing articles, this article discusses the reason of smoking, the lack in policies in public health, and the solutions what people should take.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230180

    Clinical efficacy of sodium dependent glucose transporters 2 inhibitor in the treatment of heart failure

    When it comes to diseases, heart failure is always an important issue for people around the whole world. Patients may suffer a lot when they have heart failure. Every year, there are a lot of people who dead because of having Heart Failure in and out of America. Nowadays, there are mainly two types of heart failures, HFrEF (heart failure reduced ejection fraction) and HFpEF (heart failure preserved ejection fraction). Research show that SGLT2 including Dapagliflozin, sotagliflozin, empagliflozin, and other types of inhibitors are effective when used to treat with heart failure patients regardless of whether they have had diseases like diabetes before. With the support of researches mentioned in the following passage, this idea will be reliable and we believe that with such kind of good news that the SGLT2 inhibitor are actually contributing to the process of dealing with HF, people who have been suffer from HF will one day be able to cured.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230188

    Immune escape mechanism of PD-1/PD-L1 in non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC) and its related drug treatment

    In recent years, a variety of treatment methods for Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been used, but most of them fail to show significant effect due to the late stage of diagnosis. At present, immunotherapy has become a new way of tumor therapy and attracted wide attention, among which programmed death molecule-1(PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1(PD-L1) have been proved to relate to immune escape in NSCLC, and relevant clinical drugs have shown a clear therapeutic effect. The related drugs can relieve the immune tolerance by blocking the pathway, and play a role in tumor killing. There are now various related drugs. Here, I review the progresses of the mechanistic role of PD-1 pathway in the tumor immune escape and effect of related drugs therapy.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230191

    Research on the role of hippocampus in memory consolidation

    The length of time needed to recover memories in the hippocampus area varies greatly across the existing theories of system-level consolidation. These competing hypotheses do, however, have connections. The standard consolidation theory, multiple trace theory, and scene construction theory are the three existing models that are examined in this study. After reexamining their features, the authors test whether the three models can be integrated in terms of trace duration and function. It is better to think of the hippocampus's contribution to system-level consolidation as a functional transition from retention to rebuilding through time rather than just a question of persistence. The involvement of the hippocampus in memory retrieval may be fitted into a more thorough model in terms of functional transformation since the two functions, retention and reconstruction, are of equal significance and can scarcely be divided into two sections.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230192

    Liquid biopsy of circulating tumor DNA in cerebrospinal fluid for early diagnosis of brain malignancies: A review

    Brain cancer is the most aggressive intracranial disease: once diagnosed, 70% of patients will not survive. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential to improving the survival rate of diagnosed patients. Currently, imaging scans and pathological biopsies are mainly relied on to confirm the diagnosis of brain tumors. However, imaging scans do not confirm the diagnosis or tumor grade, nor do assess response and monitor treatment effect. Similarly, pathological biopsies are highly invasive and difficult to repeat. To address these limitations, the field has proposed the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a liquid biopsy method to detect circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). This review focuses on how liquid biopsy of CSF ctDNA can facilitate and complement the clinical care of patients with brain tumors. Relevant reviews in the past five years show that ctDNA is highly expressed and its content in CSF is higher than that in plasma. By sequencing the ctDNA of CSF, the diagnosis and prognosis information of brain tumors can be obtained, the best treatment method can be selected, the treatment response can be monitored, and the tumor evolution can be tracked. Because ctDNA detection is still in the research stage and lacks standardized technology, its effectiveness and practicality require further investigation before they can be used in clinical practice.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230193

    The advantages and disadvantages of different types of vaccines: DNA vaccine, mRNA vaccine, and inactivated vaccine

    The use of vaccines to combat disease by humans has been ongoing for centuries and has produced significant results. However, with the development of technology, different types of vaccines have emerged, and often people are confused as to which is the best. This paper have analyzes three main types of vaccines that have been developed and commercialized: DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines, and inactivated vaccines, to gain insight into the issues associated with vaccines. This paper explained the mechanisms of action and the process of their production, and identified some of their potential advantages and disadvantages. Finally, this study draw the conclusion that each type of vaccine has unique properties that cannot be replaced by others and that it was not easy to determine the best among them.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-08-03 Doi: 10.54254/2753-8818/6/20230194

    Association of tau protein and Alzheimer’s disease

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a kind of neurodegeneration disease and often happens in older people. Age is an influencing factor in the prevalence of AD. Up to now, AD is still difficult to cure and only limited medications can relieve some of the symptoms. Therefore, research on the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases has become more and more popular in recent years. Multiple studies offer some proof that the tau protein mutation and AD are related. This review described the structure and the purpose of the tau protein. The linkage between abnormal tau mutation and AD is further clarified, and a summary of two medications for AD is also included.

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